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RELATIVE CLAUSES Defining and non-defining Celia Iordache & Ana Delgado 1ºC
What are they? A defining relative clause specifies which person or thing we mean. The defining relative clause can be omitted. You're the little devil who cracked the system.
What are they? A non-defining relative clause contains extra information. It is separated by commas. So we're all men of our word really... except for, of course, Elizabeth, who is in fact, a woman.
Which and that These are alternatives in a defining clause. That is not used in non- defining clause. That cannot follow a preposition. That is used instead of who in defining clauses. I got beaten down by an old school Vegas thug who was having trouble accepting his retirement, but I worked out a deal with him that got him a nice pension...
Which and that Which refers to things. Also used in non-defining clauses A pinch is a device which creates, like, a cardiac arrest for any broadband electrical circuitry. We go to "A" School, which is the most difficult school in the military.
Who and whom Who refers to people. Those men who bled the ground red at Falkirk, they fought for William Wallace, and he fights for something that I never had.
Whom Whom is the object form of who and is used formally in object clauses. Whom has to be used if it follows a preposition. Whom is felt to be excessively formal and who is commonly use instead. He was a hero to his valet, who bullied him, and a terror to most of his relations, whom he bullied in turn.
Whose This means of whom. It is used in both defining and non-defining clauses. My story starts at sea... a perilous voyage to an unknown land... a shipwreck... the wild waters roar and heave... a lady... whose soul is greater than the ocean... and her spirit stronger than the sea's embrace..
When and where Non-defining: They follow a named time or place. The rest of my attention is back at the offices of Facebook, where my colleagues and I are doing things that no one in this room, including and especially your clients, are intellectually or creatively capable of doing.
When and where Defining: When follows words such as time, day, moment. I remember when I was a kid, me and my father, we went ice fishing out on Lake Wissota
When and where Where follows words such as place, house, street. Luckily, the fact is that just like the rest of us, even a beautiful woman doesn't know what she wants until she sees it, and that's where I come in.
Omitting the relative pronoun: Common in defining object clauses in everyday conversations. I ’ve found the keys (which/that) i’ve been looking for. Sentences ending in a preposition or phrasal verbs: Common feature of conversational English, as outlined in who and whom, is to end a defining clause with a preposition. That’s the house I used to live in.
Omitting which/who + be To reduce a verb phrase after who/which to an adjectival phrase in a defining clause. Jim was the only one of his platoon who had not been taken prisoner. Jim was the only of his platoon not taken prisoner. Which A non-defining clause can comment on the whole situation described in the main clause. Phrases with which, such as which time/point, in which case, by which time, in which event can be used in the same way There was nobody left on the train, which made me suspicious.
Which A non-defining clause can comment on the whole situation described in the main clause. Phrases with which, such as which time/point, in which case, by which time, in which event can be used in the same way I watched the play until the end of the first act, at which point I felt I had seen enough.
Clauses beginning with what and whatever What meaning the thing or things which can be used to start clauses. Whatever, whoever, whichever can be used in a similar way. Whatever decision you make, you make as a team.
Non-finite clauses containing an – ing form These are clauses without a main verb. Actions happening at the same time One action happening before another, explains the reason for something happening. Opening the letter, she found that it contained a cheque for $1000. An event which is result of another event. I didn’t get wet, having remembered to take my umbrella. Where a passive construction might be expected, this is often shortened to a past participle. (Having been)Abandoned by his colleagues, the Minister was forced to resign.
Flushed and panting, Jack waves the tickets as he and Fabrizio run up the ramp to the 3rd class gangway entrance