2 I hear...and I forget I see...and I remember I do...and I understand A Chinese Proverb
3 Introduction to learning styles A complex and ongoing field of researchA wide range of models to characteriseResults adopted by many organisations
4 History and scope Learning styles research began in 1960s By 2006 over 650 books published on learning stylesOver 4500 articles in scholarly publications26,000 websites
5 Definition of Learning Styles Specified patterns of behavior according to which the individual approaches a learning experienceA way in which the individual takes in new information and develops new skillsThe process by which an individual retains new information or skills(Sarasin, L.C, 2006)
6 Definitions (Contd.)The manner in which individuals choose, or are inclined to approach, a learning situation(Cassidy, 2004)The way an individual perceives, organizes, processes, and remembers information(Beebe, Mottet, Roach, 2004)
7 Goals Understand our own learning style Understand our students’ learning stylesApply to our teaching methodologyAccommodate students’ differencesBecome better teachers
8 Does brain matter?Ancient Egyptians believed the heart was the center of intelligence and emotionThey thought so little of the brain that during mummification, they removed the brain entirely from bodies
9 Brain Hemispheres Right Left Reasoning Mystical Logical Musical MathematicalVerbalLeftMysticalMusicalCreativeVisual-pictorial
10 Do we teach to both sides? What teaching methods do we use fora student who is left brain dominant?a student who is right brain dominant?
11 1. Try to memorize the items below 2. Write down the items you remember
12 Memorize these letters A X QWrite down the letters you rememberZ Z G K J EK W O F P A D S MM A J H I Y K O W L P QA K A B K I P F I M I N F P W
13 Please Check your answers! A X QZ Z G K J EK W O F P A D S MM A J H I Y K O W L P Q A K A B K I P F I M I N F P W
14 Models and terms A huge range of words is employed A wide range of models is applied
15 So Many Words! simultaneous processors executive, hierarchic, conservative versus legislative,anarchic, liberalthinking versus feelingjudging versus perceivingleft brainers versus right brainersmeaning-directed versus undirectedtheorists versus humanitariansactivists versus theoristspragmatists versus reflectorsorganisers versus innovatorslefts/analytics/inductives/successive processors versus rights/globals/deductives/imaginative versus analytic learnersnon-committers versus plungerscommon-sense versus dynamic learnersconcrete versus abstract learnersrandom versus sequential learnersinitiators versus reasonersintuitionists versus analystsextroverts versus introvertssensing versus intuitionconvergers versus divergersverbalisers versus imagersholists versus serialistsdeep versus surface learningactivists versus reflectorspragmatists versus theoristsadaptors versus innovatorsassimilators versus explorersfield dependent versus field independentglobalists versus analystsassimilators versus accommodators
17 Honey and Mumford model (1.1) Activistslearn best from activities in which there are:New experiences and challengesShort ‘here and now’ tasks including teamwork and problem-solvingExcitement, change and variety‘High visibility’ tasks e.g. Leading roles
18 Honey and Mumford model (1.2) Reflectorslearn best from activities where they:Are allowed or encouraged to watch/think/ponder on activitiesHave time to think before actingCan carry out careful, detailed researchHave time to review their learningDon’t have pressure and tight deadlines
19 Honey and Mumford model (1.3) Theoristslearn best from activities where:What is offered is part of a system, model or theoryThey can explore the interrelationships between ideas, events and situationsThey are asked to analyse and evaluate, then generaliseThey can question basic assumptions or logic
20 Honey and Mumford model (1.4) Pragmatistslearn best from activities if:There’s an obvious link between the subject matter and a ‘real life’ problemThey are shown techniques for doing things with practical advantagesThey see a model they can emulate, or can concentrate on practical issuesThey are given immediate opportunities to implement what they have learned
21 Models: 2. Pask (1988) 2.1 Serialist learners Prefer to take a step-by-step approachPieces of information already inter-relatedBuilding from the known to the unknownMore comfortable with "linear" subjectsMay lose sight of the broader pictureImpatient with "jumping around“Initial stages of learning arithmetic
22 Models: 2. Pask (1988) 2.2 Holist learners Prefer to form a global view of subjectMake relations between parts later onMore comfortable with "topic" based learningMay leave gaps, or repeat themselvesMay over-generaliseHistory or literature
24 Models: 3. VAK (1988) Common distinction between: Visual learners Prefer to learn through seeingAuditory learnersPrefer to learn through hearingKinaesthetic learnersPrefer to learn through physical activity
25 Models: 4. VAKT Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile Seeing: Text, Charts, Diagrams, PicturesAuditoryHearing: Audio, Music, SpeakingKinestheticBodily Action: MovementTactileTouching: Doing with the handConnect with sensory input
26 Models: 5. Myers Briggs Type Indicator Rooted in psychology of Carl JungAdapted by Isabel Myers Briggs in 1940’sFocus on 4 areas of perceiving and judgingStrong implications for learningPsychological type is an explanation of human personality developed by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl G. Jung ( ). Jung observed that human behavior is not random, but instead follows identifiable patterns that develop from the structure of the human mind. The following is a brief summary of his theory.When the human mind is active, people are doing one of two things: perceiving (taking in information) or judging (organizing and prioritizing information to arrive at decisions). Though everyone uses these mental processes, Jung believed that people are born with preferences for how they will use them.The MBTI® is based upon Carl Jung's notions of psychological types. The MBTI® was first developed by Isabel Briggs Myers ( ), who had a bachelor's degree in political science from Swarthmore College and no academic affiliation, and her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs.* Katharine's father was on the faculty of Michigan Agricultural College (now Michigan State University). Her husband was a research physicist and became Director of the Bureau of Standards in Washington. Isabel's husband, Clarence Myers, was a lawyer. Apparently, because Clarence was so different from the rest of the family, Katherine became interested in types. She introduced Isabel to Jung's book, Psychological Types. The rest, as they say, is history. Both became avid "type watchers". Their goal was a noble one: to help people understand themselves and each other so that they might work in vocations that matched their personality types. This would make people happier and make the world a more creative, productive and peaceful place in which to live. (Skeptic’s Dictionary,Isabel Briggs Myers learned test construction by studying the personnel tests of a local bank. She worked up her inventories with the help of family and friends and she tested her early tests on thousands of schoolchildren in Pennsylvania. Her first longitudinal study was on medical students, who she followed up after 12 years and found that their occupations fit their types. She eventually became convinced that she knew what traits people in the health professions should have ("accurate perception and informed judgment").* She not only thought her tests could help select who would make good nurses and physicians, "she hoped the use of the MBTI in training physicians and nurses would lead to programs during medical school for increasing command of perception and judgment for all types, and for helping students choose specialties most suited to their gifts."* (http://skepdic.com/myersb.html)
29 I E ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ Receiving energy : Introverted/ExtravertedIEISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJ2
30 Extravert/Introvert Introvert Extravert 49% 51% Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds.Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would.Receives energy externally or internally
31 Extravert/Introvert Extravert Introvert Avoid crowds and seek quiet Listen more than talkKeep enthusiasm to selfConcentrate wellProceed cautiously in meeting people participate in selected activitiesThink carefully before speakingTime alone recharges batteriesNeeds to have time to reflectWould prefer to socialize in small groups or just do job "by myself"Content being on the sidelinesTolerate noise and crowdsTalk more than listenCommunicate with enthusiasm.Be distracted easilyMeet people readily and participate in many activities Blurt things out w/o thinkingParties recharge your batteriesHates to do nothing. On the go Likes working or talking in groupsLikes to be center of attentionIntroverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds.Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would.ExtravertIntrovert
33 S N ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ Gaining Information/Perceivin: Sensing/Intuitive1ISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJSN
34 Sensing/Intuitive Intuitive Uses senses 75% 25% Sensates gain information in concrete patterns. This type is not so much concerned with fantasies and the future as with the practical and the present. They are the most likely to bring iNtuitives back down to earth, and have them think realistically.iNtuitives do not necessarily need a concrete idea expressed to them for them to gain information. They are often intrigued by theory, especially personality theory. Even though there are only about 25% of the world who are iNtuitives, they make up the majority of the people who discuss personality type, as many Sensates are uninterested.Gaining Information/Perceiving
35 Sensing/Intuitive Sensing Intuitive Learn new things by imitation and observationValue solid, recognizable methods achieved in step-by-step mannerFocus on actual experienceTend to be specific and literal; give detailed descriptionsBehave practicallyRely on past experiencesLikes predictable relationshipsAppreciate standard ways to solve problemsMethodicalValue realism and common senseLearn new things through general conceptsValue different or unusual methods achieved via inspirationFocus on possibilitiesTend to be general and figurative use metaphors and analogiesBehave imaginativelyRely on hunchesValue change in relationshipsUse new and different ways to solve problems and reach solutionsLeap around in a roundabout wayValue imagination and innovationIntroverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds.Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would.SensingIntuitive
38 F T ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ Making decisions: Thinking/Feeling3FTISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJ
39 Feeling/Thinking Thinking Feeling 50% 50% Emotions Logic Thinkers are more likely to embrace logic and reason when making a decision. They are not inclined to trust their gut feeling, and sometimes can overlook the repercussions of a decision on another person's feelings. They (especially NT's) often make great scientists, and often have a curiosity for the physical world.Feelers tend to trust their gut feeling when making a decision. They also can become very aware of the emotional repercussions of a decision, and are very capable of feeling empathy for someone in distress.EmotionsLogicMaking decisions
40 Feeling/Thinking Feeling Thinking Have harmony as a goal Decide more with my heartAgree more with others' findings, because people are worth listening toNotice when people need supportChoose tactfulness over truthfulnessDeal with people compassionatelyExpect the world to recognize individual differencesNote how an option has value and how it affects peopleLike to please others; show appreciationAppreciate frequent queries as to my emotional stateANY feeling is validQuestion others' findings because they might be wrongNotice ineffective reasoningChoose truthfulness over tactfulness’Deal with people firmly, as needed Expect world to run on logical principlesNote pros & cons of each optionSee others' flaws...criticalTolerate occasional queries as to my emotional state in relationshipsFeelings are valid if they're logicalIntroverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds.Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would.FeelingThinking
42 P J ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ Making decisions: Judging/PerceivingJPISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJ4
43 Judging/Perceiving Perceive Judging 50% 50% Making Decisions Perceivers love to keep their options open. They are always looking for the best decision, and are not drawn to making decisions quickly. Some say that Perceivers tend to be disorganized, but there are many exceptions.Judgers have a need for closure. Decisions have to be made, or the Judger is uncomfortable. They tend to lead very scheduled lives, and often have a difficult time when outside forces impede upon their schedule. Many say that Judgers are very organized, but there are many exceptions.50%50%Making Decisions
44 Judging/PerceivingPrefer my life to be decisive imposing my will on itPrefer knowing what they're getting themselves intoFeel better after making decisionsEnjoy finishing thingsWork for a settled life, with my plans in orderDislike surprises & want advance warningSee time as a finite resource, and take deadlines seriouslyLike checking off "to do" listFeel better with things plannedSettled. Organized.Like adapting to new situationsPrefer to keep things openEnjoy starting thingsKeep my life as flexible as so nothing is missedEnjoy surprises and like adapting to last minute changesSee time as a renewable resource and see deadlines as elasticIgnore "to do" list even if made oneWould rather do whatever comes alongTentative. Flexible. Spontaneous.Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds.Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would.JudgingPerceiving
46 Myers Briggs Type Table 13ISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJ42
47 Myers Briggs Type Indicator ExtravertIntrovert49%51%SensingIntuitive75%25%FeelingThinking50%Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds.Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would.It is interesting to observe the distribution of these preferences in the actual population. Keirsey and Bates give the following distribution from a 1964 study: ( quoted inE (75%), I (25%)JudgingPerceiving50%
48 Models: 6. Kolb Learning Style Model Direct ExperienceAbstract ConceptReceiving InformationReflective ObservationActive ExperimentationProcessing Information
51 Models: Gregoric Learning Style Model ConcreteAbstractPerceiving InformationConcrete SequentialConcrete RandomRandomSequentialOrganizing InformationAbstract SequentialAbstract Random
52 Left Brain/Right Brain Learners also favor one side of the brain over another.Left Brain Right Brainlogical creativeverbal spatialanalytical intuitive
53 Models: 8. Multiple Intelligences Verbal-LinguisticAbility to use words and languageLogical-MathematicalCapacity for inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning, use of numbers, recognition of abstract patternsVisual-SpatialAbility to visualize objects and spatial dimensions, and create internal images and picturesBody-KinestheticWisdom of the body; ability to control physical motionMusical-RhythmicAbility to recognize tonal patterns and sounds, sensitivity to rhythms and beatsInterpersonalCapacity for person-to-person communications and relationshipsIntrapersonalSpiritual, inner states of being, self-reflection, awareness
54 Models: 9. Building Excellence BUILDING EXCELLENCE…The Learning Individual® Self-Awareness — “Know Thyself”If learning is fundamental to everything we do, then understanding one’s unique learning style is fundamental to learning.
56 The Building Excellence (BE) Survey The BE Survey is an online learning & productivity style assessment tool (copyright ‘96, ‘98, ‘99, ‘00 R. Dunn & S. Rundle).BE identifies twenty-one critical variables that can promote or obstruct learning, including the efficacy with which individuals concentrate on, process, internalize, and retain new and complex information.
57 Learning and Productivity Style Profile Report The BE Survey generates a personalized Learning and Productivity Style (LPS) Profile report, which includes:A one-page summary;Narrative descriptions of one’s preferences;Recommended strategies; andA personal development plan to help people create individualized learning solutions.
58 Interpreting the LPS One-Page Profile A non- essential element that does not usually require special attention.An essential element that requires attention MUCH of the time.MODERATEAn essential element that requires attention ALL of the time.STRONGSLIGHTA non- essential element that, for the most part, does not affect the individual.
59 Interpreting the LPS One-Page Profile DEFINITELY NOT the most effective modality for retaining new and difficult material.LEASTNOT the most effective modality for retaining new and difficult material.LESS
61 Tactile and/or Kinesthetic Perceptual ElementsRemember best when they READ the written word (textbooks, memos, and messages).Visual TextLearnersVisual PictureLearnersTactile and/or KinestheticLearnersAuditoryLearnersVerbalLearnersRemember best when they LISTEN to a lecture, a presentation, or an audiotape.Remember best when they SEE (create) mental images of what they hear or read.Remember best by DOING rather than sitting and listening, reading, or thinking about the information.Remember best when they DISCUSS with others the new and complex information they are learning.
63 Analytic / Global ANALYTICS… GLOBALS……assimilate and process information best when humor and metaphors are used and they need to understand the concept before the details make sense.ANALYTICS……assimilate and process information best when it is presented sequentially and the information builds toward a conceptual understanding.
64 Analytic / GlobalINTEGRATED PROCESSORS…… use both the Analytic and Global dimensions interchangeably. Persons with this preference often take on the role of an interpreter because they can easily translate what the Analytics and Globals are saying.
65 Reflective / Impulsive Reflective learners take time to weigh their options before making decisions and solving problems.When taken to the extreme, this approach leads to analysis paralysis!Impulsive learners prefer less detail when making decisions and solving problems.When taken to the extreme, impulsive people want others to be brief, be bright, and be gone!
67 Environmental Elements SoundLightTemperatureSeatingDo you concentrate best with sound in the background or a in quiet environment?Do you study or work best when when the lights are bright or softly illuminated and indirect?Do you concentrate and stay focused longer when the temperature is warmer or cooler?Do you concentrate best when sitting at a desk with a straight- backed chair or more informal seating?
69 Physiological Elements At what time of day are you most effective and efficient:Early Morning?Late Morning/ Early Afternoon? Late Afternoon?Evening?Time of DayDo you focus your attention best when you snack while you work or study or snack after you are finished?IntakeWhen you stay in one place for too long, do you become restless and fidgety?Mobility
71 Emotional ElementsMotivationPersistenceConformityStructurePositive feedback from others (externally motivated)Positive feedback from yourself (internally motivated)Do you prefer completing one task before beginning another?Do you prefer to work on several tasks at the same time?Do you prefer to do things the way you think they should be done?Do you prefer to do things the way others think they should be done?Do you like others to provide procedures for you to follow?Do you prefer to create your own procedures?
73 Sociological Elements Are you more productive when you work alone or with one other person, in a small group of 3 people, or in a large team?Team InteractionDo you work well with a person who is an expert in his field?Are you less effective when someone is looking over your shoulder when you work or study?AuthorityDo you prefer routine work using proven methods?Do you become bored when you have to do the same thing over and over?Variety
75 Models: 11. VARK Learning Styles www.vark-learn.com A Simple System to Understand and UseDesigned by Neil D. Fleming, Lincoln University, New ZealandDeveloped by help of Charles C. Bonwell, Saint Louis College of Pharmacy, U.S.A.
76 A sample VARK QuestionYou are not sure whether a word should be spelled 'dependent' or 'dependant'. I would:look it up in the dictionary.see the word in my mind and choose by the way it looks.sound it out in my mind.write both versions down on paper and choose one.
77 The questionnaire output: Learning Preferences VisualAuralRead / WriteKinesthetic
78 If you are a visual learner… You learn best by:Taking notes and making lists to read laterReading information to be learnedLearning from books, videotapes, filmstrips and printoutsSeeing a demonstrationYou are good at:Dressing well, putting clothes together easilyRemembering details and colors of what he/she seesReading, spelling and proof readingRemembering faces of people he/she meets (forgets names); remembers names seen in printQuietly taking in surroundingsCreating mental photos
79 If you are an auditory learner… You learn best by:Talking aloudListening to a lectureDiscussing in small or large groupsHearing music without words as a background in the learning environmentYou are good at:Speaking on his/her feetNoticing sounds in environmentRemembering names of people he/she meets (forgets faces)Working with words and languagesTuning into small shifts in voice intonation
80 If you are a read/write learner… Learn through reading and writingLearn best by reading and re-reading the textbook and their notes, writing and rewriting their notes, and in general, organizing items into lists.Often like to readLearn by listening, speaking, reading, telling, discussing and writing
81 If you are a kinesthetic learner… Process information trough touch, movement and rhythmic movementsLike hands on activities such as wood shop, dance, and/or athletics.Express yourself and your ideas through movementHave good fine-motor skills and need to touch and do things
82 What does this mean?You have all four of the learning styles, but you are stronger in some of the areas. Based on your strengths you will find some activities to be either favorable or difficult.Which learning style did you have the lowest score? We are now going to look at how you can improve on this learning style…Write down your lowest learning style and three suggestions that YOU will use to improve.
83 Ways to be a BETTER Visual Learner Occasionally change the color of ink in your penUse highlighters to point out important informationPay attention to the details of picturesRead ALL of the assignment directionsReplace words with symbols or initials.= atUse diagrams, flowcharts and graphic organizers to keep your work organized and easy to study.
84 Ways to be a Better Auditory Learner Say vocabulary and spelling words out loud.Read your assignments out loud.Pay close attention to your teacher’s voice.Remember details by saying them over and over.Use a tape recorderDiscuss topics with others (have a study group)Study in a quiet so you can recall items discussed in classUse stories, poems, etc to remember items in class.
85 Ways to be a BETTER Read / Write Learner Make ListsHave headings at the top of your pageUse post-it notesKeep track of your hand-outsRead notes silently again and againRe-write difficult notes into ones that make it simple for you to remember.Practice doing multiple choice questions.Learn to take good notes in class.
86 Ways to be a BETTER Kinesthetic Learner Type important informationTake breaks when needed, especially when studying.Build models to explain yourself during projectsFrequently change pens and pencils so you have a different feel when you write.Pay close attention during examples and experimentsUse pictures to illustrate ideas.
87 MISMATCH Visual: most people in our culture. Verbal: Most of our teaching material: lectures, texts, equations, overhead, PowerPoint, ...
88 MISMATCHDeductive teaching is quick, easy, appears straight forward and easy for the teacherBut, it is confusing and difficult for the student.Most students think and learn inductively!
89 MISMATCH If you teach in your own preferred style: People like you are likely to learnIf you teach in multiple styles:Everyone is more likely to learn more easily
90 MISMATCHMost curricula, textbooks, teaching techniques, and teachers are sequentialGlobal learners make good researchers, systems analysts, and creative problem solvers if they make it through school.
91 Summary Tips Give students the global view or goal at the beginning Teach inductively (step by step) and encourage students to reason deductivelyAsk questions and devise assignments that cause students to be field-independentUse the Socratic Method so students respond with their own dominant learning style.Appeal to all the senses in your teaching.Plan for active learning. The most prominent learning mode is through doing.Take pains to use the nondominant side of your brain in your teaching methodologyDevise lesson plans that use the opposite of your learning style preference(students who have your learning style will catch on easily it is those who do not that are likely to have trouble in your class.)Vary assignments between visual, auditory, kinesthetic and read-write.Use visual approaches rather than lectures, equations, chalkboard, PowerPoint, etc.Use course activities that address each of the different learning styles
92 “I think that only daring speculation can lead us further and not accumulation of facts.” Albert Einstein