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Ministry Training Program ACR Hampton Roads, VA June 3-5, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Ministry Training Program ACR Hampton Roads, VA June 3-5, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ministry Training Program ACR Hampton Roads, VA June 3-5, 2011

3 MTP Overview acr 2011 Purpose of mtp  “Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.” 2 nd Timothy 2:15  “to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, so that we may no longer be children, tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in deceitful schemes.” Ephesians 4:12-14

4 ACR 2011 MTP Exams Each Module will have a separate examination Each Module will have a separate examination Exams will be distributed via Exams will be distributed via You must delete all electronic versions of exams upon completion and submission You must delete all electronic versions of exams upon completion and submission Each exam will ask whether or not you have completed the required reading (20% of exam grade) Each exam will ask whether or not you have completed the required reading (20% of exam grade) Extra credit reading will be made available for each exam Extra credit reading will be made available for each exam There will be exams for this week’s classes on Biblical Exegesis and Hermeneutics There will be exams for this week’s classes on Biblical Exegesis and Hermeneutics Exams will contain multiple choice, short answer, short essay and long essays Exams will contain multiple choice, short answer, short essay and long essays

5 MTP Overview. ACR 2011 General MTP Q&A

6 Biblical Exegesis ACR MTP June 2011

7 What Is Exegesis And Why Is It Necessary? This is an ancient Greek word (UGH!!) This is an ancient Greek word (UGH!!) “EX” means “Out Of” “EX” means “Out Of” “EGESIS” means “To Lead” EX-EGESIS means “to lead out from” the Biblical Text “EGESIS” means “To Lead” EX-EGESIS means “to lead out from” the Biblical Text Exegesis’ goal: “What did the author intend for his original readers to understand?”Exegesis’ goal: “What did the author intend for his original readers to understand?” What did he say? (Content)What did he say? (Content) Why did he say it then and there? (Context)Why did he say it then and there? (Context) The opposite approach is “EISEGESIS”, where “EIS” means “Into”… thus Eisegesis is leading our own preconceptions into the Text The opposite approach is “EISEGESIS”, where “EIS” means “Into”… thus Eisegesis is leading our own preconceptions into the Text Be Aware, however, that none of us is a blank slate! Be Aware, however, that none of us is a blank slate!

8 What Is Exegesis And Why Is It Necessary? This is an ancient Greek word (UGH!!) This is an ancient Greek word (UGH!!) “EX” means “Out Of” “EX” means “Out Of” “EGESIS” means “To Lead” EX-EGESIS means “to lead out from” the Biblical Text “EGESIS” means “To Lead” EX-EGESIS means “to lead out from” the Biblical Text Exegesis’ goal: “What did the author intend for his original readers to understand?”Exegesis’ goal: “What did the author intend for his original readers to understand?” What did he say? (Content)What did he say? (Content) Why did he say it then and there? (Context)Why did he say it then and there? (Context) The opposite approach is “EISEGESIS”, where “EIS” means “Into”… thus Eisegesis is leading our own preconceptions into the Text The opposite approach is “EISEGESIS”, where “EIS” means “Into”… thus Eisegesis is leading our own preconceptions into the Text Be Aware, however, that none of us is a blank slate! Be Aware, however, that none of us is a blank slate!

9 Acr 2011 Exegesis “To draw out”“To draw out” Contrast with Eisegesis: “To put in”Contrast with Eisegesis: “To put in” Exegesis’ goal: “What did the author intend for his original readers to understand?”Exegesis’ goal: “What did the author intend for his original readers to understand?” What did he say? (Content)What did he say? (Content) Why did he say it then and there? (Context)Why did he say it then and there? (Context)

10 Acr 2011 Exegesis: Content Word meaningsWord meanings GrammarGrammar SyntaxSyntax Case Study: John 3:5Case Study: John 3:5 I tell you the truth, no one can enter the Kingdom of God unless he is born of water and Spirit.I tell you the truth, no one can enter the Kingdom of God unless he is born of water and Spirit. Word study: “hudor”Word study: “hudor” Grammar: Coordinating conjunction “and”Grammar: Coordinating conjunction “and” Syntax: one preposition governs two copulated nounsSyntax: one preposition governs two copulated nouns

11 Acr 2011 Exegesis: Context “A proof text taken out of context is a pretext.”“A proof text taken out of context is a pretext.” Read section by section, not verse by verseRead section by section, not verse by verse Literary ContextLiterary Context Who is writing to whomWho is writing to whom What is the flowWhat is the flow Can this harmonize (1 Sam 31/2 Sam 1; Jn 7:42)Can this harmonize (1 Sam 31/2 Sam 1; Jn 7:42) Historical ContextHistorical Context Circumstances for the writingCircumstances for the writing Nature of previous relationshipNature of previous relationship Manners and customs (Needle’s Eye fallacy: Mk 10: 23)Manners and customs (Needle’s Eye fallacy: Mk 10: 23)

12 biblical hermeneutics biblical hermeneutics ACR MTP June 2011

13 ACR 2011 What Is hermeneutics ?  Derived from the GK ‘to interpret’  Is Investigative; The broader term that encompasses exegesis and contextualization  Somewhat of a ‘science’ and provides a logical, orderly classification of the rules of basic interpretation  Does have an artful aspect; requiring both spiritual and imaginative powers

14 hermeneutics hermeneutics “The big problem with Bible study today is that we think it should be easier than other things we do. We study recipes for quality meals, how-to books for all kinds of things—carpentry, plumbing, automobile maintenance and so on—and read vociferously for our hobbies. Why do we think the Bible is the only subject we should not have to study?! Let me challenge you— make the Bible your hobby. At one level I do not like the analogy; the Bible must be so much more than a hobby! But at another level, what if we spent as much time and money on Bible study as we do our hobbies?” -Grant Osborne-

15 ACR 2011 We all Interpret  “We don’t interpret the Bible, we just do what it says”  “We simply let the bible interpret itself”  We read the bible in translation (a form of interpretation!)  We all bring preconceptions to the text  Exegesis and Hermeneutics recognizes and controls our preconceptions, biases and worldviews  These disciplines protect & illuminate Gods word!

16 ACR 2011 But I’m not Biased… Consider these Sacred Cows: Luke 9:23 Luke 9:23 Philemon 6 Philemon 6 Matthew 6:33 Matthew 6:33 Matthew 18:20 Matthew 18:20 Matthew 16:18 Matthew 16:18

17 Biblical Exegesis. ACR 2011 You Can Do this!!!! What you need for effective Exegesis What you need for effective Exegesis Prayerful Spirit Prayerful Spirit Reverent Awe Reverent Awe Good Translations Good Translations Bible Dictionary Bible Dictionary Inquisitive Mind Inquisitive Mind Common Sense Common Sense A little imagination A little imagination

18 Biblical Exegesis. India 2006 Let’s Get Technical Exegesis jargon  Exegesis  Hermeneutics  Genre  Textual Criticism  Higher Criticism  Lower Criticism  Rhetoric  Dynamic Equivalent

19 ACR 2011 Bible Translations Literal DynamicEquivalence Free KJV NASB RSV ESV NIV NAB NEB GNB JB NLT LB NRSV Message NET

20 ACR 2011 The Exegetical “Method” 1. Survey the Text 2. Investigate the Context 3. Fine Tune the Genre 4. Detail the Content 5. Synthesize the Findings 6. Apply It

21 Acr 2011 Survey the Text  Read  Re-Read  Repeat  Take notes  Craft a Preliminary Thesis (Big Idea)

22 ACR 2011 Deductive Reasoning

23 ACR 2011 Inductive Reasoning

24 ACR 2011 Biblical Tools  good translation  second, literal translation  logical mind  pocket concordance  sound Bible Dictionary  good Bible Handbook  sound commentaries

25 ACR 2011 How to read “Think of yourself as a detective looking for clues to a text’s general theme or idea, alert for anything that will make it clearer” - How to Read a Book. Page 36

26 ACR 2011 Investigate the Context Historical Context Notes: Historical Context Notes: "In what historical, social, and cultural situation was the passage written?" "In what historical, social, and cultural situation was the passage written?" Literary Context Notes: Literary Context Notes: "How does the passage relate to what precedes and follows it, and to the document as a whole?" "How does the passage relate to what precedes and follows it, and to the document as a whole?" “Why THIS and why HERE?” “Why THIS and why HERE?” “What is this text trying to DO to its original readers?” “What is this text trying to DO to its original readers?”

27 ACR 2011 Context is King!  A Proof Text without its Context is a Pretext!  A lack of context is the chief cause of most heresy  A text cannot mean what it never meant!

28 ACR 2011 It’s Too easy to cite Scripture For your own purpose "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will command his angels concerning you,' and 'On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.’” “The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose.” -William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice

29 ACR 2011 Fine Tune the Genre  What is the literary Genre of this text? What are the general principles for exegesis of this genre?  What kind of structure does this genre employ – repetition, contrast, parallelism, inclusion, chiasm, classic rhetorical argument, comedic or tragic narrative? Why would the author choose this form for his intended affect?  How does the text “move” from beginning to end?

30 ACR 2011 Biblical Genres  Epistles  OT Narratives  Parables  Laws  Prophecy  Gospel  Poetry/Wisdom  Apocalyptic

31 ACR 2011 Investigate Details of Content “It is not in the interest of extravagant ambition that we trouble ourselves tith this detailed exposition, but we hope through such painstaking interpretation to train you in the importance of not passing over even one slight word or syllable in the Sacred Scriptures. For they are not ordinary utterances, but the very expression of the Holy Spirit, and for this reason it is possible to find great treasure even in a single syllable.” - John Chrysostom 4 th Century AD

32 ACR 2011 Investigate the Details of Content What does the text communicate and how? What does the text communicate and how? What are the key terms and images? Are these terms or images consistent in the major exegetical translations? What do they mean? What are the key terms and images? Are these terms or images consistent in the major exegetical translations? What do they mean? Are there any key terms or ideas whose meaning may be explained by looking elsewhere in the book? Are there any key terms or ideas whose meaning may be explained by looking elsewhere in the book? Are there any literary or rhetorical devices (simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification, repetition, irony, particularization etc.) and if so, what it their effect? Are there any literary or rhetorical devices (simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification, repetition, irony, particularization etc.) and if so, what it their effect? What kinds of sentences are used? What are the major components of each sentence? What verbal actions or states appear in these sentences, and what subjects are associated with them? What kinds of sentences are used? What are the major components of each sentence? What verbal actions or states appear in these sentences, and what subjects are associated with them? Does the text include appeals to tradition or Scripture, such as stories, beliefs, laws, and well-known historical figures? If so, how doe these appeals function? Does the text include appeals to tradition or Scripture, such as stories, beliefs, laws, and well-known historical figures? If so, how doe these appeals function? Does the text appear to use any other earlier sources, whether written or oral? If so, how do these appeals to tradition function? Does the text appear to use any other earlier sources, whether written or oral? If so, how do these appeals to tradition function? If the text is a narrative, what elements of setting, plot (conflict, suspense, resolution), and character development does each part of the text convey? If the text is a narrative, what elements of setting, plot (conflict, suspense, resolution), and character development does each part of the text convey?

33 ACR 2011 Investigate the Content Which elements of the text work, individually or together, to instruct, delight, convict, or move the reader? Which elements of the text work, individually or together, to instruct, delight, convict, or move the reader? What is the tone, or mood, of the passage, and what elements convey that tone? What is the tone, or mood, of the passage, and what elements convey that tone? How do the various parts of the passage reflect and/or address the situation of the readers? How do the various parts of the passage reflect and/or address the situation of the readers? How does each part of the passage relate to the other parts? How does each part of the passage relate to the other parts? How does each Part contribute to the whole? How does each Part contribute to the whole? How does my emerging understanding of the whole affect the meaning of the parts? How does my emerging understanding of the whole affect the meaning of the parts? Does the author use any technical terms? Does the author use any technical terms? If I enter the narrative world of this text, what do I see and hear and feel? If I enter the narrative world of this text, what do I see and hear and feel? If I join the community that is receiving this letter, what am I being urged to do? If I join the community that is receiving this letter, what am I being urged to do? If I join the psalmist in prayer/song, what are we imagining about God? If I join the psalmist in prayer/song, what are we imagining about God? If I am among this crowd encountering Jesus, how do I view Him? If I am among this crowd encountering Jesus, how do I view Him?

34 ACR 2011 Investigate the Content Text Phrase “In the beginning” Meaning and Function -adverbial phrase indicating time of action and perhaps the action to follow as the beginning of time

35 ACR 2011 Synthesize Your Findings “We shall not cease from exploration, And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time. - T. S. Elliot, Four Quartets

36 ACR 2011 Synthesize Your Findings  What is the main point of each part of the text?  Why do you think the passage was included in this biblical book? For what main function?  What claims did the text make upon its original hearers or readers? What response might the author have desired from the readers?  What is the main idea that the author talking about? (Subject)  What is he saying about what he is talking about? (Complements)  What is the big idea of this passage – stated in a single sentence?

37 ACR 2011 …And more Exegesis “And now the end has come. So listen to my piece of advice: exegesis, exegesis, and yet more exegesis!” - Karl Barth, in his farewell to his students before his 1935 expulsion from Germany

38 ACR 2011 not Done until you Apply it “Search the Scriptures, not as though thou wouldst make a concordance but an application.” - John Donne

39 Ot narrative ACR MTP June 2011

40 “Stories with a theological point of view” “Stories with a theological point of view” 40% of the OT is Narrative 40% of the OT is Narrative Has Literary features ; Plot, characters, tension and conflict, antagonist, agonist Has Literary features ; Plot, characters, tension and conflict, antagonist, agonist This is Gods Story, and we are players in it, God is the hero of all biblical narratives This is Gods Story, and we are players in it, God is the hero of all biblical narratives The Question: how do the levels work together to create the picture of what God is doing/teaching? Narrative basics

41 Meta-narrative, the big picture of redemption the fall, reclaiming of land, apostasy, repentance, Jesus and the act of saving man, our eternal home in heaven… Meta-narrative, the big picture of redemption the fall, reclaiming of land, apostasy, repentance, Jesus and the act of saving man, our eternal home in heaven… 2 nd Level: Gods redeeming his people back to himself and forming a covenant with them ( more on that later), Abraham and the promised land, Conquest of Canaan, etc 2 nd Level: Gods redeeming his people back to himself and forming a covenant with them ( more on that later), Abraham and the promised land, Conquest of Canaan, etc 3 rd level: all the small stories that make up the big picture; “snapshots” that all contain elements of the bigger truths or fit into the meta-narrative in some way and this is the key to their interpretation 3 rd level: all the small stories that make up the big picture; “snapshots” that all contain elements of the bigger truths or fit into the meta-narrative in some way and this is the key to their interpretation Three Levels Of Narrative

42 ACR 2011 Ten Principles: OT Narratives 1. They usually don’t directly teach a doctrine 2. They usually illustrate a doctrine taught directly elsewhere 3. They record what happened – not necessarily what should have happened 4. What people do is not necessarily a good example for us 5. Most OT characters are far from perfect

43 ACR 2011 Ten Principles: OT Narratives 6. We are not always told the end of the story – whether what happened is good or bad – but we are expected to understand it from other scripture 7. All narratives are selective and incomplete 8. They are not written to answer all our theological questions 9. They may teach either explicitly or implicitly 10. In the final analysis, God is the hero of all biblical narratives

44 ACR 2011 Features of narrative The narrator is ‘omniscient’ but may not tell all he knows The narrator is ‘omniscient’ but may not tell all he knows Narrator may be a ‘re-teller’ Narrator may be a ‘re-teller’ Designed to be read aloud in public setting* Designed to be read aloud in public setting* They use stereotyped patterns They use stereotyped patterns Employ devices; foreshadowing, irony etc Employ devices; foreshadowing, irony etc Assume knowledge of LAW and Previous History of Israel Assume knowledge of LAW and Previous History of Israel Assume we will draw implications of outcomes for ourselves (not morality tales) Assume we will draw implications of outcomes for ourselves (not morality tales) Ultimately incomplete, we must connect ideas to principles Ultimately incomplete, we must connect ideas to principles

45 ACR 2011 Narratives are not Not allegories full of hidden meanings Not allegories full of hidden meanings Not intended to teach concrete moral lessons Not intended to teach concrete moral lessons Not intended to teach an explicit doctrine Not intended to teach an explicit doctrine To be directly imitated as a guarantee of similar ‘results’ (Joseph/Gideon) To be directly imitated as a guarantee of similar ‘results’ (Joseph/Gideon) Not examples to imitate, but actual events, of good and bad people Not examples to imitate, but actual events, of good and bad people Teach Propositionally Teach Propositionally

46 ACR 2011 INTERPRETIVE CLUES IN TEXT NUMBERS NARRATIVE/LAW COMBINATION 15:1-21: LAWS 15:22 ‘OFFERINGS FOR UNINTENTIONAL SIN’ (LAW) 15:32 AN ISREALITE INTENTIONALLY SINS! (NARRATIVE) 15:37 A REMINDER TO HAVE A TASSLE TO REMEMBER THE LAW! (LAW) 16:1-35….v 36-39! (NARRATIVE) 17: Aarons Staff Produces Almonds (NARRATIVE) 18: LAW (Priests and Levites)

47 ACR 2011 INTERPRETIVE CLUES IN TEXT RUTH 1: “IN THE TIME….” What do we already know about that time? Who is Ruth? Her situation? What do we know about how God feels about people like her? The Moabites? RUTH 2: BOAZ: What kind of man is he? What is his household like? How does he treat this widow? What does this suggest about him? His relationship with Torah? RUTH 4:13-22: Why include a genealogy? Message?

48 ACR 2011 Take Caution When Interpreting OT Narratives Implicit does not mean secret Implicit does not mean secret Desperation, impatience, and false expectations Desperation, impatience, and false expectations Allegorizing Allegorizing Selectivity Selectivity False Combinations …Syllogisms False Combinations …Syllogisms Redefinition Redefinition Moralizing Moralizing Personalizing/Individualizing Personalizing/Individualizing

49 The prophets ACR MTP June 2011

50 ACR 2011 Prophets: Covenant Enforcers  The prophets’ purpose was to enforce the covenant (law)  The prophets’ message was not their own, but God’s  The prophets’ message is unoriginal  Exegetical Task  Hermeneutical Task

51 ACR 2011 The Prophets: general ideas  The Call: Human and/or Divine (Is 6, Jer 1, I Ki 19  Not ‘inheritance’ like priesthood; Divine Call  Prophet no longer controls own destiny, but is ‘owned’ by God  Message is “Thus saith the Lord” and prophet may not even like it! (Jer 20:17-18)

52 ACR 2011 The Prophets: historical  Prophetic activity concentrated between 760 and 460 BC  Significant dates 722 and 587…captivities of Northern and Southern Kingdoms  Prophets spoke in the context of Kingdom history beginning with Samuel  Hundreds of prophets functioning in Israel at this time, we have writings of 16 of them, others we know about from narratives, Elijah and Elisha

53 ACR 2011 The Prophets  Main Issue: We are looking backward toward events that for them, were future/present  Modern definition of ‘prophecy’ is too narrow  Poor understanding of forms and ORACLES  Lack of Context for political, military, geographical nuances  Historical Distance…

54 ACR 2011 The Prophets  Forth-telling vs Fore-telling  Leviticus 26  Deuteronomy 4  Significant Dates: 722 BC & 587 BC  These dates ‘govern’ the narrative of the prophets  Function as Temporal Markers

55 ACR 2011 The Prophets  Look for “Blessings”; life health, prosperity, agricultural abundance, respect and safety  Look for “Curses” ; death, disease, drought, dearth, danger, destruction, defeat, deportation, destitution and disgrace  Engage with Historical Situation (Kings, Chronicles)  Be Aware of ‘loaded’ ideas (Jezebel, Abraham,Jeroboam, and references to historical failures, Baal of Peor etc)

56 ACR 2011 The Prophets  Major Oracle Sub-Types  THE LAWSUIT: Isaiah 3:13-26  WOE ORACLE: Habakkuk 2:6-8  ENACTMENT PROPHECY: Isaiah 20, Ezekiel 4:1-4  MESSENGER SPEECH: “thus saith the Lord”

57 ACR 2011 The Prophets  The Differences between pre and post exilic prophecy  Amos 3:14…destroy the altar? Why is this significant?  Joel 2:12 Hermeneutical ‘keys’ within the oracles

58 The LAW ACR MTP June 2011

59 Acr 2011 Collections of law 1. Decalogue; (Exodus 20-23) It follows the suzerainty form in which a vassal (Israel) has certain obligations established before the superior power (Yahweh) 2. “Tabernacle Laws” (Exodus 25-40) 3. Priestly or Ritual Laws: regarding worship and the altar, purity and holiness. “Holiness Code” (exodus 25-Lev 16) A wide variety of issues are addressed (food laws, sexual behavior, neighbor relations, criminal activity, eating sacrifices, sabbatical and Jubilee years, blasphemy) but all relate to Israel living before the Lord as a holy people. A wide variety of issues are addressed (food laws, sexual behavior, neighbor relations, criminal activity, eating sacrifices, sabbatical and Jubilee years, blasphemy) but all relate to Israel living before the Lord as a holy people. 4. The Four Speeches: (Deut 1:6–4:40; 5:1–26:19; 27:1– 28:68; 29:1–30:20) a retelling for new generation

60 Acr 2011 The Law  OT Law is fashioned around other ‘legal’ systems in the ancient world  Has similarities with ancient suzerainty/protective treatises. (Lord/Servant, Slavery/Protection)  Code of Ur-nammu; Sumerian, c b.c.  Code of Eshnunna; Babylonian, c b.c.  Code of Hammurabi ; BC

61 Acr 2011 The Law  The Old Testament Law is a Covenant  The Old Testament is not Our Testament  Some stipulations of the OT not renewed in the NT  Some of the OT is renewed in the NT  All of the OT law is still the Word of God for us even though it is not still the command of God to us  Only that which is explicitly renewed from the OT law can be considered part of the NT “law of Christ” (Gal 6:2)

62 Acr 2011 Types of laws F/S divide into Functional Groupings: 1. Apodictic : Direct commands generally applicable as part of fulfilling the covenant with God (Lev 19:9-14)  They set a standard by way of example and are not exhaustive. (gleaning laws, food laws, laws of slavery)

63 Acr 2011 Types of laws 2. Casuistic Law: Case-by-case law, situations they come up in every day life kind of law. Conditional and are conditioned by Situation in life or specifics of living daily life.  What to do specific situation, injury of slave, unintentional sin, accidental contact with the dead etc  Functions indirectly if you are recipient, directly if you are the one of whom it makes a requirement

64 Acr 2011 Types of laws Casuistic Law: Casuistic Law: We do not ‘obey’ them, but there are important hermeneutical principles in them for us; Ask “why” are there limitations on slavery, “how” are they to be applied, “what benefit does this have” We do not ‘obey’ them, but there are important hermeneutical principles in them for us; Ask “why” are there limitations on slavery, “how” are they to be applied, “what benefit does this have” Note well that this law was a significant upgrade from other early Middle Eastern “Law codes” that had built in class distinctions. Note well that this law was a significant upgrade from other early Middle Eastern “Law codes” that had built in class distinctions. These make up the large portion of the 600 plus commandments in the Pentateuch These make up the large portion of the 600 plus commandments in the Pentateuch

65 Acr 2011 The Law (Fee/Stuart)  The OT law is a Covenant  The Old Testament is not our Testament  Some stipulations of the OT have clearly not been renewed in the NT  Part of the OT is renewed in the NT  All of the OT law is still the Word of God for us even though it is not still the command of God to us  Only that which is explicitly renewed from the OT law can be considered part of the NT “law of Christ” (Gal 6:2)

66 Acr 2011 How Should I View the Law?  Galatians 3:24  It functioned in the history of salvation to bring us to Christ  The Law stands as a paradigm (a model) of what it means to be loyal to God  The Law should increase our appreciation of our unworthiness for grace, thus our gratitude is greater

67 Acr 2011 Do’s and Don’ts of the Law Do see the law as God’s fully inspired Word for you Do see the law as God’s fully inspired Word for you Do see the law as the basis for the OT and Israel’s history Do see the law as the basis for the OT and Israel’s history Do see God’s justice, love, high standards, and gift Do see God’s justice, love, high standards, and gift Do see the law as directing a full range of behavior Do see the law as directing a full range of behavior Do remember the essence of the Law is repeated and renewed Do remember the essence of the Law is repeated and renewed Don’t see the law as God’s direct command to you Don’t see the law as binding on Christians Don’t see the law as a grouping of of arbitrary, limiting, annoying regulations Don’t see the law as technically complete Don’t expect the law to be cited frequently by the prophets or NT writers

68 The Gospels ACR MTP June 2011

69 ACR 2011 The Gospels  They already function as hermeneutical models for us, insisting by their very nature that we, too, retell the story  Steeped in 1 st C Judaism  Second-hand Documents  Filled with “Kingdom Rhetoric”  Eschatological Fervor and Expectations

70 Acr 2011 Gospel: Literary Context  Think Horizontally  Harmonize Four Accounts  Appreciate Distinctiveness of each Gospel  Think Vertically  Awareness of historical contexts of both Jesus and the Evangelist  Examine selection of Jesus and organization of Evangelist as unified whole

71 ACR 2011 Gospel: Literary context  Horizontal Considerations:  Adaptation & Selectivity  Parallel Accounts (beware harmonization)  Overlapping Source Material  DEPENDENT upon one-another  Redaction, Re-use and Borrowing  Early Church Understanding*

72 ACR 2011 Gospel: literary context Feeding of Five Thousand Narrative (Fee/Stuart) Feeding of Five Thousand Narrative (Fee/Stuart) Words in John that are common to the other three: 8 Words in John that are common to the other three: 8 % of agreement among them: % of agreement among them: Matt w Mark59% Matt w Mark59% Matt w Luke44% Matt w Luke44% Luke w Mark40% Luke w Mark40% John w Matt8.5% John w Matt8.5% John w Mark8.5% John w Mark8.5% John w Luke6.5% John w Luke6.5%

73 Acr 2011 Gospel: Two Dimensions  Horizontal; How the gospel fits together with other gospel accounts of same events and pericopes  Vocabulary, Temporal Placement, Arrangement, Plot  Gives appreciation for differences in gospels  Adds clarity and details other gospels may have excluded, including additional context

74 Acr 2011 Gospel: Two Dimensions Vertical; examines historical context of both Jesus and gospel writer together Vertical; examines historical context of both Jesus and gospel writer together Jesus may be illustrating a general principle for his own (universal) mission, while the gospel writer is organizing the teaching into his account in a way that illuminates additional/secondary truth Jesus may be illustrating a general principle for his own (universal) mission, while the gospel writer is organizing the teaching into his account in a way that illuminates additional/secondary truth “Poor” and “Poor in spirit” Mat 5 vs Lk 6 “Poor” and “Poor in spirit” Mat 5 vs Lk 6 “First and Last” Mat 19:30 (Workers in Vineyard) vs Mark 10:31 (Rich Ruler) Jesus says it more than once/change in meaning “First and Last” Mat 19:30 (Workers in Vineyard) vs Mark 10:31 (Rich Ruler) Jesus says it more than once/change in meaning

75 Acr 2011 Gospel: Historical Context  Immerse yourself in first century Judaism and its preaching style  Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus Jeremias; The NT Environment” Lohse; Jesus’ Audience Derret  The Method and Message of Jesus’ Teaching Stein (proverbs, similes, metaphors, poetry, questions, irony, etc.)

76 Acr 2011 Gospel: Historical Context  Difficulty is many of Jesus’ sayings come without the original context (1 Cor 9:14, Acts 20:24)  Different gospels seem ‘out of order’  What was Jesus’ audience for a given teaching? Close Disciples… crowds… enemies? This helps with the ‘point’

77 ACR 2011 The Gospels: horizontal  Adaptation; Same stories re-used and re-shaped  Critical to understand AUDIENCE, as it may vary by evangelist/pericope  Fig tree in Mark 11:12-14; vs Matthew 21:  Authors are also “compilers” (Fee)

78 ACR 2011 The Gospels: horizontal  Selectivity: Rejection at Nazareth;  (Matt 13:51/Mark 6:4/Luke 4:24)  John 4:44 puts the rejection text in Jerusalem!  No “I AM” statements in three gospels  Missing Beatitudes etc  Johns Structure vs. Synoptic Structure

79 ACR 2011 The Gospels: Horizontal  Horizontal Sensitivity will assist in understanding possible meanings or range of meanings (Semantics)  Horizontal Sensitivity shapes our view of how the early church ‘interpreted’ these texts  Horizontal reading prevents overly narrow interpretations  Horizontal Reading my also assist in filing in gaps in context by providing additional details

80 ACR 2011 The Gospels: think vertically  Theological Point of View  How Jesus uses the teaching COMBINED with the setting given to it by the gospel writer  Jesus by historical context may be making one point and Mark, by his organization makes another ‘point’  Meaning my be localized by Jesus telling, and at the same time ‘globalized’ by the manner in which the pericope is placed within the gospel itself

81 ACR 2011 The Gospels: think vertically Matthew 4:17 17From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” Mark 1:14–15 14Now after John was arrested, Jesus came into Galilee, proclaiming the gospel of God, 15and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel.” Luke 4:14–15 14And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and a report about him went out through all the surrounding country. 15And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all.

82 ACR 2011 The Gospels: Horizon / Vertical Luke 4:18-19 “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” Luke is only gospel to reference the Isaiah 61 text (horizontal) Luke is only gospel to reference the Isaiah 61 text (horizontal) Luke recounts Jesus reference to Elijah/Elisha (v 25-27) (horizontal) Luke recounts Jesus reference to Elijah/Elisha (v 25-27) (horizontal) Jesus is rebuking exclusivism (vertical) Jesus is rebuking exclusivism (vertical) Luke is encouraging Gentiles that Jesus has come for them (vertical) Luke is encouraging Gentiles that Jesus has come for them (vertical)

83 Acr 2011 Gospel: Hermeneutics  Note Setting Carefully; audience, surrounding material  Note Audience; who is being addressed, tone of voice, repetition of ideas  Study Structure; literary devices, rhetoric, inclusio, chiasm…  Look for change in focus/attention (change of pronoun)  Locate the climax of story (moment of truth)  Shift in action before/after climax

84 Acr 2011 Gospel: Hermeneutics  Do not ‘modernize’ teachings  Miracle narratives are not precedent setting  “Now” and “Not Yet” – Eschatology  Jewish culture saw end of all things as imminent, especially the Galilean sect of Zealots  Jewish culture hoped Jesus would destroy Rome and inaugurate the ultimate age of blessing  JTB fueled this fervor with his message of repentance….

85 Acr 2011 Gospel: hermeneutics  Very Important Final Consideration  “Now” and “Not Yet” – Eschatology  Jewish culture saw end of all things as imminent, especially the Galilean sect of Zealots  Jewish culture hoped Jesus would destroy Rome and inaugurate the ultimate age of blessing  JTB fueled this fervor with his message of repentance….  “Realized Eschatology”

86 The Parables ACR MTP June 2011

87 Acr 2011 The parables  Most Mis-Understood of all Scripture  Very often over Allegorized  Find the Audience: crowd, ‘disciples’, Pharisees, an individual?  Jesus is not trying to be obtuse  Understand Palestinian Judaism  Understand the ‘types’ of sayings

88 Acr 2011 The parables  Hebrew m ā š ā l = proverb, riddle, comparison  Proverbs: “Physician heal yourself” -Lk 4:23  Metaphors: “Every plant not planted by my heavenly Father will be uprooted” -Mt 15:13  Similes: “I send you out like sheep among wolves”- Mt 10:16  Figurative Sayings: Lk 5:36–38, new wine in old wineskins  Similitude or more developed similes: Mk 4:30–32, comparing the kingdom to a grain of mustard seed  Story Parables in the form of fictional narrative: Mt 25:1–13, the ten virgins

89 Acr 2011 Parables: functional  Mark 4:10–12 and Matthew 13:13–15 clearly indicate that Jesus chose the parable form to symbolize God’s judgment on his opponents and on an unbelieving people. “The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those on the outside everything is said in parables so that, “The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those on the outside everything is said in parables so that, ‘they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, ‘they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise they might turn and be forgiven!’”  Jesus often used parables not from a desire to communicate truth but to hide the truth from unresponsive hearers. Parables confirmed unbelievers in their rejection  “Encounter Mechanism” -Osborne

90 Acr 2011 The Parabolic sayings Types of Parabolic sayings in the canon:  Similitude; a likeness or similarity  Epigram; is a brief, clever, and usually memorable statement (sometimes in verse, rather than prose)  Metaphor; uses an image, story or tangible thing to represent some intangible quality or idea or else some less tangible thing  Simile: similes indirectly compare the two ideas and allow them to remain distinct in spite of their similarities  True Parable; Lost Son a STORY likely ‘true’ or “possible”

91 Acr 2011 Parables: reversal of fortune  Some Notable “Plot Twists”  Lk 10:30–37; Samaritan  Lk 15:11–32; Wandering son  Lk 14:15–24; Crippled at Great Banquet  Lk 16:1–13; “shrewd manager”  Luke is a big fan of the Reversal of Fortune

92 Acr 2011 Parables of the kingdom  Parables of the Kingdom :  New patch/wine and the old cloth/wineskins (Mk 2:21–22) Kingdom ‘ripping away from the past’  “The kingdom of God has come to you” (Lk 11:20). Exorcism  Mustard Seed (Mk 4:30–32) The Leaven (Mt 13:33). Kingdom is living, spreading, growing exponentially!  Kingdom calls for a Radical Response: Sower, Tares, Dragnet  Kingdom Ethics: Mt 5:13–16, Mt 6:19-24, Mt 7:1-5  Viewed together they form a ‘hermeneutic of the Kingdom’

93 Acr 2011 Eschatology in parables  Parables of the End Time  Matthew 25 Collection: Virgins, Talent, Sheep & Goats  Luke 16: Rich Man and Lazarus  Matthew 22: Wedding Banquet  Illustrate element of surprise, reversal, the unexpected choice of common people and the urgency of the hour  “Inaugurated Eschatology” Final destination determined ‘later’ but a ction required in the present to avoid catastrophe  Viewed together they form a ‘hermeneutic of the Eschaton’

94 Acr 2011 SALVATION in parables  Parables of Repentance and Salvation   Lk 15:11–31 Lost Son/Older Brother  Mt 20:1–6 Grateful/Ungrateful Workers  Mt 21:28–31 Obedient/Disobedient Son  Lk 14:16–24 Great Banquet  Grouped together a ‘hermeneutic of Salvation’ emerges

95 Acr 2011 Parables: hermeneutics  Call for a RESPONSE from the Audience  Are meant to illustrate PRINCIPLES of Kingdom Life, not teach morals per se  Who is ‘caught’ or surprised by outcome?  Reversals/changes in fortune, tone, mood...( I tell you than not one of those will get a taste of MY banquet!)  Luke 7:47, Luke 15:28, Luke 19:9-10, Mat 25:44-45, Mat 13:14 “them”..  Ultimately CONTEXT must be final arbiter of Meaning

96 The epistles ACR MTP June 2011

97 ACR 2011 The Epistles Good place to start (easy?) Good place to start (easy?) We all write and read letters ( is distorting this experience) We all write and read letters ( is distorting this experience) Nature of Epistles: similar in form and mostly in function Nature of Epistles: similar in form and mostly in function Letters, Epistles, Prison Epistles, Catholic Epistles, Pastoral Epistles Letters, Epistles, Prison Epistles, Catholic Epistles, Pastoral Epistles Crucial Issue: All are Occasional documents Crucial Issue: All are Occasional documents With the Epistles, we have answers, but we don’t always know the questions With the Epistles, we have answers, but we don’t always know the questions It’s like listening to one end of a phone conversation It’s like listening to one end of a phone conversation

98 ACR 2011 Exegesis of the Epistles: The Literary Context Now is the time to THINK PARAGRAPHS Now is the time to THINK PARAGRAPHS If it were an assignment: “Trace the argument of 2 Thessalonians, paragraph by paragraph, and in a sentence or two explain the point of each paragraph for the argument as a whole (i.e.: Christ’s return) If it were an assignment: “Trace the argument of 2 Thessalonians, paragraph by paragraph, and in a sentence or two explain the point of each paragraph for the argument as a whole (i.e.: Christ’s return) Ask repeatedly “What’s the point?” As you trace the arguments of Paul response Ask repeatedly “What’s the point?” As you trace the arguments of Paul response Content: What does Paul say in this paragraph? State this in a concise sentence Content: What does Paul say in this paragraph? State this in a concise sentence Context: Why does Paul say this right at this point? Explain this in another sentence Context: Why does Paul say this right at this point? Explain this in another sentence

99 ACR 2011 Exegesis of the Epistles: The Historical Context Consult your Bible Dictionary Consult your Bible Dictionary Read the Letter for the Big View Read the Letter for the Big View Reconstruct the problem (occasion) Reconstruct the problem (occasion) Note the recipients Note the recipients Note Paul’s attitude Note Paul’s attitude Note specific things mentioned to specify the occasion of the letter Note specific things mentioned to specify the occasion of the letter Note the letter’s natural divisions Note the letter’s natural divisions Re-re-Read the Letter Re-re-Read the Letter List every clue to the recipient’s problem List every clue to the recipient’s problem List key phrases that indicate Paul’s answers List key phrases that indicate Paul’s answers

100 Acr 2011 Think Paragraphs; trace the flow of argument Think Paragraphs; trace the flow of argument The rest of the letter The rest of the letter The body of NT thought in general The body of NT thought in general Known issues in the churches, (Judaizing and Gnostic heresies etc) Known issues in the churches, (Judaizing and Gnostic heresies etc) The balance of Scripture The balance of Scripture In some cases, other letters to the same church or group of leaders In some cases, other letters to the same church or group of leaders EXEGESIS in the Epistles

101 Acr 2011 What is the “Big Idea” What is the “Big Idea”  What is being said?  How is it being stated?  Why is it here, now, in this paragraph or portion of the argument?  How does this ‘point’ contribute to the overall ‘flow’ of discourse or argument? EXEGESIS in the Epistles

102 ACR 2011 Hermeneutics in the Epistles What does this mean to us? What does this mean to us? All “do” hermeneutics, even without exegesis as we bring an enlightened common sense to the text All “do” hermeneutics, even without exegesis as we bring an enlightened common sense to the text The Big Issue: Cultural Relativity The Big Issue: Cultural Relativity Cultural 2 Tim 4:13 Eternal 2 Tim 2:3

103 ACR 2011 Occasional documents Occasional documents Letters, personal or corporate and have structure and elements of personal correspondence Letters, personal or corporate and have structure and elements of personal correspondence Read through entire text in a single sitting Read through entire text in a single sitting Understand the flow of thought Understand the flow of thought The background and occasion of the writing The background and occasion of the writing Issues and concerns/major themes or conflicts Issues and concerns/major themes or conflicts Hermeneutics in the Epistles

104 Acr 2011 Look for theologically loaded ideas Look for theologically loaded ideas References to OT passages or situations References to OT passages or situations Names of cities, people or other referents that are clues to meaning Names of cities, people or other referents that are clues to meaning Any natural or logical divisions of thought Any natural or logical divisions of thought Ask ‘who is writing to whom?’ Ask ‘who is writing to whom?’ Develop a working outline Develop a working outline Hermeneutics in the Epistles

105 ACR 2011 The Basic Rule The Basic Rule A text can’t now mean what it never could have meant! A text can’t now mean what it never could have meant! The Second Rule The Second Rule When we share comparable life situations with the 1 st century setting, God’s word is the same for us, too When we share comparable life situations with the 1 st century setting, God’s word is the same for us, too Our Problems with the Second Rule: Our Problems with the Second Rule: Extended Application Extended Application Non Comparable Life Situations Non Comparable Life Situations Cultural Relativity Cultural Relativity Task Theology Task Theology Hermeneutics in the Epistles

106 ACR 2011 Hermeneutics: The Epistles The Third Rule: Extended Application; If it meant ____ for them, it must mean _____ for us, right? The Third Rule: Extended Application; If it meant ____ for them, it must mean _____ for us, right? In extended or extending application Gods word must be limited to teach its original intent. In extended or extending application Gods word must be limited to teach its original intent. If you are hot certain that all the particulars are the same, this is the best approach. If you are hot certain that all the particulars are the same, this is the best approach. We will deal with Extended Application in Acts along We will deal with Extended Application in Acts along with issues of Historical Precedent


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