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Unit 2: Analysis of Habitats 1. 2 Ecological concepts Habitat Environment Population Ecosystem Community.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Analysis of Habitats 1. 2 Ecological concepts Habitat Environment Population Ecosystem Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2: Analysis of Habitats 1

2 2 Ecological concepts Habitat Environment Population Ecosystem Community

3 Niche: Hutchinson’s n-dimensional hypervolume 3 a b

4 4 a b c

5 5 a b c d

6 6 Habitat Macrohabitat Microhabitat Habitat dimensions –atmosphere –lithosphere –hydrosphere –biosphere

7 7 Macrohabitat analysis Temporal information –date –time –observers’ names Spatial information –specific location, GPS coordinates –topography –drainage characteristics, watershed area

8 8 Lithosphere –general land forms natural anthropogenic –soil types grain size analysis (%sand, %silt, %clay + organic) Soil Conservation Service area maps Munsell Soil Color Charts Macrohabitat analysis

9 9 Some principal land forms –Table 2A.1 –coastal delta coastal plain outwash dune spit Macrohabitat analysis reef beach bar tidal flat barrier island swale

10 10 Atmosphere –measured variables wind: speed and direction percent cloud cover general weather air temperature relative humidity barometric pressure –climate Macrohabitat analysis

11 11

12 12

13 13 Macrohabitat analysis Community type Zonation: horizontal patterns Stratification: vertical patterns

14 14

15 15 Stratification

16 16 Stratification

17 17 Macrohabitat analysis Habitat diversity –habitat richness: number of different habitats present –habitat heterogeneity versus dominance

18 18 Analysis of aquatic habitats Habitat type –marine –estuarine –freshwater Communities based on salinity gradients –euryhaline –stenohaline

19 19 Limnology: freshwater Lentic systems –calm, slow or non-moving –lakes and ponds oligotrophic eutrophic mesotrophic hypereutrophic

20 20 Limnology: freshwater Lentic systems –wetlands marsh swamp or slough bog pothole or playa lake bottomland hardwood

21 21 Limnology: freshwater Lentic systems –zonation littoral zone (shallow, shoreline) open water –euphotic zone –compensation depth –aphotic zone

22 22 Limnology: freshwater Lotic systems –moving –rivers, streams, creeks, bayous –riparian habitats

23 Water use categories Aquatic life –parameters designed to protect aquatic species –e.g., dissolved oxygen, nutrients, toxics Contact recreation –relative risk to humans from swimming and other water sports 23

24 Water use categories Public water supply –indicators used to evaluate water source for public water systems –e.g., nutrients, toxics Fish consumption –indicators for fish health or disease –toxic chemicals contained in fish tissue 24

25 Water quality standards Used by EPA / TCEQ to evaluate condition of water and establish limits on permitted dischargers Numeric standards –values specific to segments Narrative standards –protect aesthetics and designated uses –overall screening limits –not segment specific 25

26 26 Physical variables in aquatic habitats Water temperature –temperature profile –temperature stratification epilimnion / hypolimnion thermocline –biological effects reaction rates migration / reproductive cues physiological tolerances

27 27

28 28 Physical variables in aquatic habitats Turbidity –light scatter or penetration in water –dependent on dissolved chemicals suspended particulates microbes and algae

29 29 Physical variables in aquatic habitats Turbidity –sources colloidal rock particles eroded soil domestic and industrial wastewater street washings –environmental significance aesthetics photosynthesis

30 30 Physical variables in aquatic habitats Turbidity –measurement Jackson Turbidity Unit (JTU) nephelometer turbidity units Formazin Attenuation Units (FAU) Secchi disk depth

31 31 Color –sources decomposition of lignin  tannins, humic acid, humates pollutants –apparent color (Pt-Co units) –true color Physical variables in aquatic habitats

32 32 Conductivity (specific conductance) –measure of how well water can conduct an electrical current –dependent on ion concentration in water –indirect measure of salinity and other salts –measured in mmhos, µmhos, mS, µS Physical variables in aquatic habitats

33 33 Chemical analyses Dissolved oxygen (DO) –essential for life processes of most aquatic organisms –low DO often results from high organic matter loads or low flow –excessive DO often results from excess plant production

34 34 Chemical analyses Dissolved oxygen (DO) –DO in warm water versus cold water –effect of salinity –percent saturation

35 35

36 36 Chemical analyses Dissolved oxygen (DO) –State of Texas Surface Water Quality Standards for DO [24-hr mean] [Absolute minimum] Exceptional6 mg/L5 mg/L High5 mg/L4 mg/L Intermediate4 mg/L3 mg/L Limited 3 mg/L2 mg/L No significant DO2 mg/L1.5 mg/L

37 37 Chemical analyses pH –measure of hydrogen ion concentration –general indicator of water quality in neutral range (pH 6-8.5) –major factor affecting most chemical and biological reactions in water

38 38 Chemical analyses Alkalinity and CO 2 –measure of buffering capacity of water –sources of alkalinity hydroxides carbonates bicarbonates

39 39

40 40 Chemical analyses Hardness –geographic variation in natural water hardness –hardness classifications mg/Ldegree of hardness 0-75soft 75-150moderately hard 150-300hard >300very hard

41 41

42 42 Chemical analyses Hardness –caused by divalent metal cations

43 43

44 44 Chemical analyses Hardness –total hardness –calcium hardness –magnesium hardness

45 45 Nitrogen –role as nutrient versus pollutant –forms organic nitrate TX screening level = 2.76 mg/L nitrite ammonia: TX screening = 0.17 mg/L Chemical analyses

46 46

47 47 Phosphate –role as nutrient versus pollutant –TX screening level (orthophosphate P) = 0.5 mg/L Chemical analyses

48 48 Other water chemistry parameters –trace metals / sulfate / tannins and lignins –gases: carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide –BOD measure of oxygen demanding bacterial composition of water measures oxygen consumption by aerobic microorganisms as they decompose organic material present in water Chemical analyses

49 49 Biological components Phytoplankton Periphyton Zooplankton Nekton

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