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Contact Information Marc-Andre Delalay Facebook: facebook.com/marcandre.delalay facebook.com/marcandre.delalay
Old Testament Survey Pentateuch
Introduction Pentateuch: “five books” (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy). Called the “Torah” by Jews (Law). They give it a greater authority then the rest of Scripture. “Essential authorship” of Moses: Several hints that Moses had a significant literary activity. At the same time, later writers may have added some details (i.e. Moses' death).
Structure Genesis 1-11: Primeval History (Creation, Fall, Flood, Tower of Babel) Genesis 12-50: Patriarchal History (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph) Divided into 10 sections by the “Toledot” formula (“These are the descendants of...”): 5 in the Primeval History and 5 in the Patriarchal History
Primeval History The Creation Genesis 1-2God made the Universe God made mankind in his image: something very special/different about us And it was all good!
Primeval History The Fall Genesis 3God's Creation is corrupted through mankind's disobedienceHumanity lost its innocence forever The situation is so catastrophic that it would eventually require God Himself to come to Earth to bridge the gap between Him and mankind
Primeval History Judgement/Grace of God Adam and Eve sin but God takes care of them (clothes them, etc.) nevertheless Sin grows worse: Cain kills his brother (Gen. 4) God sends the flood to start anew (Gen. 6-8) but in his grace keeps a remnant (Noah and his family).
Primeval History Judgement/Grace of God But sin continues nevertheless: man wants to become like God (Tower of Babel, Gen 11). God scatters them. But this time, no words of grace. The grace will come in the next section through Abraham and his descendants...
Patriarchal History Gen to Gen 50 Story of Abraham ( ) Story of Jacob ( ) Story of Joseph ( ) Ishmael's genealogy (25.12,18) Esau's genealogy (36.1,43) Divided into 5 sections by the Toledot formula: Dated around the early 2 nd millennium B.C.E
Patriarchal History The Call of Abraham Gen 12God will give Abraham a landHe will make him into a great nationThere is a special covenant between Abraham and God But Abraham has to “go” and “be a blessing” for these promises to come true Abraham obeys and moves from Haran to Canaan
Patriarchal History A famine forces Abraham to move to Egypt We see his humanity as he lies about his wife God sends plagues on the Pharaoh to deliver Abraham (like a mini Exodus). God shows grace even though Abraham failed (“I will bless those who bless you and I will curse those who curse you”) Gen
Patriarchal History Gen 13-14: Abraham and Lot. Abraham separates from Lot and then rescues Lot. God makes promises about an heir and land Abraham believes the Lord and the Lord counted it as righteousness Based on Abraham's faith, God ratifies the covenant. God will fulfil what he promised Gen 15: The covenant between Abraham and God.
Patriarchal History Not the child of the promise By giving Sarah's maid servant to Abraham to conceive a child, Abraham and Sarah have shown a lack of belief in the promise of God given in the preceding chapter Even the greatest men and women of faith have doubt! Gen 16: The birth of Ishmael
Patriarchal History Circumcision is introduced to show how the covenant is eternal Abraham once again obeys and circumcises himself and all of his household Gen 17: The covenant ratified in Gen 15 is here reaffirmed
Patriarchal History Again the judgement of God against sin Parallels with the flood story: in both cases, one righteous man and his family are saved because of God's intervention Shows the intimacy of God and Abraham: Abraham intercedes for the people Downfall of Lot: Shows the consequences of meddling with the world! Gen 18-19: Sodom and Gomorrah
Patriarchal History Without him, none of the long term promises of God could be fulfilled... Again the theme of promise His birth shows the faithfulness of God Gen 21: Isaac, the child of the promise is born
Patriarchal History Abraham's biggest test of faith Abraham obeyed Seeing Abraham's faith, God stopped the sacrifice. Because of Abraham's obedience, all the promises became sworn guarantees: innumerable descendants, land, blessing. Gen 22: Sacrifice of Isaac
Patriarchal History Has many faults: cheats, lies... But fights with the Lord to get the blessing! Looks for God nevertheless... God changed his name to Israel (God fights) Jacob would have the victories and receive the promises because the Lord would fight for him Again here, the theme of promise, blessing, faith Gen 25-37: Story of Jacob
Patriarchal History God's providence brings human plots to nothing and turns their evil intent to his own ends. God protects and provides for those who follow him An important step in the creation of the chosen people Sets the stage for the Exodus... Gen 37-50: Story of Joseph
Introduction Exodus: From the Greek Exodos (the “going out” or the “exit”) Date of the Exodus: From I Kings 6.1 we can infer a date of 1447 B.C.
Structure I. God Saves Israel From Egyptian Bondage ( ) II. God Gives Israel His Law ( ) III. God Commands Israel to Build the Tabernacle ( )
God Saves Israel From Egypt Chapter 1-2: Concerned with Israel in Egypt: God heard the cries of His children in Egypt and wants to help He remembers His covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob God will work through men (Moses in this case)
God Saves Israel from Egypt Chapter 3: The call of Moses (burning bush) God reveals His name to Moses: YHWH (tetragrammaton): I am who I am. God does not limit his nature by any characteristic: he is what he is. God does not change God wants to be known!
God Saves Israel from Egypt Pharaoh does not want to let the people go: “Who is the Lord...?” He does not know God, but soon he will...Chapter 7-10: The plagues Pharaoh hardens his heart and his stubbornness costs the life of the Egyptians' first born sons But the Israelites are spared because of the blood of lambs
God Saves Israel from Egypt Pharaoh lets them go which leads to the crossing of the Red Sea: The standard of divine redemption (only exceeded by what Jesus did on the cross) Luke connects the two events by calling Jesus' death an “exodus” (Luke 9.31) By the same act (at the Red Sea), God brings salvation (for the Israelites) and judgement (for the Egyptians)
God Gave Israel His Law Chapters Establishment of a covenant at Mount Sinai Israel is to be set apart from other nations for God's service (holiness) The Ten Commandments are given (not laws in our modern sense since they are not carefully defined and contain no penalties)
God Gave Israel His Law Chapters : Laws that translate the Ten Commandments into more concrete life situations (laws about personal injuries, property, animals, etc.)
Command To Build The Tabernacle Chapters 25-31: Instructions for building the tabernacle, which was like a tent. The tabernacle was God's dwelling on earth. It was a visible symbol that He was their God. It was the means by which a sinful people could maintain fellowship with a perfect and holy God. Only under Solomon would the tabernacle be replaced by the temple.
Command To Build The Tabernacle Chapters 32-34: The golden calf Without strong leadership, God's people will turn to other gods (people were running wild)! Moses took control, cleaned the camp (3000 men died) and interceded for the people The covenant is renewed: This episode shows God's judgement but also His grace and forgiveness
Command To Build The Tabernacle Chapters 35-40: Commands to build the tabernacle are followed precisely Then the glory of the Lord fills the tabernacle: God is with His people!
Introduction Name “Leviticus” comes from the Latin Vulgata (concerning the Levites) Date of composition: Around 1400 B.C.E Key verse: Lev : “You shall be holy to me; for I the LORD am holy, and I have separated you from the other peoples to be mine.” The book is a guide for the priests and the people on how to behave when in the presence of a holy God.
Structure I. Regulations for making sacrifices (chap. 1-7) II. The institution of the priesthood (chap. 8-10) III. Laws on purity (chap ) IV. Laws with exhortation to holy living (chap )
Regulations for Sacrifices Chapter 1: The Burnt OfferingMost common sacrificesOnly the best animals were to be presentedWhat kind of sacrifices do we bring to the Lord? The animal is taking the place of the worshipper (substitution/atonement).
The Brazen Altar
Regulations for Sacrifices Chapter 2: Grain OfferingIn Hebrew, this offering is simply called a “gift” Might have been the expression of a reverence for God. Chapter 3: Fellowship Offering Bringing peace or fellowship between the worshipper and God
Regulations for Sacrifices Chapter 4: Sin Offering Also called the “purification offering” because it “cleans” the effect of sin. Purification of the altar and the holy place so that God could continue to live in the midst of his people. Chapter 5: Guilt (or Restitution) Offering Restitution or compensation that had to be paid because of a wrongdoing that had caused loss to a neighbour.
Institution of the Priesthood Chapter 8-10 Priesthood is a very special function since it involves being in the presence of a Holy God. The complex preparations for ordination clothing, anointing, etc, emphasizes how important it is to approach our Holy God in an appropriate manner. Once again, God's holiness is emphasized!
Laws on Purity Chapters The contact of the holy with the unclean had to be prevented... So we find laws about skin diseases, childbirth, clean and unclean food and animals. Holiness: Reflects the idea of wholeness, integrity. Avoidance of mixing things that do not go together.
Laws on Purity Primarily, the task of the priests was to maintain the distinction between the clean and the unclean. Lev 15.31: “Thus you shall keep the people of Israel separate from their uncleanness, so that they do not die in their uncleanness by defiling my tabernacle that is in their midst.”
Laws on Purity Lev. 16: Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) A priest could enter the Holy of Holies only once a year. Provided an opportunity to clean the sanctuary and the people of all the defilement that had not been noticed or dealt with routinely.
The Table of Shewbread
The Golden Candlestick
The Golden Altar of Incense
The Tabernacle (Video)
Laws with Exhortation to Holy Living Chapters Laws mostly directed toward the rest of the people (non-priests). The people of Israel had to be different from the pagan nations around them.
Introduction Title in Hebrew : “In the Wilderness” Translators of the Septuagint gave it the title “Numbers” because of the census that can be found in the book. Even though it may be hard to follow because of the many laws, administrative records, speeches, etc, the narratives are the framework of the book and everything does fit inside this framework: There is nothing superfluous in God's Word!
Structure I. Preparation to go to the Promised Land (chap. 1-10) II. Journey to Canaan and failure to enter (chap ) III. New preparation to inherit the land (chap )
Preparation for the Promised Land Chapters 1: Israel is numbered and ordered. A census was a means of conscripting men for either military service or government building projects. As each of these men were being counted, they were committing themselves fully to the army of the Lord!
Preparation for the Promised Land Chapter 2: Israel is ordered. The setup of the camp reminds the people of the holiness of God. The tent of meeting is in the middle with the Levite tribe around it. The other tribes are on the outer perimeter. God never allows his holiness to be forgotten.
Preparation for the Promised Land Chapters 5-6: Consecration of Israel's camp. There needs to be a separation from impurity and a dedication to the Lord. Chapters 7-8: Consecration of the Tabernacle and the priesthood.
Preparation for the Promised Land Chapters 9-10: End of preparationsCelebration of the PassoverCloud appearing over the Tent The importance of the theme of the presence of the Lord among his people.
Journey to the Promised Land There is lots of complaining!Chapters 13-14: Israel rejects the Promised Land Only two spies believe God can get them to the Promised Land. So the first generation is doomed: they will die in the desert... But still there's grace in the book: God will eventually bring them to the Land
New Preparation to Enter the Land The second preparation starts like the first: with a census.The number of Israelites has fallen slightly. This shows the withholding of blessing from the generation that fell in the desert because of their unbelief. None of the first generation remained except Caleb and Joshua: God always fulfils what he promises...
New Preparation to Enter the Land They divide the Land... The book ends with commandments: These were given on the plains of Moab, just opposite of Jericho...
Introduction Title comes from the Greek translation, the Septuagint. It means “Second Law”. In Hebrew, the title is taken from the first words: “These are the words”. The words of Moses to the Israelites just before they entered the Promised Land Number of quotations or citations of Deuteronomy in the NT makes it one of the most influential books. Jesus himself often used this book (greatest commandments, temptations)
Structure I. Moses' First Speech: Acts of Yahweh (chap ) II. Moses' Second Speech: Law of Yahweh (chap ) III. Moses' Third Speech: Covenant with Yahweh (chap 29-30) IV. Conclusion (chap )
Acts of Yahweh Chapt. 1-4 A retrospective of events that happened before: reminds people of what God has done for them God enters into activity with human beings: “For what other great nation has a god so near to it as the Lord our God is whenever we call to him.” (4.7) Very strong theme of covenant: God has taken a people and made them his own. But they have to obey and not become idolaters.
Law of Yahweh Chapt Presentation of many of God's laws. Not new laws but the same ones that were given before; Presentation of the blessings and the curses involved in obeying or disobeying the laws. There are real consequences of not following the covenant, the worst being exile...
Covenant with Yahweh Chapt Deutronomy is not just about the covenant being recalled but is also a covenant renewal. No generation can take the covenant with God for granted but must always make it its own by recommitting itself. There are promises but also commands. People have choices. Faithfulness is not beyond their reach: “Surely, this commandment that I am commanding you today is not too hard for you, nor is it too far away... No, the word is very near to you, it is in your mouth and in your heart for you to observe.”
Conclusion Chapt Joshua becomes Moses' successor Israel's unfaithfulness is predicted and Moses' song warns Israel about being disloyal to the Lord Moses prepares for his death and blesses the people.
Introduction The Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings. In the Former Prophets we find history from a prophetic point of view. Focus on prophetic messengers: Samuel, Nathan, Elijah, Elisha, etc. The Bible is “sacred history”. The biblical writers judged Israel’s leaders and people by the covenant principles in Deuteronomy. This emphasis on the covenant makes these narratives prophetic literature.
Date Date of the conquest is around BC Archaeological evidence from Jericho point to around 1400 BC
Authorship The book is anonymous though some scholars following the Talmud assign the book to Joshua himself But we cannot say for sure. The evidences are thin As with any book of the Bible, we do not need to know who wrote it to know that it is inspired (Just consider the book of Hebrews!)
Structure Joshua 1-12: The Promised Land Conquered Joshua 13-22: The Promised Land Divided Joshua 23-24: The Renewing of the Covenant
Two Crucial Themes!
The Promised Land Conquered Political Conditions The land was under the control of people who lived in difficult-to-conquer, fortified city-states The Canaanites worshipped many brutal and immoral gods. These people practiced child sacrifice, religious prostitution, snake worship. Tough people! Israel’s chances seem small! Fortified cities and mean, cruel, strong enemies. Would they be able to do it?
The Promised Land Conquered Chapter 1: Joshua assumes his leadership and God gives him a few charges First: To cross the Jordan Second: To inherit the land (We are reminded of God’s land grant to the patriarch as a reward for his faithful service) Third: A charge to be courageous and to meditate on the law
The Promised Land Conquered Chapter 3-4: They finally cross the Jordan! The river even stops flowing as when their parents crossed the Red Sea. It is like a new exodus. Chapter 6: Jericho falls. The Lord's instructions to Joshua display the character of the covenant. God gives the land but the people must obey. And they follow the seemingly strange plan of walking around the city. Chapter 7-8: Ai falls. Jericho and Ai were in the middle. Some say as a way to split the land in two and make it easier to conquer.
The Battles of Jericho and Ai
The Promised Land Conquered Chapter 9-12: The southern and northern campaign. In the southern campaign the Amorite league is defeated (a coalition of different Amorite kings) In the northern campaign, the Canaanites were defeated 31 kings were defeated in the conquest of Canaan
Holy War Obedience to the covenant meant that Israel fought according to the rules of Holy war given in Deuteronomy Warfare was considered a religious enterprise. The priests and other religious people would accompany the army. If the people obey, then they have success Related to Hebrew word Herem (to be devoted). Thus people who were devoted to idolatry as the Canaanites or even places like Jericho were to be destroyed. Herem is found 13 times in Joshua The holy war is the total devotion to God for holocaust and sacrifice of every person, all livestock and goods taken in battle.
“Anything which might endanger the religious life of the community was put out of harm's way by being prohibited to human use; to secure this effectively it must be utterly destroyed.” (G.A. Cooke)
“It shall be that the one who is taken with the things under the ban(under the Herem) shall be burned with fire, he and all that belongs to him, because he has transgressed the covenant of the L ORD, and because he has committed a disgraceful thing in Israel.” (Joshua 7.15)
The Promised Land Divided Joshua 13-22: They divide the land among the tribes Important theme of land. God told Abraham: I am the Lord who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land to possess it.” This occupation of the land, to be taken by stages, was started by Joshua. And now it is time to divide it
The Renewing of the Covenant Joshua This occupation of the land, to be taken by stages, was started by Joshua. And now it is time to divide it. When the land is divided, a covenant renewal ceremony is held. They will inherit the land if they obey God's law. Disobedience will bring destruction. Reminder of the blessings and curses given in Deuteronomy. Important theme of covenant. God kept his promise to the patriarchs and gave Israel the land and rest. But it is not an unconditional promise. To retain the land, the people must obey
Structure Judges 1:1-2:5: The Roots of Chaos Judges 2:6-16:31: Living in Chaos Judges 17-21: The Consequences of Living in Chaos
Authorship The book is anonymous though some scholars following the Talmud assign the book to Samuel But as for Joshua, it is only tradition which has ascribed the authorship to a particular person
Date of Composition Some scholars believe it was written early in the monarchy, perhaps after Saul’s coronation (1051 BC) The book often has the following phrase: “In those days Israel had no king” which looks backward from a time when Israel did have a king
Period Covered The period of the judges covers the time between the death of Joshua and the coronation of the first king, Saul The book covers about hundred years of history. So ~1400 to1051
What is a Judge? The book takes its name from the 11 or 12 people in it who “judged” Israel Their main task was not to hear complaints or make legal decisions. The elders usually did that and priests were the ones who were interpreting the law. The judges were leaders or military deliverers Shophet (hebrew for judge) is often used in context where no judicial function is implied but where political or military leadership is in view. For example: Judges 3:10 Ehud in Judges 3.15 is described as a deliverer or a savior. For Gideon, his actions are described with the verb save. The word save is also used with Othniel, Shamgar, Tola, Jephthah and Samson. So the judges are more like saviors in the political sense, that is the military sense.
Same Word, Different Meaning Both yards have a swing setThe box is three yards longI read stories to my little brotherThe office building is four stories tallI didn’t mean to hurt his feelingsBe careful not to say mean things to someone in anger
In those days there was no king in Israel; all the people did what was right in their own eyes (Judges 17.6)
Covenant Ignored No KingChaos
Judges : The Root of Chaos At the beginning of Judges, they capture some more land. But they never completely remove the Canaanites. When Israel grew strong, they put the Canaanites to forced labor, but did not in fact drive them out When the Canaanites are spared, so are their gods. They disobeyed. God is telling them because you have disobeyed, I will not drive those people away. They will become enemies to you and their gods will become a snare to you
Judges : Living in Chaos The people do evil by serving other Gods God sends a nation to oppress them The people cry to God God raises up a savior, a deliverer The enemy is defeated. The people have rest But they turn away when the deliverer dies
Judges 17–21: The Consequence of Living in Chaos After Samson's death, the spiritual condition of the people becomes worse Everybody did as they pleased: violence, rape, murder, disobedience
Conclusion Even though the judges are called Saviors, deliverers, it really is God who is the Savior God is sovereign. He uses non-Israelites to punish the people when they turn away from him and he uses judges, deliverers, so that the people can defeat their enemies The people have to obey if they want to be blessed and not be punished. So the blessings are conditional. At the same time, God will answer when his people cry out and will never abandon them Decentralized leadership does not make for a strong people. And sentences like “in those days, Israel had no king” points to the monarchy as a possible solution to this problem
Date The books of Samuel cover approximately the period from 1070BC to 970BC Samuel leads Israel for about 20 years; Saul for about 40 years. Then David starts to reign around 1010BC
Author The name of the book, Samuel, refers to the first major character of the book but he was not the author of the book Even though the author may have written long after the events took place, he was using ancient source documents (2 Sam 1:18 -> the book of Jashar)
Structure I Samuel 1-7: Samuel: Prophet, Priest, Judge1 Samuel 8-15: The reign of Saul1 Samuel 16 – 2 Samuel 4: The Rise of David2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David 2 Samuel 21-24: David's Reign: Problems and Prospects
I Samuel 1-7: Samuel: Prophet, Priest, Judge By reading the Old Testament, it is hard to know if kingship was a good thing or not But God is clearly in favor of human leadership. He sent Moses. He was with Joshua. He sent the Judges. The Old Testament is full of leaders. The new testament clearly talks about leadership There are multiple passages where the Bible speaks positively of the kingship On the negative side, the books make it clear that in calling for a king the people were rejecting God's rule. Because Israel could not live under God's rule through the judges, God gave them a king On the positive side, kingship is portrayed, through the leadership of David, as a picture of God's purpose for His people
Historical Background At the beginning of Samuel, the threat of the Philistines is clearly present. At the time of Samson, the Philistines begin to overrun the Israelites The Philistines held many of the coastal cities: Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gaza, and Gath
Extent of the Conquest
Strong Need For Them to Work Together and be Unified!
Samuel He is to become a Nazirite. The word comes from the Hebrew Nazar (to separate, to consecrate, abstain). In Israel the Nazirite was one who separated himself from others by being consecrated to God with a special vow Contrast with the sons of Eli who have embraced Canaanite corruption Samuel is later made a prophet by God
The concept of covenant is the most important relational metaphor to describe Israel's relationship to God. God is the great king who made a covenant with his vassal Israel Exodus 15:18 “The Lord will reign forever and ever.” Numbers 23:21 “He has not beheld misfortune in Jacob; nor has he seen trouble in Israel. The Lord their God is with them, acclaimed as a king among them. That is why the change from theocracy to monarchy was such a big change. A change which caused conflicting views
Samuel Samuel helps Israel overcome the Philistines. He challenges the people to get rid of their idols. He offers sacrifices. God helps Israel overcome the enemy. Samuel judges Israel and the people have rest ( ) Same pattern as with other judges. But Samuel might be the greatest of them. He is a prophet ( ), a priest (7.9) and a judge (7.15) at the same time But still Israel will become a kingdom. It is an event that God will use to root the people in the Promise Land.
I Samuel 8-15: The Reign of Saul Samuel was a good judge. But his sons, just like Eli’s sons, fell into great sin Nobody could provide the leadership that Israel needed. The threat of the Philistines was too great
Another Important Theme!
Just as before we had the theme of Yahweh as king, here we find the theme of man as king There are differences of opinion about kingship. We have passages that seem to oppose it (1 Samuel ; ;12.1-5) and others that seem to be in favor of it (1 Samuel ; ). The fear was that the human king would replace God as the real king. There was some risk in having a monarchy. But it did not have to be that way Much of Samuel's energy from I Samuel 8 to 12 is spent setting up the new institution of royalty in a way that preserves the kingship of God and defines the roles of the human king
God is Still the Real King The Human King is Only the Representative of God on Earth
Saul In chapter 9, God shows Samuel who the new king will be : Saul. In chapter 10 Saul is anointed. Anointing was a well-known ritual in the Ancient Near East. In Egypt, the king was not anointed, but his vassals were. If Israel used anointing in the same way, then Saul was vassal-king under God who was the real king
Saul Saul starts off well as a king. He defeats the Ammonites in chap 11. Then follows a ceremony where all the people acknowledge him as king Chapter 12: Samuel's farewell speech. He makes it clear that the future does not depend on a king but on following God. But, in this case, the best way is to follow God through a king. Theocracy through monarchy Chapter 13: Saul take matters into his own hands and offer the sacrifices which only a priest could do. As a result, Samuel announces that Saul has been disqualified. A man after God's own heart will lead Israel
The Importance of Obedience!
You and your king obey: it will go well. Otherwise, watch out!
At this point, Israel's king Saul has disobeyed. He has broken the covenant and the people must be given a better king. One after God's own heart
1 Samuel 16 – 2 Samuel 4: The Rise of David 1 Sam 16.13: “The spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David…” 1 Sam 16.14: “Now the spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him…”
Saul vs David A rivality develops between Saul and David. The rest of 1 st Samuel highlights the rise of David and the decline of Saul. David is perceived as a threat by Saul: David has to flee Two times David had the occasion to kill Saul but he does not because Saul was the anointed of Yahweh. Theme of God as the real king. David recognizes that God is the one who chooses
Saul vs David David always went to God to see what his will was Saul went to see a necromancer. Unable to understand the will of the Lord through godly means
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David David unified the nation and all the tribes acknowledge him as king He made Jerusalem the capital of the unified kingdom He got rid of the Philistine threat He brings back the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David Because they have a good leader, the people follow Yahweh and defeat their enemies. Nobody since Joshua has done so much for the people The writer of Samuel implies that all kings should be like David because he brought the people closer to God and gave God the honor he deserved
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David Chapter 7: To show David his approval, God makes him a promise. A promise linked to the Abrahamic covenant It begins with David wanting to build a house for the Lord. He says: “See now, I am living in a house of cedar, but the ark of God stays in a tent.” (2 Sam 7.2) God said: no you will not be the one building my house. But I will build your house. I will build up your kingship
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David About David’s offspring, God said: “When he commits iniquity, I will punish him with a rod such as mortals use, with blows inflicted by human beings.”(2 Samuel 7.14b) But at the same time he says: “Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.” (2 Samuel 7.16)
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David Individuals can be punished. The enjoyment of the blessings of the covenant is not guaranteed for an individual if he does not obey God At the corporate, at the group level, God will not abandon them BUT
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David The rest of the Bible argues that the Messiah, Israel's Savior will come from David's family This promise unites the Old Testament and the New Testament. Because it ultimately leads to Jesus!
When the earthly kingdom disappears then the deeper meaning of the promise will become clearer for the people In the New Testament we find out that the full meaning of this eternal kingdom is realized in Jesus, one of David's descendants. For God's kingdom will endure forever.
2 Samuel 5-20: The Reign of David David’s sin with Bathsheba has brought death, misery, and civil war God forgives him and allows him to remain king. Portrayal of the effects of sin, punishment and God's ultimate forgiveness. YET
2 Samuel 21-24: David's Reign: Problems and Prospects A Yahweh’s wrath against Israel (2 Sam 21:1–14)B David’s heroes (2 Sam 21:15–22)C David’s song of praise (2 Sam 22:1–51)C′ David’s last words (2 Sam 23:1–7)B′ David’s mighty men (2 Sam 23:8–39)A′ Yahweh’s wrath against Israel (2 Sam 24:1–25)
Period Covered 1 and 2 Kings conclude the section known as the “former prophets” which covers the Israelites’ arrival in the promised land to the loss of the land and Judah's exile to Babylon Almost four centuries pass in 1 and 2 Kings. David dies about 970 BC. Solomon reigns 40 years, at which point the nation divides. The northern kingdom lasts until 722 BC, and the south falls in 587 BC.
Date of Composition The latest event in the work is the release of king Jehoiachin from prison in 561 BC It might have been written between that date and the return from Exile in 538 BC.
Author Anonymous. Some scholars think it might have been a high ranking civil servants exiled in Babylon or a scribe whose job was maybe to record the events at the royal court.
Structure 1 and 2 Kings, as well as Samuel, were originally only one book In the Septuagint, Samuel and Kings are classified as Basileiai (reigns, kingdoms). Samuel was the 1st and 2nd book of Kingdoms and Kings was the 3 rd and 4 th book of Kingdoms The division of Samuel from Kings is artificial. And the division into four books was only a matter of convenience (maybe to have rolls of equal length)
Structure I King : The Rise and Fall of Solomon's Family I Kings : The Rise and Fall of Jeroboam's family I Kings Kings 10.36: The Rise and Fall of Omri's Family 2 Kings 11-17: The Decline and Fall of Northern Israel 2 Kings 18-25: The Decline and Fall of Southern Israel
I King : The Rise and Fall of Solomon's Family Transfer of kingship between David and Solomon. Solomon becomes co-regent with David and David gives him some advice The first is spiritual advice. An advice which goes back to the covenant once again. He is to walk in God's way and keep his commandments. David understands that God's promise of an everlasting dynasty is conditional on the faithfulness of the descendants Second, it is political advice. David tells him that some people need to be rewarded and others punished because of their previous rebellion against David
I King : The Rise and Fall of Solomon's Family David dies and Solomon becomes the only king From that point on (chapter 2), to the end of chapter 11, we see how Solomon goes from this glorious king to one who forgets what his father has told him and turns away from the covenant
I King : The Rise and Fall of Solomon's Family Solomon’s first mistake is to marry a foreigner He also makes another mistake by offering sacrifices outside of Jerusalem But he still asks God for wisdom, which God grants him. God reminds him to obey
I King : The Rise and Fall of Solomon's Family It is the mountain top! God has kept the covenant: He lives with his people in the promise land God had said that David’s son would build the temple Moses had predicted that God would choose a central place of worship
Deuteronomy says that the king must not accumulate large amounts of silver and gold. Solomon did It also says: The king must not acquire great numbers of horses for himself or make the people return to Egypt to get more of them. He did the former and the later He must not take many wives, or his heart will be led astray. Solomon did it (700 wives and 300 concubines) He starts worshipping his wives' gods. He even made high places to worship other gods. The one who has built the temple for Yahweh is now building places of worship for pagan gods!
“Since this has been your mind and you have not kept my covenant and my statutes that I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you and give it to your servant. Yet for the sake of your father David I will not do it in your lifetime; I will tear it out of the hand of your son. I will not, however, tear away the entire kingdom; I will give one tribe to your son, for the sake of my servant David and for the sake of Jerusalem, which I have chosen.” (1 King )
I King : The Rise and Fall of Solomon's Family God had much consideration for David and his faithfulness. Even after his death God withheld some of his wrath against one of David's descendants. David had sinned greatly but he never worshipped other gods God's promise to David will still hold but in a very different form. The whole kingdom will not be taken away from David's descendants. Only part of it. And that explains the division of the kingdom that is about to happen
Chapter 11: Jeroboam, one of Solomon's officials rebels against Solomon Solomon dies and his Son Rehoboam takes leadership. Jeroboam asks him to relieve the tax and forced labor that Solomon had imposed. He refused and even says that he will be harsher than his father Every tribe but Judah and Benjamin then follow Jeroboam. Solomon's son will only lead a small part of Israel
There are now two kingdoms, two capitals. But they are both heading for destruction
I Kings : The Rise and Fall of Jeroboam's family The name Israel was given to Jacob and used to designate all his descendants but in the divided kingdom it was used to name the Northern kingdom. In Isaiah it is also named Ephraim, who was Joseph's son and later one of the tribes The northern kingdom went on for about 200 years ( bc) Jeroboam in the North established his kingdom. He first strengthened two key cities: Shechem and Peniel. He made a new religion. He sets up two worship centers in the North: Dan and Bethel. And he sets golden calves in these places which recalls the golden calves in Exodus with Israel's first idolatry.
Two Central Themes A Display of Two Extremes: Apostasy and Reform
I Kings : The Rise and Fall of Jeroboam's family People have to worship at the places that were setup. Instead of only taking Levites as priests, Jeroboam lets people from other tribes do it The worship of other gods is the worst crime. Solomon did it. Now Jeroboam is doing it Prophets play an important role in Kings: Ahijah is telling Jeroboam that because of his idolatry, he will be rejected. God will destroy his sons so they will never rule in Israel. And worse: the whole nation will go into exile
I Kings : The Rise and Fall of Jeroboam's family Briefly, the narrative shifts to the south and shows that things are a bit better (a shift in the narrative between the north and the south is a constant feature of Kings) Asa (from the south) in chapter 15 tries to do what is right. He removed the idols and the temple prostitutes. It says that Asa did what was right in the sight of the Lord, as his father David had done In the same chapter, Jeroboam's son in the north starts leading but him and all of his family is killed as the prophet had said
In the north: Baasha did what was evil just as Jeroboam had done In the south: Asa did what was right in the sight of the Lord just as David had done
I Kings Kings 10.36: The Rise and Fall of Omri's Family While Asa is still leading in Judah, a king named Omri reigns and takes power by force in Israel. So it is now him and his descendants that will lead. From a worldly point of view he is a good king. He brings stability to the government and builds Samaria as the new capital The luxury that Amos denounced a century later starts under Omri. He marries his son Ahab to Jezebel, a daughter of the king of Tyre in order to make peace between them
I Kings Kings 10.36: The Rise and Fall of Omri's Family But from a spiritual point of view the Bible says that Omri sinned more than his predecessors and walked in the way of Jeroboam. It brought Ahab and Jezebel to power and they used their resources to bring even worse spiritual disaster to Israel The house of Omri only lasted one-tenth of the 400 years covered but in the narrative it occupies a third. Why?
Because that is where we find the centerpiece of the book of kings: the contest between Baal and Yahweh
Elijah tells Ahab: “As the Lord the God of Israel lives, before whom I stand, there shall be neither dew nor rain these years, except by my word.” (1 Kings 17.1) He directly challenges Baal. Why? Because Baal was the God of fertility. All the immorality was supposedly aimed at encouraging fertility The final showdown at Mt Carmel where Elijah is alone against 450 prophets of Baal! They arranged a sacrifice and the question is whose god will be able to set this sacrifice on fire?
Elijah Challenges Israel: Either Choose Yahweh or Baal!
The prophets of Baal are chanting and dancing and shouting. Nothing happens! Elijah is taunting them: “Where is your god!” The bible says: there was NO voice, NO answer, NO response!
NO chanting, NO jumping up and down. Just a simple prayer: “O Lord, God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, let it be known this day that you are God in Israel, that I am your servant, and that I have done all these things at your bidding. Answer me, O Lord, answer me, so that this people may know that you, O Lord, are God, and that you have turned their hearts back.” (1 kings ) Important theme in Kings: YOU are God in Israel. YOU Lord are God. And fire comes down and consumes the sacrifices. The people confess that the Lord is God
I Kings Kings 10.36: The Rise and Fall of Omri's Family In 2 Kings the prophets continue to play a central role. After predicting Ahaziah's death, Ahab's successor, Elijah goes to heaven in a chariot of fire The transition between Elijah and Elisha is reminiscent of the transition of power between Moses and Joshua. Elisha being the one destined to win great victories for Israel. He performs incredible feats He anoints Jehu as a king in Israel to destroy Omri's descendants. It shows that God rules over kings. The prophets only convey what the Lord has decided.
Elijah and Elisha are extraordinary prophets and future biblical prophets follow their examples
I Kings Kings 10.36: The Rise and Fall of Omri's Family Jehu becomes king and kills Jezebel and slaughters all the descendants of Omri. He kills the priests of Baal. He also kills the king of southern Israel, Ahaziah. He does not follow God very well Judah does not transgress as much but still they have idolatry. And so they get closer and closer to punishment
2 Kings 11-17: The Decline and Fall of Northern Israel The exile of Northen Israel is near. After Jehu, four of his descendants reign but none of them serve the Lord wholeheartedly There was a great instability within the kingdom due to a series of violent coups. Five more kings serve before the destruction of Israel. But those kings take control via assassination, intrigues The Assyrian threat grows. The last three important kings of this final period: Menahem, Pekah and Hoshea had to pay tribute to the Assyrians or were attacked
2 Kings 11-17: The Decline and Fall of Northern Israel Under Pekah, Israel finally refuses to pay tribute to the Assyrians so Tiglath-Pileser, the Assyrian king, conquers part of northern Israel and deports some of the people to Assyria The covenant curses of Deuteronomy start to take effect. Still part of the people remain there. So there is still time for repentance. That shows the merciful nature of God. The tension between His justice, His mercy, His grace
2 Kings 11-17: The Decline and Fall of Northern Israel For Judah, it goes relatively well. For example, Joash repairs the temple. His son Amaziah does “right in the eyes of Yahweh” though they both failed to remove the places outside of Jerusalem where sacrifices were offered But there are also bad kings: Ahaz worshipped idols and took gold and silver from the temple of Yahweh to give to the Assyrians!
2 Kings 11-17: The Decline and Fall of Northern Israel Then comes the last king of northern Israel: Hoshea He tries to defy the Assyrians but fails and Shalmaneser and his successor, Sargon II, conquer Samaria in 721BC
Idolatry, forgetting the covenant, not keeping the commandment. Always the same pattern but this time it has provoked the destruction of the kingdom and the exile of the nation
2 Kings 18-25: The Decline and Fall of Southern Israel Before the destruction of Southern Israel, two good kings try to implement reforms The first one is Hezekiah. He was the only king since Asa of whom it was said that he did right in the eyes of the Lord just as David had done He also tries to break free of Assyrian rule and the majority of the 3 chapters devoted to his reign are about the consequences of this rebellion
Key Theme of the Old Testament: The Remnant!
The “remnant” expression is based on what Paul says in Rom 11.5: “So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace”. Paul refers back to the events with Elijah where 7000 thousand have not bowed down to Baal This goes back to what we have seen with the covenant with Abraham. It was conditional at the individual level, meaning that God could punish individuals and prevent them from enjoying the blessings of the covenant but that at the corporate level, it was unconditional in the sense that God would always keep a people for himself
Past and present obedience or faithfulness to God can be regarded as a firm ground for hope that the members of the dynasty will never become so disloyal that its existence will be endangered, for the history of various communities and of mankind as a whole clearly shows that all the members of a community or all its generations were never radically unfaithful. The theology of the “remnant” is based on this historical fact (J. Krasovec)
2 Kings 18-25: The Decline and Fall of Southern Israel In Kings a lot of the time the kings are unfaithful. The people do not repent. Northern Israel gets taken away in exile. Now Judah is on the verge of being taken away. God is patient, has given ample time for the people to repent but at some point judgement has to come The worst king of Judah comes to power: Manasseh. He reverses everything that Hezekiah had done. It says: “Manasseh misled them to do more evil than the nations had done that the Lord destroyed before the people of Israel.” (Is 21.9). But a good king, Josiah, comes to power. He has the temple repaired because it had been used for foreign practices. The temple had been abused. And when he repairs the temple what does he find? The book of the Law!
However, it is too late. The momentum of sin and judgement that started with Manasseh is unstoppable
2 Kings 18-25: The Decline and Fall of Southern Israel A series of ineffective and bad kings follow Babylon’s army attacks and topples Jerusalem’s walls. They steal from the temple and burn it. Many Israelites are led in exile to Babylon. One sad line says: “So Judah went into exile out of its land” (2 Kings 25.21) We find the necessary judgement. Leviticus and Deuteronomy had presented the consequences of not obeying God
2 Kings 18-25: The Decline and Fall of Southern Israel But the book ends on a somewhat positive note. One of the kings who had been exiled to Babylon: Jehoiachin, is depicted, 37 years after his exile, as receiving honor in Babylon. He is dining at the king’s table, free of chains It shows that God is not finished with Israel. We come back to the same theme: God will bring judgement, but a remnant will always remain and the promises made to Abraham and David remain in effect. There is still hope, even in exile
I – II Chronicles
Date of Composition The books were written after the Jews returned from exile It might have been written in the 4 th century BC
Author Some people have thought that Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah were all written by the same person and that it was Ezra himself who would have written them soon after the return from exile But we do not know who the author was. We usually only call him the Chronicler
Structure 1 Chronicles 1-9: Israel’s Ancestors 1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David 2 Chronicles 1-9: Solomon’s Reign 2 Chronicles 10-36: Division, Fall, and Restoration
Introduction 1-2 Chronicles in the Hebrew Bible is in the last part of the Bible, what is called “the writings” In the writings you have 3 divisions. One part contains the books of truth: Psalms, Proverbs and Job. Then the five scrolls: Songs of songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. Then the rest: Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. In our Bible, Chronicles is right after 1-2 Kings. Why? Because there is a lot of overlap. The order of our western Bible is in some ways more related to subject
Introduction The books of Chronicles (in Hebrew the title is: “The Events/Words of Days”) is one of two accounts of the history of Israel found in the Old Testament. The other one is Kings Viewed in the past as a supplementary work to Samuel and Kings so the title in the Septuagint is Paraleipomenon which means “The Things Left Out” The Christian Scholar Jerome in the 4 th century AD called these books Chronicles
It is too Easy to See Chronicles Only as a Repeat of Kings. It was Written in a Different Context and has a Different Goal and Viewpoint
Writing History Books like Kings and Chronicles teach us that there is not only one way to write history Modern historians, until recently, did not appreciate the differences between Kings and Chronicles and conclude that there are contradictions. Telling history is not completely objective and coldly factual.
Writing History Historians are Humans Not Machines!
Writing History Selectivity Continuity A Part of Subjectivity. The historian bases his decisions on what he believes is important
Writing History If two accounts of a historical fact have different emphasis, it does not mean that one is true and the other is false The same principle with the way Kings and Chronicles present events. There are no contradictions. They recount some of the same stories told with a different context, with a different emphasis and with a different purpose The chronicler is not an historian in the modern sense of the word. He is not so much concerned with the cold hard facts as with their meanings
1 Chronicles 1-9: Israel’s Ancestors The first section presents a brief history of the people through the use of lists and genealogies Starts from Adam but quickly moves to the tribes of Israel There is a special emphasis on the tribe of Levi, the tribe of Judah and monarchy of David
1 Chronicles 1-9: Israel’s Ancestors Even though most of Chronicles covers the history of the pre-exilic period, it was written for those who have returned from Babylon and resettled the land The genealogies helped to realize where they were coming from. What was their identity, their heritage
we are still the chosen people, even after exile!
1 Chronicles 1-9: Israel’s Ancestors In ancient times, people found their identity not in individuality but by being part of a group Israel being able to trace back their ancestry helps them realize that they have rights and privileges but also duties
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David The narrative really starts in 1 Chronicles 10. Saul, the first king, only gets 14 verses. Then it quickly shifts to David. The focus of chronicles is really on two kings: David and Solomon. Together, they take about 29 chapters in Chronicles The chronicler shows a well-known pattern in the OT: if you seek the Lord it leads to blessings. If you don’t, then there are curses
The Important Theme of SEEKING
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David “So Saul died for his unfaithfulness; he was unfaithful to the Lord in that he did not keep the command of the Lord; moreover, he had consulted a medium, seeking guidance, and did not seek guidance from the Lord. (1 Chronicles 10.13).” He did not seek the Lord. He sought the witch of Endor. A medium. And curses fell on him
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David The narrative quickly switches to David and Solomon and their reign In Chronicles (compared to Samuel) we do not find much about David’s shortcomings, sins, feelings No contradictions. The Chronicler decided to focus on the positive points of David
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David The Importance of the Throne This is How God Governs his People
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David The Importance of the Right Worship This is How God Relates to his People
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David David is seen as someone who seeks God in the right way He Governs the People Well He establishes the right worship in regards to the ark, the appointment of religious officials and the preparations for the building of the temple.
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David 1 Chronicles 13, is devoted to the ark. How David brought it to Jerusalem. How he prepared a place for it Then, from 1 Chronicles 21 to 29, it is almost all exclusively about how David prepares to build the temple and also about the function of the priests
1 Chronicles 10-29: David’s Reign and God’s Promises to David Because David established the proper worship, God granted him support from the people, military victory and a dynasty that would last Then, from 1 Chronicles 21 to 29, it is almost all exclusively about how David prepares to build the temple and also about the function of the priests
The theme of seeking in chapter 28: “And you, my son Solomon, know the God of your father, and serve him with single mind and willing heart; for the L ORD searches every mind, and understands every plan and thought. If you seek him, he will be found by you; but if you forsake him, he will abandon you forever.” (1 Chronicles 28.9)
2 Chronicles 1-9: Solomon’s Reign As with David, Solomon’s life is depicted in a positive way In chapter 1, he asks God for wisdom. God gives it to him and because of his wisdom Israel prospers The most important chapters are 2 to 4 where Solomon builds the temple
2 Chronicles 1-9: Solomon’s Reign Emphasis on the temple A way to remind the audience of the chronicler about their own responsibility toward the second temple Challenging his hearers to really take David and Solomon’s ideal reign seriously and use it as a map to follow
2 Chronicles 1-9: Solomon’s Reign In chapter 5, God’s glory fills the temple In chapter 6 and 7, the temple is dedicated with prayers: God looks favorably on Solomon’s temple There is no mention of his idolatry. It focuses on the time when he was devoted to God and when, just like his father, he established the proper mode of worship
For the chronicler, David and Solomon together form the ideal of how Israel should be led and how it should worship
2 Chronicles 10-36: Division, Fall, and Restoration This large portion of Chronicles refers almost exclusively to Judah’s (the south) kings because the chronicler is mostly only interested in David and Solomon It is in the south that David’s descendants will continue to rule for the next 300 years In this section, the chronicler is always comparing the kings with the ideal set by David and Solomon
2 Chronicles 10-36: Division, Fall, and Restoration The Lord was with Jehoshaphat, because he walked in the earlier ways of his father; he did not seek the Baals (2 Chronicles 17:3) Ahaz was twenty years old when he began to reign; he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. He did not do what was right in the sight of the Lord, as his ancestor David had done, (2 Chronicles 28:1) Hezekiah began to reign when he was twenty-five years old… He did what was right in the sight of the Lord, just as his ancestor David had done. (2 Chronicles ) Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign; he reigned thirty- one years in Jerusalem. He did what was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in the ways of his ancestor David (2 Chronicles )
2 Chronicles 10-36: Division, Fall, and Restoration For the chronicler, each generation had a choice. Everyone generation was accountable to God and could either get blessings or curses They could decide their own faith: God was not done with them! Through repentance and seeking God, they could change their situation
Thus says King Cyrus of Persia: The L ORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he has charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever is among you of all his people, may the L ORD his God be with him! Let him go up.” (2 Chronicles 36:23)
2 Chronicles 10-36: Division, Fall, and Restoration The end of Chronicles encourages the people to go up and rebuild the temple. To try to recapture the glory of the past The God who has helped David and Solomon build a temple can also help them build another one We must learn from this lesson. God looks beyond punishment and wants to renew us and restore us
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