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B. Amirheidari, PharmD, PhD. Apr 2011, KMU

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1 B. Amirheidari, PharmD, PhD. Apr 2011, KMU
Learning Styles B. Amirheidari, PharmD, PhD. Apr 2011, KMU

2 I hear...and I forget I see...and I remember I do...and I understand
A Chinese Proverb

3 Introduction to learning styles
A complex and ongoing field of research A wide range of models to characterise Results adopted by many organisations

4 History and scope Learning styles research began in 1960s
By 2006 over 650 books published on learning styles Over 4500 articles in scholarly publications 26,000 websites

5 Definition of Learning Styles
Specified patterns of behavior according to which the individual approaches a learning experience A way in which the individual takes in new information and develops new skills The process by which an individual retains new information or skills (Sarasin, L.C, 2006)

6 Definitions (Contd.) The manner in which individuals choose, or are inclined to approach, a learning situation (Cassidy, 2004) The way an individual perceives, organizes, processes, and remembers information (Beebe, Mottet, Roach, 2004)

7 Goals Understand our own learning style
Understand our students’ learning styles Apply to our teaching methodology Accommodate students’ differences Become better teachers

8 Does brain matter? Ancient Egyptians believed the heart was the center of intelligence and emotion They thought so little of the brain that during mummification, they removed the brain entirely from bodies

9 Brain Hemispheres Right Left Reasoning Mystical Logical Musical
Mathematical Verbal Left Mystical Musical Creative Visual-pictorial

10 Do we teach to both sides?
What teaching methods do we use for a student who is left brain dominant? a student who is right brain dominant?

11 1. Try to memorize the items below
2. Write down the items you remember

12 Memorize these letters
A X Q Write down the letters you remember Z Z G K J E K W O F P A D S M M A J H I Y K O W L P Q A K A B K I P F I M I N F P W

13 Please Check your answers!
A X Q Z Z G K J E K W O F P A D S M M A J H I Y K O W L P Q  A K A B K I P F I M I N F P W

14 Models and terms A huge range of words is employed
A wide range of models is applied

15 So Many Words! simultaneous processors
executive, hierarchic, conservative versus legislative, anarchic, liberal thinking versus feeling judging versus perceiving left brainers versus right brainers meaning-directed versus undirected theorists versus humanitarians activists versus theorists pragmatists versus reflectors organisers versus innovators lefts/analytics/inductives/successive processors versus rights/globals/deductives/ imaginative versus analytic learners non-committers versus plungers common-sense versus dynamic learners concrete versus abstract learners random versus sequential learners initiators versus reasoners intuitionists versus analysts extroverts versus introverts sensing versus intuition convergers versus divergers verbalisers versus imagers holists versus serialists deep versus surface learning activists versus reflectors pragmatists versus theorists adaptors versus innovators assimilators versus explorers field dependent versus field independent globalists versus analysts assimilators versus accommodators

16 Models: 1. Honey and Mumford (1982)
Distinguished b/w 4 preferred styles: Activist Reflector Theorist Pragmatist

17 Honey and Mumford model (1.1)
Activists learn best from activities in which there are: New experiences and challenges Short ‘here and now’ tasks including teamwork and problem-solving Excitement, change and variety ‘High visibility’ tasks e.g. Leading roles

18 Honey and Mumford model (1.2)
Reflectors learn best from activities where they: Are allowed or encouraged to watch/think/ponder on activities Have time to think before acting Can carry out careful, detailed research Have time to review their learning Don’t have pressure and tight deadlines

19 Honey and Mumford model (1.3)
Theorists learn best from activities where: What is offered is part of a system, model or theory They can explore the interrelationships between ideas, events and situations They are asked to analyse and evaluate, then generalise They can question basic assumptions or logic

20 Honey and Mumford model (1.4)
Pragmatists learn best from activities if: There’s an obvious link between the subject matter and a ‘real life’ problem They are shown techniques for doing things with practical advantages They see a model they can emulate, or can concentrate on practical issues They are given immediate opportunities to implement what they have learned

21 Models: 2. Pask (1988) 2.1 Serialist learners
Prefer to take a step-by-step approach Pieces of information already inter-related Building from the known to the unknown More comfortable with "linear" subjects May lose sight of the broader picture Impatient with "jumping around“ Initial stages of learning arithmetic

22 Models: 2. Pask (1988) 2.2 Holist learners
Prefer to form a global view of subject Make relations between parts later on More comfortable with "topic" based learning May leave gaps, or repeat themselves May over-generalise History or literature

23 Models: 2. Pask (1988) Broader distinction made between:
Visual-holist learners Verbal-sequential learners

24 Models: 3. VAK (1988) Common distinction between: Visual learners
Prefer to learn through seeing Auditory learners Prefer to learn through hearing Kinaesthetic learners Prefer to learn through physical activity

25 Models: 4. VAKT Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile
Seeing: Text, Charts, Diagrams, Pictures Auditory Hearing: Audio, Music, Speaking Kinesthetic Bodily Action: Movement Tactile Touching: Doing with the hand Connect with sensory input

26 Models: 5. Myers Briggs Type Indicator
Rooted in psychology of Carl Jung Adapted by Isabel Myers Briggs in 1940’s Focus on 4 areas of perceiving and judging Strong implications for learning Psychological type is an explanation of human personality developed by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl G. Jung ( ). Jung observed that human behavior is not random, but instead follows identifiable patterns that develop from the structure of the human mind. The following is a brief summary of his theory. When the human mind is active, people are doing one of two things: perceiving (taking in information) or judging (organizing and prioritizing information to arrive at decisions). Though everyone uses these mental processes, Jung believed that people are born with preferences for how they will use them. The MBTI® is based upon Carl Jung's notions of psychological types. The MBTI® was first developed by Isabel Briggs Myers ( ), who had a bachelor's degree in political science from Swarthmore College and no academic affiliation, and her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs.* Katharine's father was on the faculty of Michigan Agricultural College (now Michigan State University). Her husband was a research physicist and became Director of the Bureau of Standards in Washington. Isabel's husband, Clarence Myers, was a lawyer. Apparently, because Clarence was so different from the rest of the family, Katherine became interested in types. She introduced Isabel to Jung's book, Psychological Types. The rest, as they say, is history. Both became avid "type watchers". Their goal was a noble one: to help people understand themselves and each other so that they might work in vocations that matched their personality types. This would make people happier and make the world a more creative, productive and peaceful place in which to live. (Skeptic’s Dictionary, Isabel Briggs Myers learned test construction by studying the personnel tests of a local bank. She worked up her inventories with the help of family and friends and she tested her early tests on thousands of schoolchildren in Pennsylvania. Her first longitudinal study was on medical students, who she followed up after 12 years and found that their occupations fit their types. She eventually became convinced that she knew what traits people in the health professions should have ("accurate perception and informed judgment").* She not only thought her tests could help select who would make good nurses and physicians, "she hoped the use of the MBTI in training physicians and nurses would lead to programs during medical school for increasing command of perception and judgment for all types, and for helping students choose specialties most suited to their gifts."* (http://skepdic.com/myersb.html)

27 MBTI Reveals 16 Types ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP
ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ

28 Myers Briggs Decisions: Feeling/Thinking F/T
Four Rating Scales Energy: Extravert/Intravert E/I Information: Sensing/Intuitive S/N Decisions: Feeling/Thinking F/T Decisions: Judging/Perceiving J/P

29 I E ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ
Receiving energy : Introverted/Extraverted I E ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 2

30 Extravert/Introvert Introvert Extravert 49% 51%
Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds. Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would. Receives energy externally or internally

31 Extravert/Introvert Extravert Introvert Avoid crowds and seek quiet
Listen more than talk Keep enthusiasm to self Concentrate well Proceed cautiously in meeting people participate in selected activities Think carefully before speaking Time alone recharges batteries Needs to have time to reflect Would prefer to socialize in small groups or just do job "by myself" Content being on the sidelines Tolerate noise and crowds Talk more than listen Communicate with enthusiasm. Be distracted easily Meet people readily and participate in many activities  Blurt things out w/o thinking Parties recharge your batteries Hates to do nothing. On the go  Likes working or talking in  groups Likes to be center of attention Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds. Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would. Extravert Introvert

32 E/I Manifestations http://www.rbdc.com/~patmarr
COPYRIGHT ©   PAT MARR

33 S N ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ
Gaining Information/Perceivin: Sensing/Intuitive 1 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ S N

34 Sensing/Intuitive Intuitive Uses senses 75% 25%
Sensates gain information in concrete patterns. This type is not so much concerned with fantasies and the future as with the practical and the present. They are the most likely to bring iNtuitives back down to earth, and have them think realistically. iNtuitives do not necessarily need a concrete idea expressed to them for them to gain information. They are often intrigued by theory, especially personality theory. Even though there are only about 25% of the world who are iNtuitives, they make up the majority of the people who discuss personality type, as many Sensates are uninterested. Gaining Information/Perceiving

35 Sensing/Intuitive Sensing Intuitive
Learn new things by imitation and observation Value solid, recognizable methods achieved in step-by-step manner Focus on actual experience Tend to be specific and literal; give detailed descriptions Behave practically Rely on past experiences Likes predictable relationships Appreciate standard ways to solve problems Methodical Value realism and common sense Learn new things through general concepts Value different or unusual methods achieved via inspiration Focus on possibilities Tend to be general and figurative use metaphors and analogies Behave imaginatively Rely on hunches Value change in relationships Use new and different ways to solve problems and reach solutions Leap around in a roundabout way Value imagination and innovation Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds. Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would. Sensing Intuitive

36 Sensers and Intuitives

37 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ
Myers Briggs Type Table: I/E and S/N 1 2 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ

38 F T ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ
Making decisions: Thinking/Feeling 3 F T ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ

39 Feeling/Thinking Thinking Feeling 50% 50% Emotions Logic
Thinkers are more likely to embrace logic and reason when making a decision. They are not inclined to trust their gut feeling, and sometimes can overlook the repercussions of a decision on another person's feelings. They (especially NT's) often make great scientists, and often have a curiosity for the physical world. Feelers tend to trust their gut feeling when making a decision. They also can become very aware of the emotional repercussions of a decision, and are very capable of feeling empathy for someone in distress. Emotions Logic Making decisions

40 Feeling/Thinking Feeling Thinking Have harmony as a goal
Decide more with my heart Agree more with others' findings, because people are worth listening to Notice when people need support Choose tactfulness over truthfulness Deal with people compassionately Expect the world to recognize individual differences Note how an option has value and how it affects people Like to please others; show appreciation Appreciate frequent queries as to my emotional state ANY feeling is valid Question others' findings because they might be wrong Notice ineffective reasoning Choose truthfulness over tactfulness’ Deal with people firmly, as needed   Expect world to run on logical principles Note pros & cons of each option See others' flaws...critical Tolerate occasional queries as to my emotional state in relationships Feelings are valid if they're logical Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds. Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would. Feeling Thinking

41 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ
Myers Briggs Type Table: I/E, S/N and T/F 1 3 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 2

42 P J ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ
Making decisions: Judging/Perceiving J P ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 4

43 Judging/Perceiving Perceive Judging 50% 50% Making Decisions
Perceivers love to keep their options open. They are always looking for the best decision, and are not drawn to making decisions quickly. Some say that Perceivers tend to be disorganized, but there are many exceptions. Judgers have a need for closure. Decisions have to be made, or the Judger is uncomfortable. They tend to lead very scheduled lives, and often have a difficult time when outside forces impede upon their schedule. Many say that Judgers are very organized, but there are many exceptions. 50% 50% Making Decisions

44 Judging/Perceiving Prefer my life to be decisive imposing my will on it Prefer knowing what they're getting themselves into Feel better after making decisions Enjoy finishing things Work for a settled life, with my plans in order Dislike surprises & want advance warning See time as a finite resource, and take deadlines seriously Like checking off "to do" list Feel better with things planned Settled.  Organized. Like adapting to new situations Prefer to keep things open Enjoy starting things Keep my life as flexible as so nothing is missed Enjoy surprises and like adapting to last minute changes See time as a renewable resource and see deadlines as elastic Ignore "to do" list even if made one Would rather do whatever comes along Tentative.  Flexible.  Spontaneous. Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds. Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would. Judging Perceiving

45 Perceivers Resist Closure
All of the cartoons on this site are protected by copyright.   This copyright just protects my right to give them away. You may use any cartoon shown on this site freely in any medium ie. web site, book, magazine, newsletter, overhead transparency, powerpoint presentation, whatever.  Requirements for free use : You must include a reference to this web site: (http://www.rbdc.com/~patmarr) I also ask that you display my copyright as shown: COPYRIGHT ©   PAT MARR Please do not put the cartoons on a page with your copyright if the only content of the page is my cartoon   Please send me an and let me know of any use. This is just for my own personal satisfaction, not because I plan to spring some unexpected fee on you at the last minute COPYRIGHT ©   PAT MARR

46 Myers Briggs Type Table
1 3 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 4 2

47 Myers Briggs Type Indicator
Extravert Introvert 49% 51% Sensing Intuitive 75% 25% Feeling Thinking 50% Introverts gain their energy from thoughts, things and ideas. They tend to use up a great deal of energy being around people, causing them to often avoid large crowds. Extraverts gain energy from people. They find that being around people causes them to feel happier and more lively. Consequently, these people tend to enjoy parties and dances more so than an introvert would. It is interesting to observe the distribution of these preferences in the actual population. Keirsey and Bates give the following distribution from a 1964 study: ( quoted in E (75%), I (25%) Judging Perceiving 50%

48 Models: 6. Kolb Learning Style Model
Direct Experience Abstract Concept Receiving Information Reflective Observation Active Experimentation Processing Information

49 Intersection=Learning Style
Reflective Observation Active Experimentation Concrete Experience Abstract Concept Concrete Active Activists Accommodating Concrete Reflective Reflectors Diverging Abstract Active Pragmatists Converging Abstract Reflective Theorists Assimilating

50 Models: 7. Experiential Learning Styles
Learning characteristic Converger Abstract conceptualization + Active experimentation Diverger Concrete experience + Reflective observation Assimilator Abstract conceptualization + Reflective observation Accommodator Concrete experience + Active experimentation

51 Models: Gregoric Learning Style Model
Concrete Abstract Perceiving Information Concrete Sequential Concrete Random Random Sequential Organizing Information Abstract Sequential Abstract Random

52 Left Brain/Right Brain
Learners also favor one side of the brain over another. Left Brain Right Brain logical creative verbal spatial analytical intuitive

53 Models: 8. Multiple Intelligences
Verbal-Linguistic Ability to use words and language Logical-Mathematical Capacity for inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning, use of numbers, recognition of abstract patterns Visual-Spatial Ability to visualize objects and spatial dimensions, and create internal images and pictures Body-Kinesthetic Wisdom of the body; ability to control physical motion Musical-Rhythmic Ability to recognize tonal patterns and sounds, sensitivity to rhythms and beats Interpersonal Capacity for person-to-person communications and relationships Intrapersonal Spiritual, inner states of being, self-reflection, awareness

54 Models: 9. Building Excellence
BUILDING EXCELLENCE…The Learning Individual® Self-Awareness — “Know Thyself” If learning is fundamental to everything we do, then understanding one’s unique learning style is fundamental to learning.

55

56 The Building Excellence (BE) Survey
The BE Survey is an online learning & productivity style assessment tool (copyright ‘96, ‘98, ‘99, ‘00 R. Dunn & S. Rundle). BE identifies twenty-one critical variables that can promote or obstruct learning, including the efficacy with which individuals concentrate on, process, internalize, and retain new and complex information.

57 Learning and Productivity Style Profile Report
The BE Survey generates a personalized Learning and Productivity Style (LPS) Profile report, which includes: A one-page summary; Narrative descriptions of one’s preferences; Recommended strategies; and A personal development plan to help people create individualized learning solutions.

58 Interpreting the LPS One-Page Profile
A non- essential element that does not usually require special attention. An essential element that requires attention MUCH of the time. MODERATE An essential element that requires attention ALL of the time. STRONG SLIGHT A non- essential element that, for the most part, does not affect the individual.

59 Interpreting the LPS One-Page Profile
DEFINITELY NOT the most effective modality for retaining new and difficult material. LEAST NOT the most effective modality for retaining new and difficult material. LESS

60

61 Tactile and/or Kinesthetic
Perceptual Elements Remember best when they READ the written word (textbooks, memos, and messages). Visual Text Learners Visual Picture Learners Tactile and/or Kinesthetic Learners Auditory Learners Verbal Learners Remember best when they LISTEN to a lecture, a presentation, or an audiotape. Remember best when they SEE (create) mental images of what they hear or read. Remember best by DOING rather than sitting and listening, reading, or thinking about the information. Remember best when they DISCUSS with others the new and complex information they are learning.

62

63 Analytic / Global ANALYTICS…
GLOBALS… …assimilate and process information best when humor and metaphors are used and they need to understand the concept before the details make sense. ANALYTICS… …assimilate and process information best when it is presented sequentially and the information builds toward a conceptual understanding.

64 Analytic / Global INTEGRATED PROCESSORS… … use both the Analytic and Global dimensions interchangeably. Persons with this preference often take on the role of an interpreter because they can easily translate what the Analytics and Globals are saying.

65 Reflective / Impulsive
Reflective learners take time to weigh their options before making decisions and solving problems. When taken to the extreme, this approach leads to analysis paralysis! Impulsive learners prefer less detail when making decisions and solving problems. When taken to the extreme, impulsive people want others to be brief, be bright, and be gone!

66

67 Environmental Elements
Sound Light Temperature Seating Do you concentrate best with sound in the background or a in quiet environment? Do you study or work best when when the lights are bright or softly illuminated and indirect? Do you concentrate and stay focused longer when the temperature is warmer or cooler? Do you concentrate best when sitting at a desk with a straight- backed chair or more informal seating?

68

69 Physiological Elements
At what time of day are you most effective and efficient: Early Morning? Late Morning/ Early Afternoon? Late Afternoon? Evening? Time of Day Do you focus your attention best when you snack while you work or study or snack after you are finished? Intake When you stay in one place for too long, do you become restless and fidgety? Mobility

70

71 Emotional Elements Motivation Persistence Conformity Structure Positive feedback from others (externally motivated) Positive feedback from yourself (internally motivated) Do you prefer completing one task before beginning another? Do you prefer to work on several tasks at the same time? Do you prefer to do things the way you think they should be done? Do you prefer to do things the way others think they should be done? Do you like others to provide procedures for you to follow? Do you prefer to create your own procedures?

72

73 Sociological Elements
Are you more productive when you work alone or with one other person, in a small group of 3 people, or in a large team? Team Interaction Do you work well with a person who is an expert in his field? Are you less effective when someone is looking over your shoulder when you work or study? Authority Do you prefer routine work using proven methods? Do you become bored when you have to do the same thing over and over? Variety

74 Models: 10. Memletics learning system

75 Models: 11. VARK Learning Styles www.vark-learn.com
A Simple System to Understand and Use Designed by Neil D. Fleming, Lincoln University, New Zealand Developed by help of Charles C. Bonwell, Saint Louis College of Pharmacy, U.S.A.

76 A sample VARK Question You are not sure whether a word should be spelled 'dependent' or 'dependant'. I would: look it up in the dictionary. see the word in my mind and choose by the way it looks. sound it out in my mind. write both versions down on paper and choose one.

77 The questionnaire output: Learning Preferences
Visual Aural Read / Write Kinesthetic

78 If you are a visual learner…
You learn best by: Taking notes and making lists to read later Reading information to be learned Learning from books, videotapes, filmstrips and printouts Seeing a demonstration You are good at: Dressing well, putting clothes together easily Remembering details and colors of what he/she sees Reading, spelling and proof reading Remembering faces of people he/she meets (forgets names); remembers names seen in print Quietly taking in surroundings Creating mental photos

79 If you are an auditory learner…
You learn best by: Talking aloud Listening to a lecture Discussing in small or large groups Hearing music without words as a background in the learning environment You are good at: Speaking on his/her feet Noticing sounds in environment Remembering names of people he/she meets (forgets faces) Working with words and languages Tuning into small shifts in voice intonation

80 If you are a read/write learner…
Learn through reading and writing Learn best by reading and re-reading the textbook and their notes, writing and rewriting their notes, and in general, organizing items into lists. Often like to read Learn by listening, speaking, reading, telling, discussing and writing

81 If you are a kinesthetic learner…
Process information trough touch, movement and rhythmic movements Like hands on activities such as wood shop, dance, and/or athletics. Express yourself and your ideas through movement Have good fine-motor skills and need to touch and do things

82 What does this mean? You have all four of the learning styles, but you are stronger in some of the areas. Based on your strengths you will find some activities to be either favorable or difficult. Which learning style did you have the lowest score? We are now going to look at how you can improve on this learning style…Write down your lowest learning style and three suggestions that YOU will use to improve.

83 Ways to be a BETTER Visual Learner
Occasionally change the color of ink in your pen Use highlighters to point out important information Pay attention to the details of pictures Read ALL of the assignment directions Replace words with symbols or initials. = at Use diagrams, flowcharts and graphic organizers to keep your work organized and easy to study.

84 Ways to be a Better Auditory Learner
Say vocabulary and spelling words out loud. Read your assignments out loud. Pay close attention to your teacher’s voice. Remember details by saying them over and over. Use a tape recorder Discuss topics with others (have a study group) Study in a quiet so you can recall items discussed in class Use stories, poems, etc to remember items in class.

85 Ways to be a BETTER Read / Write Learner
Make Lists Have headings at the top of your page Use post-it notes Keep track of your hand-outs Read notes silently again and again Re-write difficult notes into ones that make it simple for you to remember. Practice doing multiple choice questions. Learn to take good notes in class.

86 Ways to be a BETTER Kinesthetic Learner
Type important information Take breaks when needed, especially when studying. Build models to explain yourself during projects Frequently change pens and pencils so you have a different feel when you write. Pay close attention during examples and experiments Use pictures to illustrate ideas.

87 MISMATCH Visual: most people in our culture.
Verbal: Most of our teaching material: lectures, texts, equations, overhead, PowerPoint, ...

88 MISMATCH Deductive teaching is quick, easy, appears straight forward and easy for the teacher But, it is confusing and difficult for the student. Most students think and learn inductively!

89 MISMATCH If you teach in your own preferred style:
People like you are likely to learn If you teach in multiple styles: Everyone is more likely to learn more easily

90 MISMATCH Most curricula, textbooks, teaching techniques, and teachers are sequential Global learners make good researchers, systems analysts, and creative problem solvers if they make it through school.

91 Summary Tips Give students the global view or goal at the beginning
Teach inductively (step by step) and encourage students to reason deductively Ask questions and devise assignments that cause students to be field-independent Use the Socratic Method so students respond with their own dominant learning style. Appeal to all the senses in your teaching. Plan for active learning. The most prominent learning mode is through doing. Take pains to use the nondominant side of your brain in your teaching methodology Devise lesson plans that use the opposite of your learning style preference (students who have your learning style will catch on easily it is those who do not that are likely to have trouble in your class.) Vary assignments between visual, auditory, kinesthetic and read-write. Use visual approaches rather than lectures, equations, chalkboard, PowerPoint, etc. Use course activities that address each of the different learning styles

92 “I think that only daring speculation can lead us further and not accumulation of facts.”
Albert Einstein


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