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APA Basics for FSEHS Students. Hot off the press in 2009! Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed.

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Presentation on theme: "APA Basics for FSEHS Students. Hot off the press in 2009! Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA Basics for FSEHS Students

2 Hot off the press in 2009! Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed.

3

4 What Students Need to Know About APA Student’s Name Course code and CRN: Title of course: Title: by Laura Lucio Ramirez CUR Educational Research for Practitioners Institution Month day, year Nova Southeastern University April 1, 2009

5 Title: Info on Applied Dissertation Student’s Name Institution Year

6 2 Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references (see Publication Manual, p. 323). Major headings are centered. The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words. Articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions, however, are not capitalized (Falcao, 2005). Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers alike need to pay attention to using subheadings. For example, Page #s 12 pt font Times New Roman Double spaced Indented Left justified No underlining You can now use bullets Bold for headings. APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments

7 2 Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326 of the Publication Manual.) Major headings are centered. The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words. Articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions, however, are not capitalized (Falcao, 2005). Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers alike need to pay attention to using subheadings. For example, FSEHS does not use running heads 1 inch margins APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments

8 Headings Use Level 1 Headings Level 2 – Flush Left, Boldfaced, Upper and Lower Case Side Heading APA manual, p. 62; See also sample paper p. 54 Title of Paper

9 Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326 of the Publication Manual.) Issues to Consider Major headings require specific formatting: (a) The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words; (b) articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not capitalized; and (c) the heading is not italicized. Formatting of Paper There are exceptions for dissertation. Other issues also need to be considered. Students and teachers need to know how to use 2 APA Formatting for NSU Class Assignments Issues to Consider Title Level 2 APA Headings Level 1 Formatting of Paper APA headings should not be confused with Word’s formatting levels.

10 Spacing after Punctuation: Use the find and replace feature Students’ scores improved. The study demonstrated that … Brown, J. D. (2003). Pitfalls of formatting. Reading Teacher, 24(3),

11 When to Cite Ideas, theories, or research that directly influenced your work. Key background information, support or dispute your theory, or offer critical definitions or data. Document all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. For class assignments, use 1 or 2 of most representative sources for each key point. Literature reviews include more exhaustive lists of citation. See APA (6th ed.), p. 169

12 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism Using another person’s ideas or words without giving them proper credit. Can be grounds for dismissal Using direct quotes and paraphrasing

13 Two types of in-text citations paraphrase direct quote APA uses the author – date citation system

14 Paraphrased text citation: Another study raised issues of motivation in reading (McPherson, 2007). Paraphrased text citation: McPherson (2007) raised issues of motivation in reading.

15 Note the correct punctuation: Research confirmed the results of cloning (Fink, 2007). A couple of experiments (Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... The website did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.). n.d. – no date See APA manual, pp , 185

16 Basic Citation Styles Citations in text: Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated Quinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors) Parenthetical citations in text: (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008) (Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2009) (Wienhorst et al., 2009) See APA manual, p. 177 Always use et al. for six or more authors.

17 Paraphrasing “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system” (Smith, 2008, p. 212). Direct quote APA manual, pp

18 Paraphrasing “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system” (Smith, 2008, p. 212). When the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law in January of 2002 by President Bush, the law provided the most all- encompassing reform in education the United States in decades and provided a foundation for strengthening educational policy at the national level for years to come (Smith, 2008). Direct quote Paraphrased More than 50% reworded APA manual, pp

19 46% of Paper Plagiarized Found Using Turnitin Researchers have noted adjustment problems during a rising ninth grader’s transition period. The rising ninth graders’ grade point averages and attendance tend to decrease. The upcoming freshman experience feelings of connectedness, and co-curricular participation. They also experience an increase in anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. So far, transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial. Dropout There is a high school dropout epidemic in America. Each year, almost one-third of all public high school students – and nearly one-half of all blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans – fail to graduate from public high school (Bridgeland, Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons for dropping out of high school are attitude towards school, poor school performance, and poor relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environment (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). Research also revealed that high school students often consider the social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficult part of transition (Akos, 2004). Researchers have noted adjustment problems duringin anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial.The most common reasons for dropping out of high schoolattitude towards school, poor school performance, andrelationship with teachers.had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environmentResearch alsothat high school students oftenthe social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficultof transition (Akos, Words in red were taken verbatim from a second source. The original idea was from Lan & Lanthier, but the source of this “paraphrase” was not cited. Only a few words were paraphrased. Words in blue were taken verbatim from one source. (Lan & Lanthier, 2003).

20 Secondary Sources Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) … Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993.) Models of reading aloud. Psychological Review, 100(3), Text citation: List the primary source in the reference list entry:

21 Text citation with direct quote: McPherson (2007) coined the phrase “goblet of motivation” (p. 71). The phrase that aptly describes the impact on reading is “goblet of motivation” (McPherson, 2007, p. 71).

22 When using a direct quote, provide the page #: “… victims of cyberterrorism” (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237). Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). Lynch (2007) stated, “The findings are not valid” (p. 22) but later maintained that other studies reached different conclusions. See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171

23 Text Cites of Electronic Resources In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be “based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning” (Methods section, para. 7). “The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu” (Pival, Falcao, & Quinlan, 2009, “Problems with Qualitative Research,” para. 5). See APA (6th ed.), p. 172 Use name of section. Use shortened title in quotation marks.

24 The abstract is a one-paragraph summary or overview of the paper and “should summarize the essential content of the paper” (Tunon, 2009, p. 34). Direct quote for less than 40 words: Block quote (40 words or more): Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Strunk (1922) stated: Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, brochure, or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a short title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342) Callahan (2001), however, says …. (NOTE: FSEHS uses single space, but APA uses double spacing.) Note where the periods go! APA manual, p. 92

25 Groups as Authors Citations in text: American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) stated… APA (2008) observed… Parenthetical citations in text: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE: Always use abbreviation after it is introduced in the text. Do not switch back and forth between the full name and the abbreviation. See APA manual, p. 177

26 A couple of experiments (Jordan, 2004, 2007) found…. A couple experiments (Eifrig & Gehring, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... Several studies (Department of Defense, 2002, 2008, in press-a; Smith & Jones, 2009a, 2009b) See APA manual, pp Citing Several Resources Within Same Parentheses Citing sevral resources

27 When to Use Ampersands and Commas Stating author names vs. citing author names Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education. but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan & Bardeen, 2007). Three or more authors cited, use commas Researchers (Cresswell, Borg, & Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true. In reference list Quinlan, N., & Bardeen, A. (2007). Information literacy in higher education. College and Research Libraries, 34(3),

28 When to Use Ampersands and Commas Stating author names vs. citing author names Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education. but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan & Bardeen, 2007). Three or more authors cited, use commas Researchers (Cresswell, Borg, & Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true. In reference list Quinlan, N., & Bardeen, A. (2007). Information literacy in higher education. College and Research Libraries, 34(3),

29 When to Use Ampersands and Commas Stating author names vs. citing author names Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education. but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan & Bardeen, 2007). Three or more authors cited, use commas Researchers (Cresswell, Borg, & Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true. In reference list Quinlan, N., & Bardeen, A. (2007). Information literacy in higher education. College and Research Libraries, 34(3),

30 Test yourself 1.The theory (Smith, Brown, and Jones, no date) or 2.The theory (Smith, Brown, & Jones, n.d.)  1.Two research studies (APA, 2002; Barnes, 2005) or 2.Two research studies (Barnes, 2005; APA, 2002)  1. MacDougall (2004, para. 34) stated that “the Information Literacy Model needed to be implemented”. or 2.MacDougall (2004) stated that “the Information Literacy Model needed to be implemented” (Methods section, para. 4). or 3. MacDougall (2004) stated that “the Information Literacy Module need to be implemented.” (para. 34) 

31 Reference citation in reference list: McPherson, K. (2007). Harry Potter and the goblet of motivation. Teacher Librarian, 34(4), 71. doi: /

32 How to Cite a Journal Article Retrieved Online

33 Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), Author(s) See APA (6th ed,), p. 184 Initials, not first names. No title Ampersand (&), not the word and Comma before the ampersand. Space between initials

34 Names Do not include titles Arguellos, S., Ph.D. (2007). Bucher, J., Dr. (2005). If author’s first name is hyphenated, retain hyphen Chin, E.-F., Barry, B., & Wilson, H. W. APA (6th ed.), p. 184

35 Suffices for Names Use a space to separate initials and suffices in your name for the author byline R. F. Johnson, Jr. D. S. Altilio, III For references in the text, do not include suffixes (Johnson, 2008) Altilio (2004) For references in the reference list, use a comma to separate initials and suffices. Johnson, R. F., Jr. Altilio, D. S., III APA (6th ed.), pp. 24, 174, 184

36 Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), Year of publication See APA (6th ed.), p. 185 Enclosed in parentheses Period after the parentheses No month or day if the publication is a journal, not a magazine, newsletter, or newspaper article.

37 Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), Article title See APA (6th ed.), p. 185 Only first word in title and subtitle should be be capitalized as well as any proper names. A period at the end of the title. Only one space after the period, not two.

38 Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), Journal title See APA manual, pp Journal title should have all important words capitalized. It is italicized The journal title is followed by a comma

39 Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), Volume, issue, and page number(s) See APA manual, p. 186 The volume number is italicized There should be no space between the volume number and issue number Enclose issue number in parentheses and follow by a comma Do not use p. or pp. for journal articles.

40 Pagination by Issue or Continuous Pagination FSEHS recommends always including both the volume and issue number, regardless of whether the publication is paginated continuously or by issue. APA (6th ed.), p. 186 Journal of Reading Volume

41 Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), doi: / Citing Journal Articles Retrieved Full Text Online: DOI number Preferred: If the database has a Digital Object Identifier that functions as a unique identifier of the content and a link to the content, then use that. Do not capitalize doi, and do not include a space before or after the colon. Do not put a period at the end of the doi number.

42 Examples of a DOI

43

44 DOI in ERIC Database

45 doi: / /43/3/007

46 DOIs found in the abstract

47 Non-DOI numbers from other vendors: DO NOT INCLUDE THESE!

48 How to find a DOI for an article Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3),

49 Coming soon! DOI lookup tool

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51 Reference with a DOI Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3), doi: / (2006/048)

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55 Watkins, R., & Schlosser, C. (2000). It’s not about time: A fresh approach to educational equivalency. TechTrend, 24(3), Retrieved from /education/learning+&+instruction/journal/115/act.pdf Article Obtained from an Open-Access Journal Retrieval statement The retrieval date is not included because this article is not likely to be changed or updated. However, changeable documents should include the retrieval date. Include the direct URL to the specific article. Use and remove hyperlink.

56 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Group author See APA (6th ed.), p. 184 Period after the group author

57 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Year of publication See APA manual, p. 248

58 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Book title Only the first word in the book title and subtitle should be capitalized as well as any proper names.

59 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Book title Only the first word in the book title and subtitle should be capitalized as well as any proper names. Use (6th ed.), not (6 th ed.) and do not italicize. Period goes after the edition number and page numbers, if any

60 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Place and publisher Use DC, not D.C. (U.S. postal abbreviation for states) Use Author if the name of the publisher is the same as the author

61 Location and Publisher Info Use state abbreviations: FL, TX, NY, CA, DC All cities now include state abbreviation: –Baltimore, MD –Boston, MA –Chicago, IL –Los Angeles, CA –New York, NY –Philadelphia, PA –San Francisco, CA Leave off superfluous terms: –Publishers –Co. or Company –Inc. Retain the words: –Books –Press For example: Erlbaum, John Wiley, University of Toronto Press, Penguin Books See APA (6th ed.), p. 187

62 Electronic Version of Print Book Schaefer, A. (2009). Living in the fast lane. [Monograph.] doi: / Schaefer, A. (2009). Living in the fast lane. [Monograph.] Retrieved from No location or publisher is included for an electronic version of a book.

63 Rules for Capitalizing Titles Article title: – In text: The article entitled “An Assessment of the Reading Skills of Inner-City Students” settled the question about appropriate techniques. – In reference citation: Smith, D. (1999). An assessment of reading skills of inner-city students. The Reading Teacher, 14(3), Book title: –In text: The book, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, is a modern classic. –In reference citation: Gibbon, E. (1963). The decline and fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Dell. APA manual, p. 101 Capitalize all words of four letters or more as well as verbs in text but not reference list. Capitalize first word after a hyphen in text title but not in reference list.

64 Other Rules for Titles Article title: – In text: The article entitled “An Assessment of the Reading Skills of Inner-City Students” settled the question about appropriate techniques. – In reference citation: Smith, D. (1999). An assessment of reading skills of inner-city students. The Reading Teacher, 14(3), Book title: –In text: The book, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, is a modern classic. –In reference citation: Gibbon, E. (1963). The decline and fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Dell. APA manual, p. 101 Use quotes around article title in text but not in reference list.

65 References Jones, R. N., del Rio, J. A., Humenik, J. A., García, E. O., & Ramírez, A. M. (2006). Citation mining: Integrating text mining and bibliometrics for research user profiling. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52, Kushkowski, J. D. (1985). Master's and doctoral thesis citations: Analysis and trends of a longitudinal study. Portal, 3, doi: / Kushkowski, J. D. (1999a). Identifying uniform core journal titles for music libraries: A dissertation citation study. College & Research Libraries, 60(2), Kushkowski, J. D. (1999b). Measuring the use and value of electronic journals and books. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. Retrieved from Expanded Academic Index database. Morner, C. J. (1995). Measuring the library research skills of education doctoral students. In R. AnRhein (Ed.), Continuity & transformation: The promise of confluence. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference of the Association of College and Research Libraries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 29-April 1, 1995 (pp ). Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. Norton, M. J. (2009). Introductory concepts in information science. doi: / O'Connor, D. O., & Voos, H. (2008). Empirical laws, theory construction, and bibliometrics. In J. Smith & B. B. Jones, New adventures on the Web. Springfield, MA: Springer Verlag. Page entitled References Hanging indentations Single space in citations Double space between citations Use italics, do not underline Alphabetical order, Then by date 32 Reference Page centered

66 References Jones, R. N., del Rio, J. A., Humenik, J. A., García, E. O., & Ramírez, A. M. (2001). Citation mining: Integrating text mining and bibliometrics for research user profiling. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52, Kushkowski, J. D. (1985). Master's and doctoral thesis citations: Analysis and trends of a longitudinal study. Portal, 3, doi: / Kushkowski, J. D. (1999a). Identifying uniform core journal titles for music libraries: A dissertation citation study. College & Research Libraries, 60(2), Kushkowski, J. D. (1999b). Measuring the use and value of electronic journals and books. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, 35(4), Morner, C. J. (1995). Measuring the library research skills of education doctoral students. In R. AnRhein (Ed.), Continuity & transformation: The promise of confluence. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference of the Association of College and Research Libraries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 29-April 1, 1995 (pp ). Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. Norton, M. J. (2000). Introductory concepts in information science. doi: / O'Connor, D. O., & Voos, H. (2005). Empirical laws, theory construction, and bibliometrics. In J. Smith & B. B. Jones, New adventures on the Web. Springfield, MA: Springer Verlag. 32 Reference Page

67 1.Brown, R. D. (2005). The flight of the bumblebee. or 2. Browning, A. J. (2003). Learning to read. 1.Schroeder, L. (2008). Water rights in Oregon. or 2. Schroeder, L. (2004). Fighting for water rights. 1.Jones, F. T. (2008). Birth of a nation. or 2.Jones, F. T. (2000). Fourth-grade students. or 3. Jones, F. T. (2008). Winning the war. 1.Palgreaves, D. J. (2001). Economics today. or 2.Palgreaves, D. J., & Baber, J. (1999). Dictionary of …     Nothing precedes something (2008a) (2008b) APA (6th ed.), pp One-author entries precede multiple- author entries Arrange chronologically

68 Using Microsoft Word’s formatting for Hanging Indentations Example in MSWord 2003 Go to Format. Select Paragraph. In Indents and Spacing Go to the Special section. Select Hanging.

69 Hanging Indentations in Word 2007

70 Alphabetizing the Reference List in Word 2003 Example in MSWord 2003 Go to Table. Select Sort. Click OK.

71 Alphabetizing the Reference List in Word 2007

72 Get a copy of this PowerPoint

73 Thanks! Questions?


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