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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 4 — Building Construction Firefighter I.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 4 — Building Construction Firefighter I."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 4 — Building Construction Firefighter I

2 4–14–1 Chapter 4 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to recognize the various components of basic building construction, understand the effects of fire on common building materials, and identify the indications of imminent building collapse and construction hazards.

3 Firefighter I 4–24–2 Specific Objectives 1.Describe common building materials. 2.Describe construction types and the effect fire has on the structural integrity of the construction type. 3.Identify the primary strengths and weaknesses of construction types. (Continued)

4 Firefighter I 4–34–3 Specific Objectives 4.Describe dangerous building conditions created by a fire or by actions taken while trying to extinguish a fire. 5. Identify indicators of building collapse. (Continued)

5 Firefighter I 4–44–4 Specific Objectives 6.List actions to take when imminent building collapse is suspected. 7.Describe hazards associated with lightweight and truss construction.

6 Firefighter I 4–54–5 Wood Most common building material Main component of variety of structural assemblies Used in variety of ways –Load bearing walls –Nonload-bearing walls (Continued)

7 Firefighter I 4–64–6 Wood Reaction to fire depends on two factors –Size of wood –Wood’s moisture content May be pressure treated with fire retardants When burning, application of water stops charring process (Continued)

8 Firefighter I 4–74–7 Wood Newer construction often contains materials made of wood fibers joined by glue or binders; may be highly combustible, produce toxic gases, or rapidly deteriorate under fire conditions.

9 Firefighter I 4–84–8 Masonry Does not burn so a variety of masonry walls are used in construction of fire walls. Minimally affected by fire and exposure to high temperatures (Continued)

10 Firefighter I 4–94–9 Masonry Components –Bricks –Stones –Concrete blocks –Mortar Rapid cooling may cause cracking; should be inspected for damage signs.

11 Firefighter I 4–10 Cast Iron Typically found only on old buildings Was commonly used as exterior covering Was fastened in large sections to masonry on front of buildings (Continued)

12 Firefighter I 4–11 Cast Iron Stands up well to fire and intense heat; may crack/shatter when rapidly cooled with water Primary concern — Connections that hold cast iron to building can fail

13 Firefighter I 4–12 Steel Primary material used for structural support in large modern buildings Structural members elongate when heated (Continued)

14 Firefighter I 4–13 Steel May buckle and fail in middle Temperature at which specific steel member fails depends on variables Recommendations exist for firefighters Water can cool structural members and stop elongation, reducing risk of structural collapse

15 Firefighter I 4–14 Reinforced Concrete Internally fortified with rebar/wire mesh Performs well under fire conditions, can lose strength through spalling Prolonged heating can cause failure of bond in concrete and reinforcement Look for cracks and spalling

16 Firefighter I 4–15 Gypsum Inorganic product from which plaster, wallboards are constructed Has high water content Commonly provides insulation to steel/wood structural members Where fails, subjects exposed structural members to higher temperatures

17 Firefighter I 4–16 Glass Not typically structural support; used in sheet form for doors/windows When wire-reinforced, may provide thermal protection as separation If heated, may crack and shatter when struck by cold fire stream

18 Firefighter I 4–17 Fiberglass Typically used for insulation purposes Glass component not significant fuel; materials used to bind fiberglass may be combustible and difficult to extinguish

19 Firefighter I 4–18 Type I Construction Maintains structural integrity during fire Mainly reinforced concrete with structural members protected by insulation or automatic sprinklers (Continued)

20 Firefighter I 4–19 Type I Construction Fire-resistive compartmentation retards spread of fire through building Primary fire hazards — Contents of structure, interior finishes Fire-resistive ability can be compromised

21 Firefighter I 4–20 Type II Construction Similar to Type I except structural components lack insulation Fire-resistance rating on all parts of structure (Continued)

22 Firefighter I 4–21 Type II Construction Limited use of materials with no fire- resistance rating Fire protection concerns –Contents –Heat buildup causing supports to fail –Type of roof

23 Firefighter I 4–22 Type III Construction Requires exterior walls/structural members be noncombustible or limited combustible (Continued)

24 Firefighter I 4–23 Type III Construction Interior structural members of wood in dimensions smaller than Type IV Fire concerns –Fire/smoke spreading through concealed spaces –May burn through concealed spaces and feed on combustible construction materials (Continued)

25 Firefighter I 4–24 Type III Construction Hazards reduced considerably by placing fire-stops inside concealed spaces to limit spread of combustion by-products

26 Firefighter I 4–25 Type IV Construction Exterior/interior walls, associated structural members of noncombustible or limited combustible materials (Continued)

27 Firefighter I 4–26 Type IV Construction Other interior members of solid or laminated wood; no concealed spaces Rarely used in new construction except for decorative reasons (Continued)

28 Firefighter I 4–27 Type IV Construction Use with glue-lam beams growing Primary fire hazard — Massive amount of combustible contents presented by structural timbers

29 Firefighter I 4–28 Type V Construction Exterior walls, bearing walls, floors, roofs, supports completely or partially of wood of smaller dimensions than heavy-timber construction (Continued)

30 Firefighter I 4–29 Type V Construction Used for single-family residences and apartment houses up to seven stories Almost unlimited potential for fire extension Be alert for fire coming from doors/windows extending to exterior

31 Firefighter I 4–30 Strengths and Weaknesses Type I Type II Type III Type IV Type V

32 Firefighter I 4–31 Conditions Contributing to Spread/Intensity of Fire Fire load Combustible furnishings, finishes Roof coverings Wooden floors, ceilings Large, open spaces

33 Firefighter I 4–32 Conditions Making Building Susceptible to Collapse Types of construction Age Exposure to weather Length of time a fire burns Fire fighting operations

34 Firefighter I 4–33 Indicators of Building Collapse Cracks or separations Evidence of existing structural instability Loose bricks, blocks, stones falling Deteriorated mortar Leaning walls (Continued)

35 Firefighter I 4–34 Indicators of Building Collapse Distorted structural members Fires beneath floors supporting extreme weight loads Prolonged fire exposure to structural members (Continued)

36 Firefighter I 4–35 Indicators of Building Collapse Unusual creaks, cracking noises Structural members pulling away from walls Excessive weight of building contents

37 Firefighter I 4–36 Actions When Imminent Building Collapse Suspected Exit building Inform Command Clear collapse zone Know/heed evacuation, other emergency signals

38 Firefighter I 4–37 Lightweight/Truss Construction Increased use one of the most serious building construction hazards Commonly found in homes, apartments, small commercial buildings, warehouses Usually use lightweight steel/wooden trusses

39 Firefighter I 4–38 Lightweight/Truss Construction Hazards If unprotected, fail after 5-10 minutes exposure to fire Can fail from exposure to heat alone Metal gusset plates can fail quickly Most lack fire-retardant treatments (Continued)

40 Firefighter I 4–39 Lightweight/Truss Construction Hazards Hazards also affect wooden I-beams Bowstring trusses found in many old buildings Truss construction

41 Firefighter I 4–40 Lightweight/Truss Construction Precautions Important that firefighters know which buildings have truss roofs/floors Firefighters are often not allowed to enter/go onto roofs of buildings that incorporate trusses if exposed to fire conditions for 5-10 minutes.

42 Firefighter I 4–41 Summary Failure to recognize dangers of a particular type of construction and the effects that fire may have on it can be catastrophic for firefighters. For their safety and that of fellow firefighters, firefighters must have at least a basic knowledge of building construction. (Continued)

43 Firefighter I 4–42 Summary Firefighters need to know about construction materials, methods, and designs in general and those that are used in their area in particular. (Continued)

44 Firefighter I 4–43 Summary Knowledge of the various types of building construction and how fires react in each type give firefighters and officers information that is vital to planning a safe and effective fire attack. (Continued)

45 Firefighter I 4–44 Summary Firefighters need to know common building construction terms, materials, and methods. They also need to know how various types of construction are classified and how each type behaves in fires. (Continued)

46 Firefighter I 4–45 Summary Firefighters need to know the sights and sounds that indicate the possibility of structural collapse or other extraordinary events during interior fire fighting operations.

47 Firefighter I 4–46 Review Questions 1.What are common materials found in building construction? 2.What are the five types of building construction listed in NFPA ® 220? 3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the five building construction types? (Continued)

48 Firefighter I 4–47 Review Questions 4.What actions should be taken when imminent building collapse is suspected? 5.What hazards exist with lightweight and truss construction?

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