2Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation D Brodsky1 and E Doherty21Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston,MA2Winchester Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA
3Video Note to presenter: 1. Select videotape of a short PowerPoint presentation to discuss with audience2. Ideal if videotape is short; can create own or find one at: ted.com/talks3. Discuss with audience:What worked well?What could have been done better?
4Overview Extensive preparation Creating slide content Precise formattingSuccessful deliverySelf-reflection and modifications, as needed
5Planning the Presentation Know the audienceWho are they?What is their baseline knowledge of your topic?What do they need to learn about your topic?How many audience members are anticipated?
6Planning the Presentation Know the programWhat are you being asked to do?How much time have you been allotted?Where are you in relation to the rest of the program?What is the room layout?What technology is available to you?
7Planning the Presentation Determine the focus of the talkWhat do you want to convey?Research the topicBecome an expertUse peer-reviewed sources that are up-to-dateDevelop a detailed outlineInclude learning objectives and key pointsSelect visual aids
9Creating Slide Content IntroductionGain the attention of the audienceStriking statement or powerful quoteProvocative questionPersonal anecdoteShort questionnaireDemonstrationReview the learning objectivesProvide an overview of the presentationVary opening because any dramatic technique loses impact with repetition.Providing an overview of the presentation will help audience understand the sequence of your talk.
10Creating Slide Content Body of talkEnsure that content is focused and congruent with objectivesExplain concepts clearlyMaintain organization within and between slidesReinforce key conceptsKeep the audience engaged
11Creating Slide Content: Body of Talk Potential format of medical presentations:Classical: Case Diagnosis Epidemiology Pathophysiology Management OutcomeProblem-to-solution: problem presented and various solutions are describedSequential: cased presented in a time sequenceComparative: comparison of two or more methods, models, perspectives, treatmentsThesis: assertion made and then proven or refuted
12Creating Slide Content: Body of Talk Solidify concepts by:Using examplesPutting concepts into various contextsProviding mini-summaries of key conceptsPosing questions to audienceLeads to:Deeper audience understanding of topicPosing questions to audience is helpful for speaker to assess audience understanding before discussing the next concept and has the added benefit of engaging the audience.
13Creating Slide Content: Body of Talk Engage audienceVarying visual aidsPosing questions, asking for comments, seeking opinions from groupIncluding role-playAudience member can pose as a physician, consultant, family member, patientAsking audience to solve problems individually or in small groupsMost adults have an average attention span of minutes during passive listening (during an uninteresting take, this time period may even be shorter), so speakers need to think of strategies to deliberately engage the audience.
14Creating Slide Content ConclusionFinish on a positive noteAvoid comments such as: “And let me just add one more thing…” or “I guess I ran out of time, so I better end now”Provide a sense of closureReview the learning objectives and key conceptsEncourage self-directed learningDiscuss need for further researchConsider concluding with a thought-provoking question or problemStudies have found that audience attention peaks again just before the presentation ends.
15Formatting in PowerPoint Attendees judge slides as well as contentSpeaker should not apologize for poor quality slides—just don’t use them!Speaker should use slides as a means to enhance the presentation (not as a crutch)
16Master Slide Use master slide to ensure consistent formatting Adjust font and font sizesModify color schemeCreate backgroundAdd images that will automatically be added to each slide
17Font Selection Use simple, legible font Use standard font common to all computers to avoid font substitution if font not available on presentation computerMinimize various fontsUse at most 2 different fonts throughout presentation
18Less preferred: Font Style Arial Courier Tahoma Garamond Univers VerdanaLess preferred:CourierGaramondGeorgiaTimes New Roman“Serif” fonts (e.g., Courier, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman) have little “feet” attached to each letter. Best for reading printed word.“Sans serif” fonts (e.g., Arial, Tahoma, Univers, Verdana) do not have these “feet” and are easier for reading projected words.
19A Font Size Largest size in text 32 pt Ideal at this size or above 24 ptMostly legible 22 ptBarely legible 18 pt8 Foot Rule: Print out slide and tape to wall; should be able to read slide from 8 feet awayTool to adjust font size by 4-6 pt:A
20Colors Create sharp contrast between text and background color Use basic background so audience is not distractedRemember that colors on computer screen not always same as projected colors
21Do you prefer this color combo? Colors#1Do you prefer this color combo?#2How about this one?#5#4Or this one?And last one…??This one?White or yellow on blue background easiest to read in dim lightUse of a white background can lead to screen glare but this is minimized with black textUse of black background provides too much contrastWhite or yellow on black background—provides too much of a drastic contrastWhite background with any color can lead to screen glare#3
22Bulleted LinesMuch better if presenter doesn’t have too many words per bulleted line, as shown here, because this makes it difficult for the audience to read the text, listen to the speaker, and understand the content all at the same timeTry to limit words to ≤ 7 words per lineTry to limit bullets to ≤ 5 bullets per slide
23Line Spacing Important to adjust line spacing Instead of placing an extra line between bulleted lines, explicitly define space by using “Line spacing”Find line spacing by:“Format” “Paragraph”In newer program versions, click symbol below in toolbar and then “Line Spacing Options”
24Line SpacingLine spacing too small (.70 lines) resulting in lines on top of each otherLine spacing (.85) and additional spacing “Before paragraph” (.55)Similar to previous bullet but also has spacing “After paragraph” (.60)To move this bullet closer to previous, decrease “Before paragraph” in this bullet or decrease “After paragraph” in previous bullet
25Sort Slides Views: Normal Slide Slide sorter show To obtain a quick overview of slides to assess flow and rearrange slides, as neededLocated on bottom toolbarAlso accessed within “View” in upper toolbar (“Slide Sorter”)Views: Normal Slide Slidesorter show
26Indent Lines First level Second level Third levelFourth levelFifth levelCan adjust bulleted lines to a specific levelTool to move text to next or prior level:
27Order, Align and Group Objects Quicker and simpler to use automatic computer commands than using your eye or gridsAccess “Draw” tab in Drawing toolbarTo control relative positions of 2 or more objects, select one object, and “Order to…” (options include bring to front, send to back)To move or resize items simultaneously “Group” objectsTo align objects use “Shift” and then select each item, position by using “Align” or “Distribute”
28Small Positional Changes To make minor positional changes:Click on itemClick on “Control” buttonAdjust position of image/text by using arrows on keyboard
29Navigating Between Slides Use action button to navigate from 1 slide to another within the same presentationAlternatively, can use action button to navigate from slide to hyperlinkAccess by:“Slide Show” in upper toolbar view “Action buttons” select oneIn newer PowerPoint versions: “Insert” “Shapes” “Action Button”Place action button within slideThen, determine what action occurs when this button is clicked
30Navigating Between Slides To return to previous slide, insert action button:Note: these action buttons will only work in Slide Show mode
31Visuals Use visuals to stimulate interest and increase understanding Use only legible imagesEliminate any unnecessary marks/wordsHighlight important components of a complicated visual with circles or boxesEliminate any patient identifiersDuring the talk:Take the time to explain the visualGive the audience enough time to absorb the information in the visual
32VisualsCommon misconception that material from Web is available for anyone to useNeed to site sourceMay need copyright permissionIf you cannot find the source, best not to use the image!
33VideotapesInsert videos as “Embedded” (i.e., stand alone within presentation)Inserting video as “Object linked” requires original computer folder to be openCompress videoConfigure video to play “When clicked”Use presentation video to practice opening video prior to talk
34Animations Use judiciously Add emphasisExplain a complicated conceptHelps build layers of informationForces audience to focus on just one part at a timeUse consistent type of animation throughout talkLimit frequency of animations because may become distracting
35Practicing the Presentation Know the talk environmentIf conference room with large table in front, bottom of slides may not be seen by audienceSome projectors cut off edgesSome computers may alter slide images or contentBe prepared for something to go wrongHave a hard copy of slides available
36Practicing the Presentation “Case the joint” (C. Hatem)Put presentation on room computer or hook up your computer into their set-upQuickly view all slides in presentation modeConfirm video clips are working properlyBe aware of nuances of the venue (lighting, outside noise, temperature) and if possible/necessary, make adjustmentsPractice using slide changer and laser pointer
37Tips to Effective Delivery Minimize nervousnessRelax and take deep breaths prior to the talkRemind yourself that nervousness lessens as you get underwayMemorize the first few slides in anticipation of early anxietyAs a back-up plan, refer to detailed notes of first few slides in large fontPractice, practice, practice
38Tips to Effective Delivery Maintain eye contactLook at as many people as possibleMentally divide room into 3-5 sections and make eye contact with someone in each section during the talkLook in the middle of 2 attendees or look at listener’s foreheads if direct eye contact disturbs your concentrationLook at someone for ≤ 5 seconds (a longer glance will make most people uncomfortable)Observe cues to the audience’s understanding and interest level and adjust talk accordingly
39Tips to Effective Delivery Show enthusiasmUse facial expressionsVary your pitchFocus on the meaning of what you are saying as this will make you more expressive
40Tips to Effective Delivery Be naturalAvoid reading notesIf absolutely necessary, limit the amount of reading timeSpeak as if you are having a conversation with the audienceIncorporate anecdotes or stories into your lecture
41Tips to Effective Delivery Monitor pace of deliveryKnow midway point in talk and when you get there, assess if you are behind or ahead of scheduleIf you are behind schedule, best not to speed up to cover everything (ideal to make a contingency plan and anticipate possibility of omitting a few slides)Plan to leave time for questions
42Tips to Effective Delivery Emphasize key pointsTake advantage of “the pause”Let audience know that something is important“This is a really significant finding and important for you to remember.”Speak more slowly when want to emphasize key points
43Presentation Techniques Clear slides on screenTo temporarily make screen black or white and allow audience to concentrate on your words:Press letter “B” to create a black screenPress letter “W” to create a white screenTo return to presentation, press any key
44Presentation Techniques To view website or document open on computer:Pre-open website or document on screen computerDuring slide show, press “Alt” and keep finger on “Alt” keyThen press and release “Tab” to view optionsContinue to hit “Tab” to scroll to internet or to document that you want to viewRelease “Alt” to view
45Responding to Questions Repeat questionMakes certain that everyone hears the questionConfirms that you have understood the questionAllows time for you to process the questionHelpful if can anticipate questions
46Responding to Questions Response to specific questions:If don’t know answer: acknowledge this, offer to get back to group after research questionIf complicated answer: consider discussing after sessionIf argumentative audience member: best not to be confrontational but rather, be respectful, acknowledge comment, offer to meet laterIf monologue instead of question: feel free to kindly interrupt and provide your thoughts
47Improving the Presentation Self-reflectWhat went well?What could be improved?Review learner evaluationsReview videotape of session to gather information about specific behaviorsLevel of enthusiasmDegree of nervousnessUse of filler wordsAsk colleague to observe talk and provide feedback
48Improving the Presentation Based on these actions:Alter the content of the presentation as soon as possibleWrite down recommended behavioral changes so that prior to next presentation, tips can be reviewedRegardless of speaker’s level of experience or success of the presentation, there is always room for improvement
49Steps to Follow to Create the Ideal PowerPoint Presentation: Proper preparationKeen organizationAppropriate formattingUse of audiovisual aidsDiligent practiceApplying constructive feedback
50Characteristics of an Ideal PowerPoint Presentation: Connect and build on previous knowledgeTeach complicated conceptsAllow the audience to process informationEngage the audienceMotivate the audience to learn more
51ReferencesBellamy K, McLean D. The mechanics of PowerPoint. J Audiov Media Med ;26:74-78Bellamy K, McLean D. Using PowerPoint. J Audiov Media Med ;26:Brodsky D, Doherty EG. Creating an effective PowerPoint presentation. NeoReviews.org. In press (anticipated publication 2012) (note: primary source for this talk)Brown G, Manogue M. AMEE Medical Education Guide No 22: Refreshing lecturing: a guide for lecturers. Med Teach ;23:Davis BG. Tools for Teaching. 2nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers;1993Giving a presentation. J Vis Commun Med ;29:115-8Harden RM. Death by PowerPoint – the need for a ‘fidget index’. Med Teach ;30:
52ReferencesHatem CJ. Crafting effective lectures. Seminars for Rabkin Fellowship in Medical Education. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. November 19, 2009Holzl J. Twelve tips for effective PowerPoint presentations for the technologically challenged. Med Teach. 1997;19:McLaughlin K, Mandin H. A schematic approach to diagnosing and resolving lecturalgia. Med Ed ;35:Niamtu J. The power of PowerPoint. Plast Reconst Surg. 2001;108:Wear D. A perfect storm: The convergence of bullet points, competencies, and screen reading in medical education. Acad Med ;84: