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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 13 — Fire Hose Firefighter I.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 13 — Fire Hose Firefighter I."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 13 — Fire Hose Firefighter I

2 13–1 Chapter 13 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to use, care for, and perform maintenance on fire hose, couplings, hose appliances, and tools and perform various hose loads and finishes according to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

3 Firefighter I 13–2 Specific Objectives 1.Discuss fire hose sizes. 2.Describe types of fire hose damage and practices to prevent such damage. 3.Discuss general care and maintenance of fire hose. (Continued)

4 Firefighter I 13–3 Specific Objectives 4.Distinguish between characteristics of threaded couplings and nonthreaded couplings. 5.Discuss care of fire hose couplings. 6.Describe the characteristics of hose appliances and tools. (Continued)

5 Firefighter I 13–4 Specific Objectives 7.Describe common hose rolls. 8.List general hose loading guidelines. 9.Describe common hose loads. 10.Describe hose load finishes. 11.Discuss preconnected hose loads for attack lines. (Continued)

6 Firefighter I 13–5 Specific Objectives 12.List guidelines when laying hose. 13.Describe the basic hose lays for supply hose. 14.Describe procedures for handling preconnected and other hose. (Continued)

7 Firefighter I 13–6 Specific Objectives 15.List general safety guidelines that should be followed when advancing a hoseline into a burning structure. 16.Discuss procedures for advancing hose. 17.Describe techniques for operating hoselines. (Continued)

8 Firefighter I 13–7 Specific Objectives 18.Inspect and maintain hose. (Skill Sheet 13-I-1) 19.Make a straight hose roll. (Skill Sheet 13-I-2) 20.Make a donut hose roll. (Skill Sheet 13-I-3) (Continued)

9 Firefighter I 13–8 Specific Objectives 21.Couple a hose. (Skill Sheet 13-I-4) 22.Uncouple a hose. (Skill Sheet 13-I-5) 23.Make the accordion hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-6) 24.Make the horseshoe hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-7) (Continued)

10 Firefighter I 13–9 Specific Objectives 25.Make the flat hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-8) 26.Make the preconnected flat hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-9) 27.Make the triple layer hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-10) (Continued)

11 Firefighter I 13–10 Specific Objectives 28.Make the minuteman hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-11) 29.Connect to a hydrant using a forward lay. (Skill Sheet 13-I-12) 30.Make the reverse hose lay. (Skill Sheet 13-I-13) (Continued)

12 Firefighter I 13–11 Specific Objectives (Continued) 31.Advance the preconnected flat hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-14) 32.Advance the minuteman hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-15) 33.Advance the triple layer hose load. (Skill Sheet 13-I-16)

13 Firefighter I 13–12 Specific Objectives (Continued) 34.Advance hose — Shoulder-load method. (Skill Sheet 13-I-17) 35.Advance hose — Working line drag method. (Skill Sheet 13-I-18) 36.Advance a line into a structure. (Skill Sheet 13-I-19)

14 Firefighter I 13–13 Specific Objectives 37.Advance a line up and down an interior stairway. (Skill Sheet 13-I-20) 38.Advance an uncharged line up a ladder into a window. (Skill Sheet 13- I-21) (Continued)

15 Firefighter I 13–14 Specific Objectives (Continued) 39.Advance a charged line up a ladder into a window. (Skill Sheet 13-I-22) 40.Extend a hoseline. (Skill Sheet 13-I- 23) 41.Simulate the procedure for controlling a loose hoseline. (Skill Sheet 13-I-24)

16 Firefighter I 13–15 Specific Objectives 42.Replace a burst hoseline. (Skill Sheet 13-I-25) 43.Operate a charged attack line from a ladder. (Skill Sheet 13-I-26)

17 Firefighter I 13–16 Fire Hose Produced in different diameters, each for specific purposes Size refers to outside diameter Most commonly cut, coupled into pieces of 50 or 100 feet (15 or 30 m) (Continued)

18 Firefighter I 13–17 Fire Hose

19 Firefighter I 13–18 Intake Hose Used to connect fire department pumper or portable pump to water source Two groups –Soft intake hose –Hard intake hose

20 Firefighter I 13–19 NFPA ® Standards NFPA ® 1961, Standard on Fire Hose, lists specifications for fire hose NFPA ® 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, lists specifications for fire hose couplings and screw threads (Continued)

21 Firefighter I 13–20 NFPA ® Standards NFPA ® 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, requires pumpers to carry varying sizes/amounts of hose

22 Firefighter I 13–21 Fire Hose Damage — Mechanical Slices, rips, abrasions on coverings Crushed/damaged couplings Cracked inner linings Certain practices prevent damage

23 Firefighter I 13–22 Fire Hose Damage — Thermal Excessive heat/direct flame contact can char, melt, weaken outer jacket and dehydrate rubber lining Inner linings can be dehydrated when hose hangs to dry too long Certain practices prevent damage

24 Firefighter I 13–23 Fire Hose Damage — Organic Rubber-jacket hose not subject to damage caused by living organism, but this is a problem on hose with woven jacket of natural fiber if stored wet Mildew, mold rot fibers of hose jacket, causing hose to rupture under pressure (Continued)

25 Firefighter I 13–24 Fire Hose Damage — Organic If outer jacket made of synthetic fibers, will resist organic damage Outer jacket of some natural-fiber hose has been chemically treated to resist mildew, mold; not always 100 percent effective Certain practices prevent damage

26 Firefighter I 13–25 Fire Hose Damage — Chemical Chemicals, chemical vapors can damage outer jacket on hose or cause rubber lining to separate from inner jacket When hose exposed to petroleum products, paints, acids, alkalis, may be weakened (Continued)

27 Firefighter I 13–26 Fire Hose Damage — Chemical Runoff water from fire may carry foreign materials that can damage hose Certain practices prevent damage

28 Firefighter I 13–27 Washing Hose Method depends on type of hose –Hard rubber booster hose, hard intake hose, rubber-jacket collapsible hose –Woven-jacket fire hose (Continued)

29 Firefighter I 13–28 Washing Hose When jacket exposed to oil –Wash with mild soap/detergent using common scrub brush –Make sure oil completely removed –Thoroughly rinse with clear water (Continued)

30 Firefighter I 13–29 Washing Hose Hose washing machines –Can make care, maintenance easier –Wash almost any size fire hose up to 3 inches (77 mm) –Flow of water into device can be adjusted as desired (Continued)

31 Firefighter I 13–30 Washing Hose Hose washing machines –Movement of water assists in propelling hose through device –Hoseline that supplies washer with water can be connected to pumper or used directly from hydrant –Higher water pressure = Better results –Cabinet-type machine

32 Firefighter I 13–31 Drying Hose Woven-jacket must be thoroughly dried before being reloaded on apparatus Methods depend on type of hose Should be in accordance with SOP, manufacturer’s recommendations Some may be placed on apparatus wet with no ill effects

33 Firefighter I 13–32 Storing Hose After hose has been brushed, washed, dried, should be rolled and stored in suitable racks unless it is to be placed back on apparatus (Continued)

34 Firefighter I 13–33 Storing Hose Hose racks –Located in clean, well-ventilated room or close to apparatus –Can be freestanding on floor or mounted permanently on wall –If mobile, can be used to store and move hose

35 Firefighter I 13–34 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings Consist of two major components –Male — External threads –Female — Internal threads (Continued)

36 Firefighter I 13–35 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings Disadvantage — One male, one female necessary to make connection unless double-male or double-female adapter used (Continued)

37 Firefighter I 13–36 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings Intake hose –Sometimes equipped with two-piece female hose couplings on each end –Threaded hose couplings on large intake hose equipped with extended lugs providing handles for attaching to hydrant outlet/pump intake (Continued)

38 Firefighter I 13–37 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings Shank –Portion of coupling that serves as point of attachment to hose Lugs –Aid in tightening, loosening couplings –Aid in grasping coupling when making, breaking coupling connections –Types (Continued)

39 Firefighter I 13–38 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings Higbee cut –Special type of thread design –Tends to eliminate cross-threading –One rocker lug on each half of coupling has small indentation to mark where Higbee cut begins

40 Firefighter I 13–39 Storz Couplings Referred to as sexless couplings No distinct male/female components Identical to, may be connected to other Storz couplings of same size Designed to be connected/disconnected with quarter turn (Continued)

41 Firefighter I 13–40 Storz Couplings Have lugs, slots built into swivel rings of each coupling for locking Must have locking devices if attached to large-diameter hose

42 Firefighter I 13–41 Rules for Care of Fire Hose Couplings Avoid dropping/dragging Do not permit vehicles to run over hose Inspect couplings when hose washed/ dried Remove gasket, twist swivel in warm, soapy water (Continued)

43 Firefighter I 13–42 Rules for Care of Fire Hose Couplings Clean threads to remove tar, dirt, gravel, oil Inspect gasket, replace if cracked/ creased

44 Firefighter I 13–43 Cleaning Fire Hose Couplings Hose-washing machines will not clean sufficiently Swivel part should be submerged in warm, soapy water and worked forward and backward (Continued)

45 Firefighter I 13–44 Cleaning Fire Hose Couplings Male threads should be cleaned with stiff brush Wire brush may be necessary Swivel gasket Expansion-ring gasket

46 Firefighter I 13–45 Hose Appliances Any piece of hardware used with fire hose to deliver water (Continued)

47 Firefighter I 13–46 Hose Appliances Valves –Control flow of water in hoselines, at hydrants, at pumpers –Ball valves –Gate valves –Butterfly valves –Clapper valves (Continued)

48 Firefighter I 13–47 Hose Appliances Valve devices –Allow number of hoselines operating on fire ground to be increased/decreased –Wye appliances –Siamese appliances –Water thief appliances –Large-diameter hose appliances –Hydrant valves (Continued)

49 Firefighter I 13–48 Hose Appliances Fittings –Connect hose of different diameters, thread types –Adapter –Reducers –Elbows –Hose caps –Hose plugs (Continued)

50 Firefighter I 13–49 Hose Appliances Intake strainers –Devices attached to drafting end of hard intake to keep debris from entering fire pump –Guidelines for use

51 Firefighter I 13–50 Hose Tools Hose roller –Prevents damage to hose that can occur when dragged over sharp corners –Consists of metal frame with two or more rollers –Can be used for protecting rope from similar edges (Continued)

52 Firefighter I 13–51 Hose Tools Hose jacket –Can be installed on ruptured section of hoseline to temporarily close rupture –Consists of hinged two-piece metal cylinder –Made in two sizes –Encloses hose so can operate at full power –Can be used to connect hose with mismatched couplings (Continued)

53 Firefighter I 13–52 Hose Tools Hose clamp –Can be used to stop flow of water in hoseline –Three types — Screw-down, press-down, hydraulic press –Can injure firefighters/damage hose if applied incorrectly –Several general rules for use (Continued)

54 Firefighter I 13–53 Hose Tools Spanner –Used to tighten/loosen couplings –May have other built-in features (Continued)

55 Firefighter I 13–54 Hose Tools Hydrant wrench –Used to remove caps from hydrant outlets, open hydrant valves –Equipped with pentagonal opening fitting most standard hydrant operating nuts –May be equipped with spanner (Continued)

56 Firefighter I 13–55 Hose Tools Rubber mallet — Strike lugs to tighten/loosen couplings Hose bridge/ramp –Helps prevent damage to hose –Should be used where hose laid across street –Can be positioned over small spills –Can be used as chafing blocks (Continued)

57 Firefighter I 13–56 Hose Tools Chafing blocks –Used to protect fire hose where subjected to rubbing from vibrations –Useful where intake hose comes in contact with pavement –May be wood, leather, old truck tires (Continued)

58 Firefighter I 13–57 Hose Tools Hose strap, hose rope, hose chain –Used to carry, pull fire hose –Provide more secure means to handle pressurized hose when applying water

59 Firefighter I 13–58 Straight Roll Simplest Starts at one end, usually male coupling; to complete roll hose toward other end When complete, female end exposed and male protected in center of roll (Continued)

60 Firefighter I 13–59 Used in situations –When loaded back on apparatus at fire –When returned to quarters for washing –When placed in storage Easy loading of minuteman load Methods to indicate need for repair/test Straight Roll

61 Firefighter I 13–60 Donut Roll Used in situations where hose is likely to be deployed for use directly from roll (Continued)

62 Firefighter I 13–61 Donut Roll Advantages over straight roll –Better control –Hose rolls out easier –Facilitates connecting to other couplings Can be performed by 1-2 firefighters

63 Firefighter I 13–62 Twin Donut Roll Works well on 1½-inch (38 mm) and 1¾-inch (45 mm) hose Creates compact roll that is easily transported, carried If couplings offset about 1 foot (0.3 m), can be coupled together after roll tied

64 Firefighter I 13–63 Self-Locking Twin Donut Roll Twin donut roll with built-in carrying loop formed from hose itself Loop locks over couplings to keep intact Length of carrying loop may be adjusted

65 Firefighter I 13–64 Hose Beds Hose compartments on fire apparatus Vary in size, shape Sometimes built for specific needs Front of hose bed Rear of hose bed Split beds

66 Firefighter I 13–65 Hose Loading Guidelines Check gaskets, swivel before connecting couplings Keep flat sides of hose in same plane when two sections connected Tighten couplings hand-tight Remove kinks, twists when bent to form loop in hose bed (Continued)

67 Firefighter I 13–66 Hose Loading Guidelines Make short fold/reverse bend in hose during loading so couplings not too close to front or rear of hose bed and will not flip over when pulled out of bed Load large-diameter hose with all couplings near front of bed Do not pack too tightly

68 Firefighter I 13–67 Accordion Load Derives name from manner in which it appears after loading Procedure Advantages

69 Firefighter I 13–68 Horseshoe Load Named for way it appears after loading Procedure Advantage Disadvantages (Continued)

70 Firefighter I 13–69 Horseshoe Load In single hose load, may be started on either side Steps for split hose bed

71 Firefighter I 13–70 Flat Load Easiest to load Suitable for any size supply hose Best way for large-diameter hose Advantage Disadvantage (Continued)

72 Firefighter I 13–71 Flat Load May be started on either side of single hose bed In split hose bed, lay first length against partition with coupling hanging appropriate distance below hose bed Large-diameter hose

73 Firefighter I 13–72 Finishes for Forward Lays Designed to facilitate making hydrant connection Not as elaborate as finishes for reverse lays (Continued)

74 Firefighter I 13–73 Finishes for Forward Lays Straight finish –Last length or two of hose flaked loosely back and forth across top of hose load –Associated with forward-lay operation –Hydrant wrench, gate valve, adapters strapped to hose near female coupling

75 Firefighter I 13–74 Finishes for Reverse Lays Reverse horseshoe finish –Similar to horseshoe load –One or two 100-foot (30 m) lengths of hose –Can be used with any size attack hose –Can be used for preconnected line –Can be loaded in two or three layers –Can be pulled from bed for arm carry (Continued)

76 Firefighter I 13–75 Finishes for Reverse Lays Skid load finish –Folding last three lengths of hose into compact bundle on top of rest of load –Begins by forming 3+ pull loops extending beyond end of hose load –Rest of hose accordion-folded across hose used to form pull loops

77 Firefighter I 13–76 Preconnected Hose Loads for Attack Lines Primary lines used for fire attack by most departments Connected to discharge valve, placed in area other than main hose bed Range from feet (15-75 m) Can be carried in several places

78 Firefighter I 13–77 Preconnected Flat Load Adaptable for varying widths of hose beds Often used in transverse beds Similar to flat load for large supply hose except –Preconnected –Loops provided to aid in pulling from bed

79 Firefighter I 13–78 Triple Layer Load Begins with hose folded in three layers Designed to be pulled by one person Disadvantage Can be used for all sizes attack lines Often preferred for larger lines

80 Firefighter I 13–79 Minuteman Load Designed to be pulled, advanced by one Advantage Pays off shoulder as firefighter advances toward fire Well suited for narrow hose bed Disadvantages

81 Firefighter I 13–80 Booster Hose Reels Used for booster lines May be mounted in any of several places on apparatus May be hand- or power-operated Should be loaded one layer at a time in an even manner

82 Firefighter I 13–81 Guidelines When Laying Hose Do not ride in standing position to lay hose when apparatus moving Drive apparatus at speed no greater than one that allows couplings to clear tailboard as hose leaves bed Lay hose to one side of roadway

83 Firefighter I 13–82 Forward Lay Hose laid from water source to fire Used when source is a hydrant and pumper must be positioned near fire Hose beds should be loaded so first coupling off is female Operation (Continued)

84 Firefighter I 13–83 Forward Lay Advantages Disadvantages Information for firefighter at hydrant Making hydrant connection Using four-way hydrant valves

85 Firefighter I 13–84 Reverse Lay Hose laid from fire to water source Used when pumper must first go to fire location so size-up can be made before laying supply line Most expedient way to lay hose if apparatus must stay close to water (Continued)

86 Firefighter I 13–85 Reverse Lay Hose beds should be loaded so first coupling off hose bed is male Has become standard method for setting up relay pumping operation when using 2½-inch or 3-inch (65 or 77 mm) hose as supply line (Continued)

87 Firefighter I 13–86 Reverse Lay Long lays of large hose may require pumper at hydrant to increase pressure in supply hose Most direct way to supplement pressure, set up drafting operations Disadvantages (Continued)

88 Firefighter I 13–87 Reverse Lay Procedures if operation involves two pumpers Does not require four-way hydrant valve Also used when pumper arrives at fire and must work alone for extended time (Continued)

89 Firefighter I 13–88 Reverse Lay Making hydrant connections with soft intake hose Making hydrant connections with hard intake hose

90 Firefighter I 13–89 Split Lay Any of a number of ways to lay multiple supply hoses with a single engine Various types If equipped with sexless couplings, direction of lay is unimportant May other options when hose bed is divided

91 Firefighter I 13–90 Pulling Preconnected Hoselines Preconnected flat load Minuteman load Triple layer load

92 Firefighter I 13–91 Other (Not Preconnected) Hoselines Usually 2½-inches (65 mm) or larger Wyed lines Shoulder loads from flat/horseshoe loads Shoulder loads from accordion or flat loads

93 Firefighter I 13–92 Working Line Drag One of quickest, easiest ways to move fire hose at ground level Use limited by available personnel

94 Firefighter I 13–93 Advancing Hoselines Difficult when deploying up or down stairways, from standpipes, up ladders, deep into buildings Easier when uncharged

95 Firefighter I 13–94 Guidelines When Advancing Hoseline into Burning Structure Bleed air from charged hoselines before entering Position nozzle operator, all members of hose team on same side of hoseline Check doors for heat before opening (Continued)

96 Firefighter I 13–95 Guidelines When Advancing Hoseline into Burning Structure Stay low, avoid blocking ventilation openings Chock self-closing doors open Check for, remove kinks from line

97 Firefighter I 13–96 Advancing Hose Up Stairway Should be advanced up stairways uncharged when conditions allow Lay uncharged hose against outside wall to keep stairs clear as possible, avoid sharp bends and kinks in hose If possible, position firefighter at every turn/point of resistance

98 Firefighter I 13–97 Advancing Hose Down Stairway Advancing uncharged hoseline easier than charged Advancing uncharged line recommended only when no fire, very minor fire (Continued)

99 Firefighter I 13–98 Advancing Hose Down Stairway Excess hose should be flaked outside stairwall Firefighters must be positioned at corners, pinch points

100 Firefighter I 13–99 Advancing Hose From Standpipe Getting hose to upper floors of high-rise buildings can be challenging One solution is to have hose rolls or packs on apparatus ready to carry aloft and then connect to standpipe system (Continued)

101 Firefighter I 13–100 Advancing Hose From Standpipe Hose must be brought to fire floor over aerial ladder or by interior stairway Crews normally stop one floor below fire floor and connect to standpipe If standpipe in enclosed stairwell, it is acceptable to hook up on fire floor (Continued)

102 Firefighter I 13–101 Advancing Hose From Standpipe Steps once at standpipe connection Be alert for pressure-relief devices and follow SOPs for removal/connection If using certain sizes of hose, place gated wye on standpipe outlet (Continued)

103 Firefighter I 13–102 Advancing Hose From Standpipe 2½-inch (65 mm) attack line may be used depending on size, nature of fire Extra hose should be flaked up stairs toward floor above fire During pickup operations, carefully drain water to prevent unnecessary damage

104 Firefighter I 13–103 Advancing Hose Up Ladder Easier and safer with uncharged line Advancing charged line Operating hoseline from ladder

105 Firefighter I 13–104 Controlling Loose Hoseline Very dangerous because it may flail about or whip back and forth Firefighters, bystanders may be seriously injured or killed Methods for controlling

106 Firefighter I 13–105 Replacing Burst Sections Hose clamp or kink can be used to stop flow of water when replacing burst section of hose Two additional sections of hose should be used to replace any one bad section

107 Firefighter I 13–106 Operating Small Handlines — One Firefighter Method Only used during overhaul after fire or for very small outdoor nuisance fires Requires hoseline to be straight at least 10 feet (3 m) behind nozzle Firefighter should hold nozzle with one hand and hose with the other

108 Firefighter I 13–107 Operating Small Handlines — Two Firefighter Method Usually needed when nozzle must be advanced Nozzle operator duties Backup firefighter duties

109 Firefighter I 13–108 Operating Large Handlines — One Firefighter Method NOT recommended when nozzle is connected to large handline May be used during exposure protection/overhaul operations if master stream device unavailable (Continued)

110 Firefighter I 13–109 Operating Large Handlines — One Firefighter Method Large loop formed that crosses over line behind nozzle Firefighter sits on intersection where hose crosses and directs stream (Continued)

111 Firefighter I 13–110 Operating Large Handlines — One Firefighter Method To reduce fatigue, nozzle operator can use hose strap or utility strap looped over shoulder or reduce nozzle flow if conditions allow Does not permit much maneuvering

112 Firefighter I 13–111 Operating Large Handlines — Two Firefighter Method #1 Uses means of anchoring hose because of nozzle reaction Nozzle operator duties Backup firefighter duties

113 Firefighter I 13–112 Operating Large Handlines — Two Firefighter Method #2 Uses hose rope tools or utility straps to assist in anchoring hose Nozzle operator duties Backup firefighter duties

114 Firefighter I 13–113 Operating Large Handlines — Three Firefighter Method In all cases, positioning of nozzle operator same as for two-firefighter method (Continued)

115 Firefighter I 13–114 Operating Large Handlines — Three Firefighter Method Some departments prefer first backup firefighter to stand behind nozzle operator with third firefighter kneeling on hose behind second firefighter Another method is for all firefighters to use hose straps and remain standing

116 Firefighter I 13–115 Summary To fight fires safely and effectively, firefighters must know the capabilities and limitations of the various types of fire hose used in their departments. (Continued)

117 Firefighter I 13–116 Summary Firefighters must know the differences between supply hose and attack hose and how to use each one. Firefighters must know how to load hose onto apparatus and how to make the various hose load finishes used in their department.

118 Firefighter I 13–117 Review Questions 1.List three methods to prevent each of the following types of fire hose damage: mechanical damage, thermal damage, organic damage, and chemical damage. (Continued)

119 Firefighter I 13–118 Review Questions 2.What is the difference between threaded couplings and nonthreaded couplings? 3.List common hose rolls. (Continued)

120 Firefighter I 13–119 Review Questions 4.List four general loading guidelines. 5.What are general safety guidelines when advancing hose into a burning structure?


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