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11 Michael Bank There are some articles in site: www. Two faces Janus The Israel.

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1 11 Michael Bank There are some articles in site: www. Two faces Janus The Israel Museum, Jerusalem One face is better Museum visitor One-Way Electric Line (B-Line)

2 2 Content : Slides Introduction 3 Part 1. Main idea 8 Part 2. Low (50 Hz) Frequency B-Line 10 Part 3 The first B-line experiments 43 Part 4. Power loses and interferences 48 Part 5. High-Frequency One-Wire Line 62 Part 6. Using B-Line in antenna construction 68 Part 7. B-Line for DC 71 Part 8. Expectations, dreams, hopes 72 Conclusion 81

3 “Transmission of electricity requires at least two wires” - this statement has been ingrained in the consciousness of engineers for over 150 years. ki/Transmission_line This is two-way system 3 Part 1. Introduction

4 Fiber Optic Systems 4 One Way System Examples Waveguide

5 Radio Systems Can a one-wire method also be used in any electrical system for transmission of energy or information? 5

6 Mechanical Telegraph Energy is transferred in one direction from the source to the load and does not return. Why do we need two channels? 6 One line mechanical system

7 7 Earlier Attempts Single-wire electrical energy transmission by Nikola Tesla (1890) [US Patent number 1,119,736) The Goubau line, a single-wire transmission line at microwave frequencies. (Geog Goubau, "Surface waves and their Application to Transmission Lines," Journal of Applied Physics 21 (1950)) AFEP experiment based on the Russian patent application (1993 ) by Stanislav and Konstantin Avramenko (PCT/GB93/00960 ). These methods all lead to loss of energy and a change in the signal waveform. Known single-wire system SWER transmits only half the source energy

8 8 In this two line system (A-Line), the currents in each wire are in opposite phases. Part 1. Main idea One-Way Electric Line Model The source (generator) produces two signals of opposite phases The current will flow through the load with opposite phases as well.

9 B-Line: Wires with the same (equipotential) currents can be combined. G RLRL Inv Main Idea: With the inverters, we can get the same potential polarity in both wires 9

10 10 Part 2. Low (50 Hz) Frequency B-Line That's one of the simulations for the verification of Ohm's law in the proposed scheme. In this known A-Line circuit current amplitude everywhere should be 90  A. 1 kOhm is the lines resistance. In the proposed B-Line scheme, we added inverters at the input and output, and combined the two lines. As a result a line resistance is 0.5kOhm. The simulation shows that the currents at the input and output have not changed. The polarity of the load current depends on where the inverter is at the top or bottom. 2.1 Basic simulations

11 11 B-Line with two delay lines ADS simulation This position of probe shows positive current direction.

12 V 1 kOhm Probe 1 A-line scheme B-Line with two transformers ADS simulation A-line simulation example

13 13 B-line simulation The delay line of half a period at a frequency of 50 Hz has a length of 3000 km. Therefore, this type of inverter can be used only in simulations. Here one can see results of simulations real scheme, where inverter build by transformers with opposite windings (onwards Tr-Inv).

14 B-Line After two filters After inverter for phase 3 It is possible converting B-Line to three phase signal by two filters and inverter The same circuit, but in reverse sequence converts three phase signal to B-Line Three identical B-Lines 2.2 Single Wire Three-Phase System

15 Scheme with additional inverter T6 for receiving phase difference +/ One wire to three phase scheme

16 We reached a three-phase voltage. Three phase scheme simulation results

17 About ground using So we to provide required Tr-Inv we use the transformer with opposite windings. And we have to turn it into one wire (lower one on the picture). It is therefore logical to apply zeroing at the lower point. Now through each winding its own current will flow only. Current. which follows from the secondary winding is equal to the current flowing in the primary winding. You can not turn it on, since no current will flow through the windings. The ground is needed, that would be current flowed in the windings. It flows into the ground and spreads out in an endless ground, as is the case with a protective earth.

18 18 In the case of protective grounding, if an accident happens, the current anywhere in the other place does not get. Wikipedia: In electronic circuit theory, a "ground" is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge, which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential. Where a real ground connection has a significant resistance, the approximation of zero potential is no longer valid.electronic circuitsource or sink The main characteristic of the grounding resistance is spreading current, i.e., a resistance that the earth (ground) has a current spreading at the site of this current. Land spreading is a ground area that surrounds the grounding electrodes, in which the boundary of the current density is so low that potential, which has virtually no land depends on the current flowing from the electrodes. That is why outside of this boundary current can always be equated to zero. Current spreads in the earth in all directions and therefore countless ground resistance is zero. If we carry the current in a wire connected to ground, the wire current flows, but in the ground it will not be (if grounding ideal) because the potential at the connection point all the time is zero.

19 19 In the proposed B-Line scheme, the current of the A-Line second line does not go into the ground. It flows into the first line after inverting the phase. Taking into account importance of this issue, we give here four proofs of the fact that ground does not participate in signal transduction in the proposed system. Although one proof (any) would be sufficient Proof 1. Return to the B-Line simulation. In accordance with Ohm's law, in a case of the source with a voltage of 1 volt and 1kOhm load, the current is equal to 1mA. This is exactly the obtained in the simulation. If some other current flowed into earth, the current in the lines would be lower. The result of simulation shows that there is no other current except the current in lines.

20 20 Proof 2. If one part of the scheme (transmitting or receiving) do with the delay line, the circuit works properly and gives exactly the same load current. Obviously, in this case there is no connection to the ground.

21 Proof 3. One opponents objection against the single-wire method is as follows. In the scheme, where the inverters in the form of transformers, there is current in the transmitting part, which goes into the ground. But if in the simulation with a long B-Line of we replace ground on the trunk, the scheme does not work. Probe 1 Probe 2 Probe 3 Probe1 Probe 2 Probe 3 AA AA AA 1 V50 Ohm 21

22 Gen Proof 4. The current in the transmitting part, which requires a zeroing has polarity corresponds to polarity of the common wire, that is coincident with the polarity of the applied voltage. ( Zero potential is possible to get not only with the help of ground, but with the compensation current by current with opposite polarity. Suppose we want to transmit energy in various places. Then it can be in two different lines apply signals of opposite polarity. If you connect the dots require a zeroing of both schemes, the ground connections are not required. 22

23 23 In fact, in the case of ideal protective ground the entire current is absorbed without any reflection or without reaching any other load. It is reminiscent of the absorption of the light beam by perfectly black surface I = 0 No reflections No light Ideal ground is actually absorption, similar to the absorption of light by perfect blackbody Absorbable current

24 J J - 2 J 2 J 1:1 2 J Absorbable current is equal to the current in the common wire 24

25 J J 2 J - J 0.02 J - 2 J 2.02 J - 2 J 2.02 J 1:1 1:100100:1 Absorbable current is greatly reduced if the line voltage is increased 25

26 20 mA 40 mA 20 mWt 2.4 May be is it possible to dispense with the inverter in receiving part? Basis B-Line 26

27 5 mA 10 mA 5 mWt 1 V B-Line without second invertor Load power decreased by 4 times. But 4 times decreased power feed source too. 27

28 28 +/- V/2 -/+ V/2 V +/- V/2 -/+ V/2 V = +/- V/2 Explanation of the reducing process of the received and given powers. This not only reduces the voltage, but also resistance. Obviously, the use of transformer 1 : 2 does not lead to losses.

29 20 mA 20 mWt 1 V 1 : 2 Basis without second invertor and with first transformer 1 : 2 Yes, you can do without a second inverter. To provide power for appliances can apply one wire and earth. However, the need to apply twice the voltage. 29

30 30 This simulation shows that even in case of a large number of consumers, there is no danger of a strong input current into the ground when house flats are equipped with a single-wire system. 2.5 Absorbable current minimization If the building is supplied by two-wire cable, for example as single-phase of three-phase system, in the ground does not current flows. The results of simulations confirm this.

31 31 P = 1 * = 0.125mW P = 2[(0.25mA) 2 * 1000 ] = mW Input power Output power If the object is connected to the single-wire line. Than can divide object into two parts, and supply it by the signals of different polarity. Then, under the same load, currents reaching the ground will be compensated. In this simulation resistances 1 kOhm is half objects parallel loads mA mA Object mA mA mA mA Transformer vault

32 32 grounding Single-wire distribution Absorbable current in building minimization Two B-Lines

33 The use of protection grounding to reset the transformer is not a means of communication between the source and the load If the power goes out a few lines, the currents in the ground point can be compensated by an appropriate choice of the polarity signal. Very only approximate figures. The transmitted power of 1 GW. Voltage 1000 kV So current can be 1000A. Or resistance /1000 = 1000 ohms Ground impedance 4 ohms. 20 m R = 4 Ohm 20 m R = 4 Ohm 0.1  1 kOhm/m Absorption space

34 Know-how – without inverters and grounding It is possible to make 50 Hz source without grounding using. It offers single-pole source (generator) and a single-pole signal receiver (e.g. motor). They can connect one wire without the use of inverters and therefore no ground (no zeroing)..

35 Actually output stage of popular operational amplifiers is single pole source OA

36 Actually this is B-line too 36

37 This is more efficiency B-line 37

38 The proposed B-Line (single-wire) system is often compared to SWER system. As usual SWER one translate like: Electricity distribution method using only one conductor with the return path through earth. But this system should be called: Transmission system over a single wire, where ground is used instead of the second wire and where the distance between the source and the load is large, so that the resistance on the ground between them is much greater than the resistance of the wire. The ground in SWER (after generator and before load) makes zeroing. That is, the current in a conductor connected to the ground, anyone in the other place does not receives this current. 2.7 SWER system 38

39 An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current-carrying capability to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level. In electronic circuit theory, a "ground" is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge, which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential.adequate zero-voltage reference levelelectronic circuitsource or sink : 39 x

40 Let we have extended SWER line. At the input of the receiving transformer potential difference is asymmetric. Indeed the signal phase at the end of a line will depend upon the distance from the source. A potential of grounding point does not depend on the distance and is always zero. That is, such a line can be represented as a line having both an active and reactive load. So in this line s an reactive power It is well-known that reactive power is always present in a circuit where there is a phase difference between voltage and electric current in that circuit such as all our domestic loads are inductive. So, there is a phase difference between voltage and current, and the current lags behind the voltage by certain angle in time domain.voltageelectric current Reactive power source additionally loads the source and decreases system efficiency.

41 Consider the 150 km long SWER system. In this system, the resistance of the generator power 50 Ohm and load resistance is 1 kOhm Grounding of receiving transformers made ​​ in the form of a shorted delay line by half a period. Thus both grounded points are not connected (See Annex). Here it is seen that the current generator which produces more than three times the load current. It is obvious that this ratio increases with the length of the line.

42 In the case of B-Line system load is balanced signal, so there is no reactive energy. This is clearly seen from the simulation scheme similar to the previous one. In the case of B-Line current of generator substantially equals to the current in the load.

43 43 The experiments confirmed the results of simulations. Part 3. The first B-line experiments

44 44 Model was constructed to test the possible influence of the neutral conductor of three-phase system (photo in next slide) Resistance of the primary windings of transformers is approximately 400 Ohm. The output voltage was equal to the calculated value. At the entrance isolation transformer is applied to avoid possible grounding system through the neutral wire three-phase network.

45 45 All currents and voltages in this model correspond to simulation.

46 46 Experiment B-Line in JCT In addition to conducting simulations and experiments, it was decided to make an experimental line between two buildings JCT. The transmitting part (source) is housed in building Beren. The first receiver (light bulb 60 W) is located in another building. The second receiver (same bulb) is located in the same building (Beren), but in different room. These earth buildings are different. The wires between the source and receivers 200m long. 220 V voltage is supplied to source by a two-pin plug. Source has two single-ended output. The source is not connected to earth.

47  200 m House 2 JCT experiment B-Line scheme House 1 47

48 48 B-line system uses instead of two wires of A-line system one wire only. But one wire in B-Line and two wires in A-Line mast have the same resistance. Maybe three phase system gives advantage on cupper sawing? Let us compare. It is well known fact, that the main advantage of the three-phase system, compared to the one-phase system, is that the same power can be transmitted by using only three wires instead of six wires, saving twice the amount of material and losses. But in three phase system line voltage is: VLin =  3V. It does not influence a power, because it is known that power of three phase system equals  3Vlin*I. However this fact needs another comparison. In the two line system voltage can be increased by  3 with transformer. In this case the current decreases by the same  3 and power does not change. But in three phase system voltage increases without current decreasing and its losses comparing to two wire system are greater. Despite on the advantages of three line system its behavior looks like a bad transformer (the voltages increase but a current does not drop down) Part 4. Power loses and interferences 4.1 One wire instead 2 or 4

49 49 Comparison of losses in the three two wire system with three phase system with the same power of the transmitted signal can be formulated as follows. The losses of one three phase system are half of losses of three two wire systems, because it uses three wires instead of six. On the other hand the voltages are increased in the system by the root of three times without reducing the current. If in the two wire system we will raise the voltage at the root of three times, then the current will decrease and the power loss will be reduced by three times If we compare three phase system and two wires system with the same voltage between lines we will get power loses in three phase system by 3/2 more than in two or one wire systems

50 50 Corona, or crown - is a self-discharge that occurs in a highly non-uniform fields, in which the ionization processes can occur only in a narrow region near the electrodes. This sort of field is the electric field wires of overhead power lines. When a corona discharge in the ionization of air near the surface of the wire is formed the space charge of the same sign as the polarity of the voltage on the wire. When two oppositely charged corona wires ions of opposite sign move in opposite directions. In the low field strength - in the middle between the wires - there is a partial recombination of the ions. Much the same part of them penetrate the crown area of the opposite polarity, increasing the field there. As a result, the ionization rate increases, the current crown, and, consequently, the energy loss increases. This regime is called bipolar corona crown. 4.2 Corona discharge One wire Two wires

51 Additional power loses The main advantage of one-wire system is one wire using instead of two or four, which leads to a sharp reduction in the cost of the electrical system. Another important advantage is the decreases of losses in the transmission of electrical energy. The calculations and simulations show that the mutual influence of the two relatively closely spaced conductors with currents of opposite polarity, resulting in an increase in resistance of both wires. The one-wire system does not have this problem.

52 52 There are several categories of twisted-pair cabling, but only three that are commonly used for Ethernet networks: Category 5 (Cat5), Category 5e (Cat5e, or Cat5 Enhanced), and Category 6 (Cat6). The performance characteristics of Cat5, Cat5e, and Cat6 are as follows: Cat5: Supports speeds up to 100 Mbps at 100 MHz, with a maximum cable length of 328 feet (100 meters). Cat 5e: Supports speeds up to 1,000 Mbps (or 1 Gbps) at 100 MHz, with a maximum cable length of 328 feet (100 meters). Cat6: Supports speeds up to 1,000 Mbps (or 1 Gbps) at 250 MHz, with a maximum cable length of 295 feet (90 meters). See: i-use-in-my-home-networ.html The losses in the two wire lines because of the mutual influence in twisted double wire In a two-wire system with closely spaced wires there is interference between currents. This effect leads to a reduction of the currents in both wires. That is, we get wires resistance increasing. That is why the phone flat or twisted double wire can not be used over long distances. Using B-Line method can solve this problem.

53 53 L1 L1L1 L2 L1 L1L1 L1 = L2 = /4 L1 – L2 = /2 R = 10 Ohm d = 0.5 mm V = 1V F = 100 MHz = 3000 mm Simulation twist line and B-Line Model 1 Model 2

54 54 Model 1 – two wires Simulations were performed for different cable lengths. But the change in length had little impact on the results. No impact on the results and the transition to a twisted cable. S11 S21

55 55 Model 2 - B-Line B-Line acquired selective properties, with sharply reduced losses increased S21 by 16 dB S11 S21

56 56 A cross-section through a 400 kV cable, showing the stranded segmented copper conductor in the center, semiconducting and insulating layers, copper shield conductors, aluminum sheath and plastic outer jacket voltage_cable Underground cables problems The losses in the two wire lines increase if if the cables are close to each other.

57 Transmitted over the air is proportional to the energy efficiency of the transmitting antenna. This efficiency is determined by various inter-related parameters, such as gain (G) or effective length (L e ). Electric wire can be considered as a monopole. L e of monopole is inversely proportional to its length-to-quarter wavelength, which for 50 Hz equals 1.5 thousands km. Obviously, to the areas where the distance is less than a kilometer, the active length of electrical wire is zero. Another source of radiated electromagnetic field can be a transformer, working here as a magnetic antenna. The effective length of the magnetic antenna proportional to coil area (S), the number of coils (N) and the magnetic permeability of the core (  ). Taking this into account it can be assumed that the output transformer of high voltage electric lines (large output current) can be a real source of electromagnetic radiation. Can it be considered an electrical line as an antenna? Can it be considered an transformer as an antenna? 4.4 Energy radiation

58 It can be assumed that the output of the high voltage transformer of B-Line, actually which consists of two transformers will have a very low radiation. H H

59 59 S A 2 m S A 2 m Electrical antenna Magnetic antenna Comparative measurements of the effect of electromagnetic fields on human

60 4.4 Less wires - less short-circuits

61 61 Possible options for short circuits B-Line A-Line

62 62 Part 5. High-Frequency One-Wire Line On high frequencies the A-line is long line submitting to telegraph equitation. Let us show that B-line idea is correct for the high frequency too. If so then we can the long line fragment change by one wire line. Previous simulations where current by ADS program. This program allows simulating different elements but not electrical lines. For electrical lines simulations was used delay line. On height frequencies one can implement CST program. This program allows simulating different elements including electrical lines.

63 30 mm 300 mm R in = 300 Ohms R out = 300 Ohms 1 V 0 V Model 1 The prototype (model 1) is long line with characteristic impedance ≈ 300 Ohmcharacteristic impedance 63

64 64 On frequencies more than one GHz is better to use delay line by Strip Line. This Strip Line was used on following simulations.

65 Model 2 S11 S21 65

66 66 The matching long the line is infinitely wide band pass. This is an advantage, but also disadvantages. Advantages because you can pass on a long line of multiple signals with different frequencies. However, in a real system there is always some noise. Even if he is weak, but in an infinitely wide band will be infinitely large noise (of course, if the noise is white). Due to Shannon's theory on such a channel can not transmit information. Of course, you can apply a filter at the input of the receiver. But this is often problematic. The filter introduces loss and increases the noise factor. The proposed single-wire system (B-Line) is a selective system The disadvantage of B-Line is a need to change the delay line in case of change of frequency. B-Line is compatible with the source and load, and in this sense no different from the usual long line. It is selective, but rather broadband. It has no requirements of symmetry, which is often a problem when using long line inside the apparatus.

67 Let us note some important advantages of high frequency B-line. The line is not so critical to the matching with the load resistance. It is difficult to achieve ideal symmetrical two wires long line inside of small device. Non symmetrical can lead to intersymbol interferences For one wire long line the symmetrical is not a problem. Long B-line has a resonance properties. This can help to achieving good interference immunity. At the same time the line is broadband enough. One of useful antennas is dipole, where the presence of the two beams interfere with the use of dipole as a small device antenna. Maybe B-line idea can help to solve this problem (see next part). 67

68 68 MB Antenna B-Line instead of the high-frequency coherent long line In practice there are often difficulties to obtain ideal matched long line. One reason for this no ideality is different effect of neighboring elements of the device on each of the two lines. In the case of single- B line that is no problem. It should be noted that if A-Line as a prototype has been matched with the load and the B- Line will remain matched and hence loss of signal does not appear. Using B-Line on antenna construction B-Line principle allows to build monopole with dipole parameters (MB antenna [10] ). This idea is clear from this Figure Part 6. Using B-Line in antenna construction

69 69 MB antenna is the equivalent full dipole, and not half- wave, as is usually applied. In the case of a monopole or dipole at the end emitters current is equal to zero, and this dramatically reduces the efficiency of the antennas. At low frequencies to compensate for this effect is used umbrella antenna, T-shaped antenna, antenna with top power, multi-antenna and so on. In contrast to the known solutions the equivalent of half- wave (or rather the wave) MB antenna you can see on Fig. At point A the current is not terminated, it continues to flow to the source. Lines AB and CD equipotential, and they can be combined (see Figure 3). Generator “sees” both ends of the system and gives maximal power. The delay line is small and shielded so that it does not radiate. That is, the MBA allows to implement a PCB radiator of height /2, rather than /4, i.e. the MBA is equivalent to a full dipole. This result is verified by simulations, as described in Section 3.

70 70 PCB Strip Line Vg out = 1V, R out = 15 Ohm, Distance 1 m. E = V/m ! This is much more than give a monopole or dipole

71 Part 7. B-Line for DC 71 There are two capacitors which in turn charged and discharged. Upon discharge, the current direction changes.

72 72 Part 8

73 Tomorrow 73

74 High Voltage Electricity in Centre of JerusalemToday

75 Underground Electric Transmission Cables 75Today

76 Tomorrow 76 One cable

77 Feed line Stray currents Suction lines DC generatorToday 77

78 One-pole DC generator Tomorrow 78 No stray currents

79 79 Today Tomorrow Today, many countries use a three-pin electrical plug. One can use the two pin electrical plug; one pin will be active and the other will be connected to local protective ground.

80 Today Corona radiation 80

81 Tomorrow No corona 81

82 The single-wire (B-Line) method was proposed and checked. The B-line can operate at all frequencies, including DC, and for all voltages. B-line method allows: Significantly reducing the number of wires on the globe; Extensive use of underground power lines for energy transmission; Reducing number of accidents associated with electrical systems; Reducing loss in transmitting information by twisted pair; Reducing distortion in information transmission by symmetrical lines caused by unbalanced influences; Developing cellular phone without antenna which uses existing printed circuit board (PCB) as radiating element. Conclusion All known systems for the transmission of energy or information are the one way systems. This light channels, waveguides, radio links, the fibers, nervous systems in wildlife and others. The exceptions are the wires electric lines. Studies, simulations and experiments have shown that the electric line can be a single channel too.

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