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Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation D Brodsky 1 and E Doherty 2 1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston,MA 2 Winchester Hospital and.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation D Brodsky 1 and E Doherty 2 1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston,MA 2 Winchester Hospital and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation D Brodsky 1 and E Doherty 2 1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston,MA 2 Winchester Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA

3 Note to presenter: 1. Select videotape of a short PowerPoint presentation to discuss with audience 2. Ideal if videotape is short; can create own or find one at: ted.com/talks 3. Discuss with audience: What worked well? What could have been done better? Video

4 Overview Extensive preparation Creating slide content Precise formatting Successful delivery Self-reflection and modifications, as needed

5 Planning the Presentation Know the audience –Who are they? –What is their baseline knowledge of your topic? –What do they need to learn about your topic? –How many audience members are anticipated?

6 Planning the Presentation Know the program –What are you being asked to do? –How much time have you been allotted? –Where are you in relation to the rest of the program? –What is the room layout? –What technology is available to you?

7 Planning the Presentation Determine the focus of the talk –What do you want to convey? Research the topic –Become an expert –Use peer-reviewed sources that are up-to-date Develop a detailed outline –Include learning objectives and key points –Select visual aids

8 Creating Slide Content Introduction Body Conclusion

9 Creating Slide Content Introduction –Gain the attention of the audience  Striking statement or powerful quote  Provocative question  Personal anecdote  Short questionnaire  Demonstration –Review the learning objectives –Provide an overview of the presentation

10 Creating Slide Content Body of talk –Ensure that content is focused and congruent with objectives –Explain concepts clearly –Maintain organization within and between slides –Reinforce key concepts –Keep the audience engaged

11 Creating Slide Content: Body of Talk Potential format of medical presentations: –Classical: Case  Diagnosis  Epidemiology  Pathophysiology  Management  Outcome –Problem-to-solution: problem presented and various solutions are described –Sequential: cased presented in a time sequence –Comparative: comparison of two or more methods, models, perspectives, treatments –Thesis: assertion made and then proven or refuted

12 Creating Slide Content: Body of Talk Solidify concepts by: –Using examples –Putting concepts into various contexts –Providing mini-summaries of key concepts –Posing questions to audience Leads to: –Deeper audience understanding of topic

13 Creating Slide Content: Body of Talk Engage audience –Varying visual aids –Posing questions, asking for comments, seeking opinions from group –Including role-play Audience member can pose as a physician, consultant, family member, patient –Asking audience to solve problems individually or in small groups

14 Creating Slide Content Conclusion –Finish on a positive note Avoid comments such as: “And let me just add one more thing…” or “I guess I ran out of time, so I better end now” –Provide a sense of closure Review the learning objectives and key concepts –Encourage self-directed learning Discuss need for further research Consider concluding with a thought-provoking question or problem

15 Formatting in PowerPoint Attendees judge slides as well as content Speaker should not apologize for poor quality slides—just don’t use them! Speaker should use slides as a means to enhance the presentation (not as a crutch)

16 Master Slide Use master slide to ensure consistent formatting –Adjust font and font sizes –Modify color scheme –Create background –Add images that will automatically be added to each slide

17 Font Selection Use simple, legible font Use standard font common to all computers to avoid font substitution if font not available on presentation computer Minimize various fonts –Use at most 2 different fonts throughout presentation

18 Font Style Preferred: – Arial – Tahoma –Univers – Verdana Less preferred: –Courier –Garamond –Georgia –Times New Roman

19 Font Size Largest size in text 32 pt Ideal at this size or above 24 pt Mostly legible 22 pt Barely legible 18 pt 8 Foot Rule: Print out slide and tape to wall; should be able to read slide from 8 feet away Tool to adjust font size by 4-6 pt: A A

20 Colors Create sharp contrast between text and background color Use basic background so audience is not distracted Remember that colors on computer screen not always same as projected colors

21 This one? Colors Do you prefer this color combo? How about this one? Or this one? And last one…?? #1#2 #3 #4 #5

22 Bulleted Lines Much better if presenter doesn’t have too many words per bulleted line, as shown here, because this makes it difficult for the audience to read the text, listen to the speaker, and understand the content all at the same time Try to limit words to ≤ 7 words per line Try to limit bullets to ≤ 5 bullets per slide

23 Line Spacing Important to adjust line spacing Instead of placing an extra line between bulleted lines, explicitly define space by using “Line spacing” Find line spacing by: –“Format”  “Paragraph” –In newer program versions, click symbol below in toolbar and then “Line Spacing Options”

24 Line Spacing Line spacing too small (.70 lines) resulting in lines on top of each other Line spacing (.85) and additional spacing “Before paragraph” (.55) Similar to previous bullet but also has spacing “After paragraph” (.60) To move this bullet closer to previous, decrease “Before paragraph” in this bullet or decrease “After paragraph” in previous bullet

25 Sort Slides To obtain a quick overview of slides to assess flow and rearrange slides, as needed –Located on bottom toolbar –Also accessed within “View” in upper toolbar (“Slide Sorter”) Views : Normal Slide Slide sorter show

26 Indent Lines Can adjust bulleted lines to a specific level Tool to move text to next or prior level: First level –Second level Third level –Fourth level Fifth level

27 Order, Align and Group Objects Quicker and simpler to use automatic computer commands than using your eye or grids Access “Draw” tab in Drawing toolbar –To control relative positions of 2 or more objects, select one object, and “Order to…” (options include bring to front, send to back) –To move or resize items simultaneously  “Group” objects –To align objects  use “Shift” and then select each item, position by using “Align” or “Distribute”

28 Small Positional Changes To make minor positional changes: –Click on item –Click on “Control” button –Adjust position of image/text by using arrows on keyboard

29 Navigating Between Slides Use action button to navigate from 1 slide to another within the same presentation Alternatively, can use action button to navigate from slide to hyperlink Access by: –“Slide Show” in upper toolbar  view “Action buttons”  select one –In newer PowerPoint versions: “Insert”  “Shapes”  “Action Button” Place action button within slide Then, determine what action occurs when this button is clicked

30 Navigating Between Slides To return to previous slide, insert action button: Note: these action buttons will only work in Slide Show mode

31 Visuals Use visuals to stimulate interest and increase understanding Use only legible images –Eliminate any unnecessary marks/words –Highlight important components of a complicated visual with circles or boxes Eliminate any patient identifiers During the talk: –Take the time to explain the visual –Give the audience enough time to absorb the information in the visual

32 Visuals Common misconception that material from Web is available for anyone to use –Need to site source –May need copyright permission If you cannot find the source, best not to use the image!

33 Videotapes Insert videos as “Embedded” (i.e., stand alone within presentation) –Inserting video as “Object linked”  requires original computer folder to be open Compress video Configure video to play “When clicked” Use presentation video to practice opening video prior to talk

34 Animations Use judiciously –Add emphasis –Explain a complicated concept Helps build layers of information Forces audience to focus on just one part at a time Use consistent type of animation throughout talk Limit frequency of animations because may become distracting

35 Practicing the Presentation Know the talk environment –If conference room with large table in front, bottom of slides may not be seen by audience –Some projectors cut off edges –Some computers may alter slide images or content Be prepared for something to go wrong –Have a hard copy of slides available

36 Practicing the Presentation “Case the joint” (C. Hatem) –Put presentation on room computer or hook up your computer into their set-up –Quickly view all slides in presentation mode Confirm video clips are working properly –Be aware of nuances of the venue (lighting, outside noise, temperature) and if possible/necessary, make adjustments –Practice using slide changer and laser pointer

37 Tips to Effective Delivery Minimize nervousness –Relax and take deep breaths prior to the talk –Remind yourself that nervousness lessens as you get underway –Memorize the first few slides in anticipation of early anxiety As a back-up plan, refer to detailed notes of first few slides in large font –Practice, practice, practice

38 Tips to Effective Delivery Maintain eye contact –Look at as many people as possible Mentally divide room into 3-5 sections and make eye contact with someone in each section during the talk Look in the middle of 2 attendees or look at listener’s foreheads if direct eye contact disturbs your concentration –Look at someone for ≤ 5 seconds (a longer glance will make most people uncomfortable) – Observe cues to the audience’s understanding and interest level and adjust talk accordingly

39 Tips to Effective Delivery Show enthusiasm –Use facial expressions –Vary your pitch –Focus on the meaning of what you are saying as this will make you more expressive

40 Tips to Effective Delivery Be natural –Avoid reading notes If absolutely necessary, limit the amount of reading time –Speak as if you are having a conversation with the audience –Incorporate anecdotes or stories into your lecture

41 Tips to Effective Delivery Monitor pace of delivery –Know midway point in talk and when you get there, assess if you are behind or ahead of schedule –If you are behind schedule, best not to speed up to cover everything (ideal to make a contingency plan and anticipate possibility of omitting a few slides) –Plan to leave time for questions

42 Tips to Effective Delivery Emphasize key points –Take advantage of “the pause” –Let audience know that something is important “This is a really significant finding and important for you to remember.” –Speak more slowly when want to emphasize key points

43 Presentation Techniques Clear slides on screen –To temporarily make screen black or white and allow audience to concentrate on your words: Press letter “B” to create a black screen Press letter “W” to create a white screen –To return to presentation, press any key

44 Presentation Techniques To view website or document open on computer: –Pre-open website or document on screen computer –During slide show, press “Alt” and keep finger on “Alt” key –Then press and release “Tab” to view options –Continue to hit “Tab” to scroll to internet or to document that you want to view –Release “Alt” to view

45 Responding to Questions Repeat question –Makes certain that everyone hears the question –Confirms that you have understood the question –Allows time for you to process the question

46 Responding to Questions Response to specific questions: –If don’t know answer: acknowledge this, offer to get back to group after research question –If complicated answer: consider discussing after session –If argumentative audience member: best not to be confrontational but rather, be respectful, acknowledge comment, offer to meet later –If monologue instead of question: feel free to kindly interrupt and provide your thoughts

47 Improving the Presentation Self-reflect –What went well? –What could be improved? Review learner evaluations Review videotape of session to gather information about specific behaviors –Level of enthusiasm –Degree of nervousness –Use of filler words Ask colleague to observe talk and provide feedback

48 Improving the Presentation Based on these actions: –Alter the content of the presentation as soon as possible –Write down recommended behavioral changes so that prior to next presentation, tips can be reviewed Regardless of speaker’s level of experience or success of the presentation, there is always room for improvement

49 Steps to Follow to Create the Ideal PowerPoint Presentation: Proper preparation Keen organization Appropriate formatting Use of audiovisual aids Diligent practice Applying constructive feedback

50 Characteristics of an Ideal PowerPoint Presentation: Connect and build on previous knowledge Teach complicated concepts Allow the audience to process information Engage the audience Motivate the audience to learn more

51 References Bellamy K, McLean D. The mechanics of PowerPoint. J Audiov Media Med. 2003;26:74-78 Bellamy K, McLean D. Using PowerPoint. J Audiov Media Med. 2002;26: Brodsky D, Doherty EG. Creating an effective PowerPoint presentation. NeoReviews.org. In press (anticipated publication 2012) (note: primary source for this talk) Brown G, Manogue M. AMEE Medical Education Guide No 22: Refreshing lecturing: a guide for lecturers. Med Teach. 2001;23: Davis BG. Tools for Teaching. 2nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers;1993 Giving a presentation. J Vis Commun Med. 2006;29:115-8 Harden RM. Death by PowerPoint – the need for a ‘fidget index’. Med Teach. 2008;30:

52 References Hatem CJ. Crafting effective lectures. Seminars for Rabkin Fellowship in Medical Education. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. November 19, 2009 Holzl J. Twelve tips for effective PowerPoint presentations for the technologically challenged. Med Teach. 1997;19: McLaughlin K, Mandin H. A schematic approach to diagnosing and resolving lecturalgia. Med Ed. 2001;35: Niamtu J. The power of PowerPoint. Plast Reconst Surg. 2001;108: Wear D. A perfect storm: The convergence of bullet points, competencies, and screen reading in medical education. Acad Med. 2009;84:


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