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3-1 Demo: Installation of ESXi 4.1 U1 Topic 3: ESXi Installation 12.

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Presentation on theme: "3-1 Demo: Installation of ESXi 4.1 U1 Topic 3: ESXi Installation 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 3-1 Demo: Installation of ESXi 4.1 U1 Topic 3: ESXi Installation 12

2 3-2 ESX 4.1 Installation Topic 4: ESX Installation 26

3 3-3 Resetting root Password ESX If the root password for ESX host is lost, you can change the it on ESX host without re-installing 1.Power On or Reboot the ESX host and at the GRUB menu, press ' a '. 2.Type “ single” at the end of the line (after the word “quiet”). 3.The ESX host will boot to a # prompt. 4.Type 'passwd ' and enter a new UNIX password twice for root. 5.Type 'reboot ' Topic 6: Troubleshooting ESX/ESXi 3

4 3-4 Troubleshooting ESXi CIM Management Agents Use DCUI  Restart Management Agents under Troubleshooting Options From CLI type /sbin/services.sh restart automatically restarts multiple CIM services Topic 6: Troubleshooting ESX/ESXi 1 1

5 3-5 Chapter 3 Review Questions 1. During installation of ESX 4, for which account do you create a password? A.User1 B.Admin C.Administrator D.root 2. Which two server resources would most influence the sizing of hardware for an ESX host? A.Hard disk size B.Network card speed C.The amount of RAM D.The number of CPUs, Cores or Speed 3. You can enter a VLAN ID for the Service Console during the installation of VMware ESX? TrueFalse 4. What is the maximum memory size that an administrator can set the Service Console to in ESX? A.800 MB B.1600 MB C.544 MB D.272 MB 5. To configure an ESX host to boot from a fibre channel LUN? (Choose two) A.Configure the server BIOS to designate the fibre channel HBA card as the boot controller B.Configure the fibre channel controller to initiate a connection to the target boot LUN C.Configure the fibre channel switch with the World Wide Name of the ESX host D.In vCenter, configure a datastore and mark it as bootable

6 3-6 The Management User Interface (MUI) (ESX/ESXi/vCenter) ESX/ESXi Mgt IP, vCenter IP address or FQDN vCenter Download the vSphere Client to your desktop or management workstation Topic 2: ESX/ESXi Management 2

7 3-7 Configuration of TSM in ESXi 4.1 Topic 4: ESXi Installation TSM has two options: – Local Tech Support Mode (ESX like command line) – Remote Tech Support Mode (SSH Daemon) Supported Modes New to ESXi 4.1 Enabled on host or through vCenter 5

8 3-8 Add Network Wizard Can be used to create a vSwitch Used to create/add one of three connection types Used for IP and subnet mask configuration of the VMkernel or SC port The VLAN ID can be configured Topic 1: Creating & Modifying Virtual Networks NOTE: To add additional connection types to an existing vSwitch, run the Add Network Wizard from the Properties link of the vSwitch ESX Wizard ESXi Wizard 1

9 3-9 Configure Physical NICs Topic 2: Creating & Modifying Virtual Networks using CLI esxcfg-nics –s 100 –d full vmnic1 esxcfg-nics –s 1000 –d full vmnic2 esxcfg-nics –s 100 –d full vmnic3 esxcfg-nics –l esxcfg-nics –s 1000 –d full vmnic0 5

10 3-10 Configure Virtual Switches esxcfg-vswitch –a vSwitch4:64 esxcfg-vswitch –A PortVLAN101 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –L vmnic2 vSwitch4 VMNIC4 esxcfg-vswitch –A PortVLAN102 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –v 101 –p PortVLAN101 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –v 102 –p PortVLAN102 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –L vmnic3 vSwitch4 Topic 2: Creating & Modifying Virtual Networks using CLI 7 :64 Not supported in vCLI

11 3-11 Configure the VMkernel Port esxcfg-vswitch –a vSwitch4:16 esxcfg-vswitch –A vMotion vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –L vmnic2 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –L vmnic3 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vmknic –a –i –n vMotion Cannot set both vMotion and FT logging on same vSwitch from CLI vim-cmd hostsvc/vmotion/vnic_set vmk0 vim-cmd hostsvc/advopt/update FT.Vmknic string vmk0 esxcfg-route esxcfg-route –a esxcfg-route –l Topic 2: Creating & Modifying Virtual Networks using CLI 9 vim-cmd hostsvc/advopt/update Net.ManagementIface string vmk0 ESXi only

12 3-12 Adding a second Service Console esxcfg-vswitch –L vmnic2 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –L vmnic3 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswif –a –i n p SCon2 vswif1 esxcfg-vswitch –A SCon2 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –a vSwitch4:16 esxcfg-vmknic –a –i –n IPStorage esxcfg-vswitch –A IPStorage vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –v 33 –p SCon2 vSwitch4 esxcfg-vswitch –v 33 –p IPStorage vSwitch4 Topic 2: Creating & Modifying Virtual Networks using CLI 9

13 3-13 Viewing Multipathing Path States: – Active (I/O), Active, Disabled, and Dead Preferred path is designated with an * Active (I/O) is the current path being used under Fixed and MRU Topic 1: Storage Concepts 5 Example of iSCSI Multipathing Example of Fibre Channel Multipathing

14 3-14 Topic 1: Storage Concepts Storage I/O Control (SIOC) New in 4.1 QoS for storage access on a per VM basis Enabled on a per Datastore basis All hosts accessing SAN must be in same vCenter Sets a threshold for when Disk Shares will be used to prioritize disk IOPs Disk shares are calculated across all hosts managed by vCenter Recommended Congestion Thresholds: SSD – ms SAS – ms SATA – ms Shares and IOPs Limits are visible per VM in the Datastores inventory view from the Virtual Machines tab Shares and IOPs Limits are set on a per VM per VMDK basis from the Resources tab 2

15 3-15 Configure Software Initiator Topic 2: iSCSI Storage (GUI & Command Line) Enable the iSCSI initiator, the iSCSI name is automatically filled in Change iSCSI name to match your setup 1

16 3-16 Enter the IP address/Port of each iSCSI target Maximum targets: 64 Static Discovery – Enter iSCSI Target Name Dynamic Discovery – Uses “Send Targets” to discover LUNs and all available paths Discovering iSCSI Targets Topic 2: iSCSI Storage (GUI & Command Line) 2

17 3-17 Configure Software Initiator: CHAP Authentication Topic 2: iSCSI Storage (GUI & Command Line) Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is disabled by default Authentication can be Host to Target or Target to Host Enable CHAP and enter CHAP name and CHAP secret 2 CHAP can be set for: All Targets Each Target Server Each Target LUN individually

18 3-18 Viewing and Creating a VMFS Datastore Topic 4: VMFS Datastores (GUI & Command Line) 6

19 3-19 Add an Extent to Existing VMFS The list of possible extents to add will not include LUNs with an existing VMFS, or an RDM mounted to a VM Topic 4: VMFS Datastores (GUI & Command Line) 6

20 3-20 Expand an ESX/ESXi 4.1 VMFS Volume 13 ESX/ESXi 4 can dynamically expand VMFS volumes Topic 4: VMFS Datastores (GUI & Command Line) The first step would be to Expand the LUN originally chosen for the datastore The SAN administrator would have to use the SAN Manufacturer’s management software to perform the expansion Following is an example performed on a Dell Equalogic iSCSI SAN LUN Select Properties to begin the process Now, select Increase to begin the Expansion Select the LUN or Disk showing as Expandable Notice Capacity is now 10 GB Notice only one Extent of 10 GB

21 3-21 Manage vSphere Licenses Topic 1: Licensing 8

22 3-22 Microsoft Server Virtualization Validation Program Topic 1: Licensing Validate Microsoft Server Apps for Support before virtualizing them with vSphere 4 3

23 3-23 All Datastores across all hosts in vCenter are visible Datastore information available on many tabs Organize Datastores using Folder objects Permissions may be set on Folders Datastores: Folders and Datastores Topic 3: vCenter Server Inventory Create Folders to organize Datastores logically SIOC Shares and IOPs shown per VM 9

24 3-24 All Networks and vDSs across all hosts in vCenter are visible Networks (Portgroups from simple vSwitch) have far fewer tabs than those from vDS Permissions may be set on Portgroup or vDS/DVUplink/DVPG Networks: Portgroups & Distributed Switches (vDS) Topic 3: vCenter Server Inventory 9 Context menu for a Portgroup has only a few options Context menu for a Distributed Switch has several options

25 3-25 Guided Consolidation Select which systems to analyze Consolidation phase converts physical machines to VMs Topic 4: Managing vCenter Server 2

26 3-26 vCenter Server 4.x Database Sizing Topic 5: Planning vCenter Server Deployment Use different numbers to produce estimates In vCenter 4.x go to the Administration Menu & choose vCenter Server Settings 4

27 3-27 VMware Tools Configurable Features Time Synchronization Tools on the taskbar Upgrade Availability Connected Devices Preconfigured Scripts Shrink is not available on VMs with Normal mode Topic 1: Create a VM 3

28 3-28 Deploy VM from Template Topic 2: Create Multiple VMs, Templates & Clones 6

29 3-29 Customization Specification Manager Specifications can be created, saved, copied, imported, exported or edited Topic 2: Create Multiple VMs, Templates & Clones 15

30 3-30 Import Virtual Appliances Select host or cluster Import from VA marketplace, file, or URL Appliance is validated for ESX prior to import Topic 3: Virtual Appliances 11

31 3-31 VMware vCenter Converter 4.3 Standalone vCenter Converter Standalone can be installed on any computer Client / Server architecture allows client and server to be on different computers Sysprep folder must be accessible from Client running Converter Topic 4: VMware Converter (P2V – V2V) Dropped in v Select provisioning and location of each disk individually Reconfigure installs hardware drivers for the VM but will break VMware tools already installed if source is an ESX VM

32 3-32 Enterprise Converter Usage vCenter Server Plug-in enables Converter Enterprise Converter is an optional component during vCenter Server installation Nearly identical capabilities of Standalone Converter Version 4.3 Topic 4: VMware Converter (P2V – V2V) 6

33 3-33 VM Properties - Hardware tab Topic 5: Manage VMs DEVICEAddEditRemove FloppyOFFON / OFFOFF CD/DVDOFFON / OFFOFF Network AdapterON/OFF USBON/OFFN/AON/OFF SCSI ControllerOFF Hard DiskON / OFFON*/OFFON/OFF Parallel PortOFF Serial PortOFF SCSI DeviceON/OFFN/AON/OFF ON = VM Powered On OFF = VM Powered Off * = Cannot have snapshots Shown as Powered On Remainder Shown as Powered Off New in 4.1 Virtual Serial Port Concentrator – allows redirection of VMs’ serial ports over a standard network link using telnet or ssh, allows for vMotion 11 Requires ver. 7 Hardware

34 3-34 VM Properties - Options tab Topic 5: Manage VMs NPIV is supported only for VMs with RDM disks 14

35 3-35 Extend partitions using gparted To extend any partition on any version of Windows 1.Extend drive.vmdk using CLI or using the VIC 2.Mount the gparted.iso to CD/DVD-ROM of VM 3.Boot to gparted and extend the drive 4.Reboot Windows (works for Linux too, may need extra steps) Topic 5: Manage VMs Gparted is FREE, Open Source, 3 rd party software and available as a LiveCD ISO 4

36 3-36 Web Access Tasks Topic 8: Web Access When logged into vCenter, Datacenter and Alarm information is available 13

37 3-37 Obfuscate will encrypt the link so that it’s options are not obvious Generate Virtual Machine Shortcut Topic 8: Web Access Provides a way to access a VM through a URL Useful for including in an instant message or an message Similar to the MMC Taskpad Without either check box, the link points to the top of Web Access With the top checkbox, all VMs show, but tabs for Alarms, Tasks, and Events are not shown With the second checkbox, only one VM will show with the tabs With both checkboxes, the view is limited to a single VM with no tab options 4

38 3-38 Resource Shares Dynamic resource management –Only used if there is resource contention –Prevents a single VM from utilizing all the resources –Prioritizes specific VM resource usage during contention 1000 Shares – 25% Number of Shares Equal (each has 25%) 2000 Shares – 22% 1000 Shares – 11% 2000 Shares – 22% 4000 Shares – 45% Changing Share Values (% varies on # of shares) Starting a VM changes resource allocation 2000 Shares – 20% 1000 Shares – 10% 2000 Shares – 20% 4000 Shares – 40% 1000 Shares – 10% Turning off VM changes resource allocation 2000 Shares – 22% 1000 Shares – 11% 2000 Shares – 22% 4000 Shares – 45% 1000 Shares Turned off 3 Topic 5: Resource Pools and Monitoring

39 3-39 Performance Monitoring - Overview Can monitor a Datacenter, Cluster, Resource Pool, Host or VM Can view thumbnail charts of child objects Topic 2: VM Performance Monitoring Host based Overview showing all host resourcesCluster based Overview showing thumbnails of hostsCluster based Overview showing thumbnails of VMsDatacenter based Overview showing thumbnails of datastores VM based Overview showing Storage with pie charts of Space by Datastore and Space by file type 4

40 3-40 Customize Performance Chart Use a Stacked Graph to drill down to find a problem Hover over a color bar to get detailed information 3 Topic 2: VM Performance Monitoring

41 3-41 Problem: High Memory Utilization Memory Usage inside VM Memory problem indicators – High Balloon driver usage – High VMkernel swap file usage – High Memory usage inside VM Solutions: – Changes to the constrained VM Add shares, increase Memory reservation, change Memory limit Increase available memory vMotion this virtual machine (Host Memory) – Changes to other VMs: Shut down, vMotion, or remove shares from other virtual machines Decrease available memory – Changes to Resource Pool or Cluster Move VMs in or out of Pool Change shares, limit, reservation In the chart to the right, High ballooning activity settled over time in ESX 3.x Topic 2: Performance Monitoring In ESX 4.x Balloon Memory is not automatically flushed as a first priority, Consumed Memory may be reduced instead. 1

42 3-42 Veeam Monitor Demo Topic 2: VM Performance Monitoring 3

43 3-43 Alarm Settings Click in each column to change setting Values in Drop downs can be overwritten by typing Over 100 Virtual Machine Event Triggers to choose from There are 9 Host state Triggers There are almost 100 Host Event Triggers There are 27 Cluster specific event Triggers 3 Datastore State Triggers There are 10 Datastore specific event Triggers Plus additional Event triggers for Datacenters, Networks, vNetwork Distributed Switches, Distributed Virtual Port Groups, and vCenter Server Use these settings to avoid alarms repeating over short periods of time or small changes to trigger thresholds Once an alarm has been triggered, Now What? 10 Action choices for Virtual Machines Choose when and how often to act. 9 Action choices for Hosts Just the 3 basic Actions available for Cluster Alarms 10 Topic 3: Configuring Alarms

44 3-44 Storage Views - Reports 6 Topic 1: Storage Views & Topology Maps Reports may be exported by right clicking on the screen to these formats –.xls,.htm,.html, CSS (.htm),.csv,.xml

45 3-45 Cluster Map View: Host to Datastore Cluster Map View: Host to Network Cluster Map View: Host to VM Cluster Map View: VM to Network Cluster Map View: VM to Datastore Cluster Map View: Host to Network and Datastore Cluster Map ViewHost Map View 7 Topic 1: Storage Views & Topology Maps

46 3-46 Storage vMotion in vSphere 4 Topic 2: Storage vMotion Built-in to the Migrate Wizard vMotion or Storage vMotion, not both at once Can cold migrate both at once Can reprovision (thin/thick) the disk while migrating (hot/cold) When Advanced button clicked, choose datastore 2

47 3-47 How vMotion Works Users currently accessing VM1-1 on ESXi1 Initiate migration of VM1-1 from ESXi1 to ESXi2 while VM1-1 is up and running Shared Storage VM files ESXi Host 2 VM1-1 CorpNet Network VM Motion Network ESXi Host 1 Step One: Step Two: Pre-copy memory from ESXi1 to ESXi2 Log ongoing memory changes Copy changed memory, Log new changes Repeat copying changed memory until remaining changes are small enough to copy during the quiesce Quiesce virtual machine on ESXi1 Copy remaining memory to ESXi2 Copy VM State information (registers, etc) Step Three: Step Four: Start VM1-1 on ESXi2 Users now access VM1-1 on ESXi2 Step Five: Delete VM1-1 from ESXi1 after migration is successful 1 1 VM Memory 2 Remaining Memory Topic 3: Configuring vMotion 4 VM state – Registers, etc

48 3-48 Dynamic Balancing / History Dynamic balancing –Monitor VM, resource pool, and host statistics –Balances and maintains resources for pools and VMs –DRS Recommendations of which VMs to migrate Topic 4: Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) Cluster 2

49 3-49 Virtual Machine to Host Rules Use DRS Groups Manager to create groups of VMs and groups of Hosts Create a rule to match VM group with Host group 5

50 3-50 Expandable Reservations Allow use of available parent resources when a Resource Pool’s Reservation for a resource has been reached Maximum of up to 8 levels of resource pools allowed Events that trigger Expandable Reservation use: –Power on VM –Create child resource pool –Change resource pool reservation What is necessary to start VM67-1 below? MB MB = 206 MB overhead Topic 5: Resource Pools and Monitoring

51 3-51 Creating a Distributed Virtual Switch Created in Inventory  Networking 3 objects created: dvSwitch, dvUplinks, dvPortGroup Select which hosts are going to use this switch. Only unallocated NICs can be selected. A default Portgroup called dvPortGroup can be created. 5 Topic 6: vNetwork Distributed Switches

52 3-52 Edit dvSwitch Settings Physical NICs can only be changed on the configuration tab of the ESX host. 4 Topic 6: vNetwork Distributed Switches

53 3-53 Edit dvSwitch Uplink Policy Settings Security Policies can only be set at the Portgroup level Both outbound and inbound traffic shaping can be set at either the dvSwitch level or the portgroup level The uplink ports always support trunking. VLAN tags are only placed on packets if VLAN are defined at the portgroup level. Filter what VLANs are allowed on this screen NIC Teaming can not be changed at the dvSwitch level 8 Topic 6: vNetwork Distributed Switches

54 3-54 Edit dvSwitch Port Group Settings Port binding defines when port numbers are assigned to a VM for use by Teaming policies Same options as Standard vSwitches 7 Topic 6: vNetwork Distributed Switches

55 3-55 Private VLANs Create PVLANs at the dvSwitch Promiscuous – Uplinks, DHCP, Common services – Can see and be seen by every VM on the Primary VLAN – Created by default, only one required Community – Groups of VMs – Can see other VMs in the same Community PVLAN and VMs/ports in the Promiscuous PVLAN – Create as many as needed Isolated – Individual VMs – Can only see VMs/ports in the Promiscuous PVLAN – Cannot see other VMs, even in the same Isolated PVLAN – Only one required, will need to be created 1 Set PVLAN on the dvPortGroup

56 3-56 Migrating Service Console Port or VMkernel Port to vDS 6 Topic 6: vNetwork Distributed Switches New Virtual Adapter allows the creation of a new Service Console Port or VMkernel Port on the vDS. What follows is the process of migrating an existing Service Console Port to a vDS Creating a new Service Console Port or VMkernel Port on the vDS is just as easy. Migrating an existing VMkernel Port to the vDS is the same process just performed

57 3-57 Network I/O Control (NIOC) Topic 6: vNetwork Distributed Switches New in 4.1 Types of Network Traffic Resource Pools iSCSI Traffic Resource Pool applies to only Software based iSCSI traffic QoS policies based on Network Traffic Flow Types Defined on only on a vDS, only available in Enterprise Plus Edition Based on Limits (absolute max across team) and Shares (relative value of outbound traffic on vmnic) Network Resource Pools define controllable traffic types 6

58 3-58 Create Host Profile Host Profiles Screen or Hosts and Cluster Screen 4 Topic 7: Host Profiles

59 3-59 Edit Host Profile Each configuration option can be set as fixed or to prompt the user for specific settings when the profile is applied such as hostname. Hosts attached to the profile are checked for compliance to the Configuration settings by default. 1 Topic 7: Host Profiles

60 3-60 Create a Linked Mode Group During the vCenter Install Process After Install use the programs menu Topic 8: Linked Mode Group of vCenter Servers 5

61 3-61 vSphere Host Update Utility: ESXi Patching Used to patch ESXi 3 or ESXi 4 or ESXi 4.1 Cannot be used to patch ESX 3.x or ESX 4 8 Select the patches to install and Click the Install button Topic 1: Patching ESX/ESXi Standalone Hosts

62 3-62 Update Manager Baselines Created for VM, Virtual Appliance, and Host patches Choose which patches to apply Patches are selected from the Patch Repository Patch metadata must be downloaded prior to creating a baseline Topic 2: Patching with Update Manager 7

63 3-63 Update Manager Tab Attach a baseline to scan, stage or remediate (patch) host or VM Scans, staging or patching can be run immediately or can be scheduled Topic 2: Patching with Update Manager 2

64 3-64 Update Manager Remediation Defaults and Configuration Options Guest Settings - Snapshot a VM prior to installing a patch, can auto delete the snapshot Host/Cluster Settings - Maintenance mode failure options Port Settings configuration Topic 2: Patching with Update Manager 4

65 3-65 Update Manager Downloads Schedule the download of patches Repository Location –Set during Install C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\VMware Update Manager\Data (Default) –Configured After Install Modify tag in C:\Program Files\VMware\Infrastructure\Update Manager\vci- integrity.xml file Topic 2: Patching with Update Manager 2

66 3-66 Remediation ESX/ESXi Hosts use the Hosts and Clusters View VMs use the VMs and Templates View Now Remediate a Host Topic 2: Patching with Update Manager 8

67 3-67 ESX/ESXi Upgrade using Update Manager Upload the upgrade files Use Host Upgrade option in New Baseline Wizard Attach Baseline and Remediate as usual Can be used to upgrade 3.x to 4.x or 4.0 to 4.1 Topic 3: Upgrades and Migrations 8 Upgrade files only need to be uploaded one time per version

68 3-68 vSphere Host Update Utility: ESX/ESXi Upgrade Used to upgrade ESX/ESXi 3.x to 4.0 or patch ESXi Discontinued with vSphere 4.1 Upgrade host when vCenter Update Manager fails Can upgrade either standalone or vCenter managed hosts Can not customize partition table of the COS with this utility Topic 3: Upgrades and Migrations 12

69 3-69 VMware HA in Action VC Server ESXi Host Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine C ESXi Host Virtual Machine D Virtual Machine A Virtual Machine E Virtual Machine F ESXi Host Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine A Topic 2: High Availability (HA) HA 2

70 3-70 Host Isolation Switch ESXi Host Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine C ESXi Host Virtual Machine D Virtual Machine A Virtual Machine E Virtual Machine F ESXi Host Virtual Machine B Virtual Machine A Topic 2: High Availability (HA) HA Network problems can create host isolation conditions VMware HA waits 15 seconds before determining host isolation – This interval is configurable in Advanced Options under HA Settings ( das.failuredetectiontime = # of milliseconds, is the default) Two Isolation Response Choices Power Off VMs so new host(s) can power them on or Leave VMs Powered (locked) 3

71 3-71 HA VM Monitoring Will restart a VM if the VMware Tools Heartbeat is not seen for a specified period of time. Topic 2: High Availability (HA) 3

72 3-72 Configure Network Settings Login to Console or Web Interface to change root password – Default password: Configure IP Settings Topic 7: VMware Date Recovery 1

73 3-73 Configure Data Recovery Appliance and Setup Backup Job Login and Run the Getting Started Wizard Backups will occur once per day during the Backup Window Topic 7: VMware Date Recovery 8

74 3-74 vRanger Pro - Screenshots Topic 8: Third Party Backups 1


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