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The case method in education Jonas Nordquist, Associate Editor, BMJ Learning

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Presentation on theme: "The case method in education Jonas Nordquist, Associate Editor, BMJ Learning"— Presentation transcript:

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2 The case method in education Jonas Nordquist, Associate Editor, BMJ Learning

3 Disposition Chapter 1 The case method in education Higher education today Assumptions on learning Higher cognitive order thinking Different kind of knowledge The case method and other activity based educational tools Why the case method Does the case method enhance learning? Chapter 2 Implementing the case method Contextual issues/issues on facilitation 3P-model Key skills of a facilitator Role of the facilitator

4 Disposition continued Chapter 3 The case method: a practical perspective How to write a case The nature of a case Motivation and learning

5 The message Awareness Cannot copy and paste

6 Chapter 1 What is the case method? The origins of the case method Why use the case method? Where has the case method been used? Educational effects of the case method

7 Higher education in a changing world Reduction of funding Higher enrolment rate New student groups External audits = New demands on the efficiency of teaching methods and student learning outcomes

8 Current assumptions on preferred learning Active participation Problem oriented approach New knowledge is constructed on: –Previous knowledge (existing cognitive structures) –Previous experience Relevance

9 The SOLO taxonomy with sample descriptive verbs/terms Competence Fail Incompetent Misses point IncompetenceOne relevant aspect Several relevant independent aspects Integrated into a structure Generalised to new domain Prestructural UnistructuralMultistructuralRelationalExtended abstract Identify Name Follow simple procedure Combine Describe Enumerate Perform serial skills List Analyse Apply Argue Compare/ contrast Criticise Explain causes Relate Justify Generate Hypothesise Reflect Theorise

10 Different kinds of knowledge Declarative Procedural Conditional Functional

11 What is the case method? The origins of the case method

12 Student activating methods Role play Action research Critical incident analysis Problem based learning Case method

13 Action research Experiential Learning Cycle (Kolb, 1984)

14 Where have cases been used? Law Business Social Sciences (Political Science) Medicine Teacher Training Programmes

15 Why cases? Convey knowledge, facts, information to students Apply theory to a situation Enhance students’ decision making skills Improve students’ technical or behavioural skills in analysing data Improve students’ self esteem Stimulate students’ interest in a subject Foster reflection Present a realistic picture of the complexities in a situation

16 Educational effects – does the case method enhance students’ learning? 1.How to define the independent variable? 2.To compare with what? 3.Pre / Post tests 4.Variation? If so is that good?

17 Cut and paste: the problems of application Learn a New ”Tool” Taiwanese scholars at Harvard Swedes going to the US/Canada

18 Awareness: why cases? Cut and paste: What are the conditions that make case teaching work? –How to contextualise the case method to our educational system?

19 Preconditions to make case teaching work Case teaching aligned with the overall objectives of the curriculum A functioning case facilitator Suitable assessment practices Aligned grading system The students’ preconception of their role is in accordance with the requirements of the case method

20 The objectives of Chapter 1 What is the case method? The origins of the case method Why use the case method? Where has the case method been used? Educational effects of the case method

21 Chapter 2 Implementing the case method

22 Objectives lecture two: Implementing the case method Contextual issues: The educational context The curriculum context Learning objectives Assessment procedures Issues on the facilitator include: The epistemological beliefs of the facilitator Theories on the role of the teacher Important skills of a successful case facilitator

23 The 3P model and the educational context

24 The teaching and learning process The 3P Model (Biggs & Moore, 1993) Presage Process Product Student characteristics: Background Background Prior knowledge & experience Prior knowledge & experience Ability Ability Conceptions of learning Conceptions of learning General learning approach General learning approach Language competence Language competence Teaching context: Curriculum Curriculum Conceptions of teaching Conceptions of teaching Teaching experience Teaching experience Teaching/assessment methods Teaching/assessment methods Classroom climate Classroom climate Approaches to learning Surface Surface Deep Deep Learning outcomes Quantity Quantity Quality Quality Affective Affective

25 How do you think a case seminar relates to teachers’ own concepts of teaching and learning? Do you think that teachers would be hesitant to run a case seminar? What actions would it be necessary to undertake to ensure actively engaged teachers are using the case method? Do you think that there are any obvious obstacles for this kind of a method from a teacher’s perspective?

26 How do you think a case seminar would relate to students’ concepts of teaching and learning? Do you think students would be hesitant to participate? What efforts would it be necessary to undertake to ensure an active student participation? In your opinion, would there be any obvious obstacle for this kind of a method from a student perspective?

27 Constructive alignment

28 Biggs (1999) Constructive alignment Biggs (1999) Curriculumin the form of clear objectives stating level of understanding required Teaching/chosen to facilitate achievement learning of the objectives activities Assessmentchosen to test if students have tasksachieved the objectives and the level of achievement

29 Formative assessment Continuous On-going during learning/teaching Diagnostic Provides feedback to students and teachers on Strengths and weaknessesStrengths and weaknesses DifficultiesDifficulties MisconceptionsMisconceptions Remedial Provides opportunities for modification/improvement Provides opportunities for modification/improvement

30 Summative assessment Terminal At the end of learning/teaching Descriptive How well materials/knowledge/skills have been learnt For ranking and selection No provision for modification/improvement No provision for modification/improvement

31 Backwash effect of assessment Teacher’s and student’s perspectives on assessment Teacher’s perspective: Objectives Teaching activities Assessment Student’s perspective: Assessment Learning activities Outcomes Backwash effect can be either positive or negative

32 Some issues on facilitation

33 12 34 Student Teacher Know Don’t know KnowDon’t know

34 Different kinds of questions Open ended questions Diagnostic questions Information seeking questions Challenge questions Action questions Questions on priority and sequence Prediction questions Hypothetical questions Questions of extension

35 The objectives of Chapter 2 were to discuss Contextual issues The educational context The curriculum context Learning objectives Assessment procedures Issues on the facilitator include The epistemological beliefs of the facilitator Theories on the role of the teacher Important skills of a successful case facilitator

36 Chapter 3 The case method: a practical perspective

37 The objectives of this chapter are: To discuss the nature of a good case To discuss how to produce a case To discuss how to set up a case seminar

38 The nature of a good case Relevant situation Open ended

39 What kind of knowledge? Declarative Conditional Procedural Functional

40 The nature of the case The educational objectives have to give guidelines on what kind of case to use The Educational Purpose, i.e. Type of Case Convey knowledge, facts information to students Apply theory to a situation Foster reflection Present a realistic picture of the complexities in a situation Authentic Armchair

41 The case structure Learning objectives? What kind of case to use? Narrative? Actors and attributed interest Dilemma?

42 The three dimensions of the writing process Conceptual clarity The clarity of the dilemma The structure

43 Other issues to consider Study questions Teaching notes

44 The learning process Individual preparation Small group discussion Large group deliberation

45 Different kinds of questions Open ended questions Diagnostic questions Information seeking questions Challenge questions Action questions Questions on priority and sequence Prediction questions Hypothetical questions Questions of extension

46 Motivation Intrinsic Extrinsic Social Achievement

47 The interest model Situational Textbook Personal

48 The objectives of this session were To discuss the nature of a good case To discuss how to produce a case To discuss how to set up a case seminar

49 Conclusion of the three lectures Awareness Why the case method? What educational purpose? How would it fit into the existing curriculum context? How would it fit with the epistemological positions of the teachers and students? Assessment practices You cannot copy and paste the case method Substantial and profound educational analysis first Technical training second


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