# AP Statistics Course Review.

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AP Statistics Course Review

Exploring Data Variables can be categorical or quantitative
Discrete or continuous For categorical data, we use bar charts Numerical data can be displayed using a dotplot, stemplot, box-and-whisker plot, histogram or cumulative frequency plot Remember histograms have no spaces (unless a category has none) Must include key with stemplot Always label axes and make sure you read the axes when interpreting a graph.

Commenting on a graph Shape: symmetric, skewed, unimodal, uniform
Center: Mean and median Spread: Range, standard deviation, Iqr, gaps, outliers (1.5x iqr) added to quartile

Effect of changing units
Changing units will change measures of center and spread by the same ratio as the multiplier. Adding or subtracting the same constant will change measures of center in a similar manner but will not change measures of spread. Trial Run 1

Scatterplots Bivariate, explanatory, response
Correlation coefficient (r) -1 to 1 R does not change when you switch x and y, nor will it change when you multiply or add Only measures strength of linear relationship Affected by outliers Lurking variables Danger of extrapolation

Coefficient of determination (r2) Residuals (observed – predicted)
Influential points Transformations Trial run

Sampling Census, survey, experiment, observational study
Parameter (population) statistic (sample) Convenience, SRS, stratified, cluster, systematic Bias: undercoverage, nonresponse, response Placebo, blind, randomization, replication, confounding variable

Experimental designs: completely randomized, blocks, matched pairs
Trial run

Probability Law of large numbers: long-term relative frequency gets closer to true freq. as # trials increases Disjoint (mutually exclusive): cannot occur simultaneously Mand and ort Conditional probability: Independence: knowing one has occurred doesn’t change chance of the other

Probability distributions
Matches all possible values of variable with probability of it happening All probabilities must be between 0 and 1 Total of probabilities must be 1 Mean: Variance

Binomial Random Variables
Fixed number of trials, success or failure P remains constant each trial Each trial is independent (nCr) pr (1-p)n-r Mean: np Variance: np(1-p)

Geometric Random Variable
Success or failure P constant, each trial independent How many times until …. Probability k trials occur before … p (1-p)k-1 Trial run

Combining Variables Mean (x+y) = mean (x) + mean (y)
If independent: variance (x+y)= var(x)+var(y)

Normal distributions Z-score
Standardize endpoints, find area under curve Trial run

Sampling distributions
All possible random samples are taken and used to create a sampling distribution of the sample mean Standard dev. : Central Limit Theorem: as the size of an SRS increases, the shape of the sampling dist. tends toward normal

Hypothesis Testing Sample Proportion Ho: Ha: Test Statistic Pvalue
Assumptions: p is from a random sample Sample size is large (np>10 and n(1-p)>10) Sample no more than 10% of population

Sample Mean Ho: Ha: Test Statistic P value
Assumptions: from a random sample Sample size is large (>30) or population distribution is approximately normal

Hypothesis Testing Difference in 2 sample proportions: Ho: Ha:
Test statistic: P value Assumptions: independently chosen random samples or treatments were assigned at random to individuals Both sample sizes are large (np>10, n(1-p)>10 works for both of them

Hypothesis Testing Difference in two sample means Ho: Ha:
Test Statistic P value Assumptions: 2 sample are independently selected random samples Sample size large (>30) or population distributions are approximately normal

Hypothesis Testing Paired t test comparing 2 population means
Ho: µd = hypothesized value Ha: µd < > ≠ hypothesized value Test statistic: Pvalue: Assumptions: Samples are paired Random samples from a pop. Of differences Sample size is large (>30) or population distribution of differences is about normal

Hypothesis Testing Chi-Square GOF Ho: Ha: Test Statistic P value
Assumptions: based on random sample Sample size is large – every expected cell count at least 5 Degrees of freedom?

Hypothesis Testing Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity or Independence (2 way table) Ho: There is no relationship between __and _ Ha: Ho not true Test Statistic: P value Assumptions: independently chosen random samples or random assignation to groups All expected cell counts are at least 5 Degrees of freedom?

Hypothesis Testing (last one!!)
Chi-square test for slope Ho: Ha: Test statistic: P value Assumptions: dist. of e has mean value=0, std. dev. of e does not depend on x, dist. of e is normal, random dev. of e are independent of each other Degrees of freedom: n-2

Confidence Intervals Statistic ± margin of error(also called bound)
Margin of error is combination of 2 numbers: (Critical value ) (standard error)

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