Presentation on theme: "Articles and Determiners"— Presentation transcript:
1Articles and Determiners María Robles RuedaAntea Cabanellas Arroyaga
2There are many different rules about the use of articles and determiners in English.
3Definite articles Especific uses related to groups. Uses on objects. Emphatic use.Most and the most.Importance of context.
4Especific uses related to groups Classes:This is one way to refer to classes, and it is perhaps more formal than using a plural.The tiger is threatened with extinction.
5National groups: Group as a whole: The French eat in restaurants more than the English.Single examples are not formed in the same way:A Frenchman/ woman, an Englishman/woman.
6If they are clearly plural: Other groups:If they are clearly plural:The social Democrats, the Rolling Stones
7Geographical names: The following use the: This does not apply to: Rivers: the Thames.Mountain ranges: the Alps.Oceans: the Mediterranean.Unique features: the Channel, the Artic.Compass point/ areas: The East, the Middle East.Countries (Collective or plural): the United Kingdom, the Netherlands.This does not apply to:Mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn)Lakes: Lake Genova.Continents: Asia.Countries: France, Spain.
8Post- modification, especially with… of… place a role in place names. Leeds University/ the University of Leeds.If the first part of a place-name is another name, the normal rules about zero article are applied. The same applies in geographical namesBronw’s restaurantCanvey Island.
9Uses on objects Unique objects: The moon, the sun.Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe.This planet has a small moon.
10This tend to be ‘unique’. Titles:This tend to be ‘unique’.The director of studies.If the title is post-modified (have a description coming after the noun), the is more likely, but not essential. Compare:She became President in 2008.She became (the) president of the country in 2008.
11The may be part of the title, and so is capitalized. Other titles:The may be part of the title, and so is capitalized.Newspapers: The Independent, The Sunday Times
12Musical instruments:Jane plays the flute (in general).The guitar is my favourite instrument (in general).It is, of course, still possible to use an article when we refer to an object.There was a small brown flute in the window of the shop.
13Emphatic useThis is heavily stressed and emphasizes the following noun.This hotel is the place to stay.
14Most and the mostMost hotels in England are very expensive. (making a generalization) This is the most expensive hotel in town. (talking about a specific hotel)
15Importance of contextThe definite article refers to already mentioned items, and so its use depends on context.The Smiths had a son and a daughter. The son was in the Army and the daughter was training to be a doctor.On the Saturday, there was a terrible storm.Here, the Saturday refers to a day in an area of time already mentioned.On the Saturday of that week…
17Examples A boy An apple A car A / AN Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)NOTE: An before an h mute - an hour, an honour. A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a unit
18Uses to refer to something for the first time An elephant and a mouse fell in love.Would you like a drink?I've finally got a good job.
19to refer to a particular member of a group or class with names of jobsJohn is a doctor.Mary is training to be an engineer.with nationalities and religionsJohn is an Englishman.Kate is a Catholic.with musical instrumentsSherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")with names of daysI was born on a Thursday
20Some other uses to refer to a kind of, or example of something the mouse had a tiny nosethe elephant had a long trunkit was a very strange carwith singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such'What a shame!She's such a beautiful girl.
21meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person I'd like an orange and two lemons please.The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million.NOTE: that we use 'one' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers: I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat. We've got six computers but only one printer.
23Grammar uses After the 's possessive case: With uncountable nouns: His brother's car.Peter's house.With uncountable nouns:Rice is the main food in Asia.Milk is often added to tea in England.War is destructive.
24Common uses with the names of languages French is spoken in Tahiti.English uses many words of Latin origin.Indonesian is a relatively new language.with names of countries (if singular)Germany is an important economic power.He's just returned from Zimbabwe.(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
25with people's names (if singular) with the names of meals.Lunch is at midday.Dinner is in the evening.Breakfast is the first meal of the day.with people's names (if singular)John's coming to the party.George King is my uncle.(But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
26with titles and names: with professions: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)with professions:Engineering is a useful career.He'll probably go into medicine.
27with names of shops: with years: I'll get the card at Smith's. Can you go to Boots for me?with years:1948 was a wonderful year.Do you remember 1995?
28with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.She lives near Lake Windermere.Have you visited Long Island?with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:Victoria Station is in the centre of London.Can you direct me to Bond Street?They're flying from Heathrow.
29Fixed expressionsby car by train by air on foot on holiday on air (in broadcasting) at school at work at University in church in prison in bed
31FunctionDeterminers are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. The word 'people' by itself is a general reference to some group of human beings. If someone says 'these people', we know which group they are talking about, and if they say 'a lot of people' we know how big the group is.
32ClassesDefinite and Indefinite articles the, a, an Demonstratives this, that, these, thosePossessives my, your, his, her, its, our, theirQuantifiers a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc.Numbers one, ten, thirty, etc.Distributives all, both, half, either, neither, each, everyDifference words other, anotherQuestion words Which, what, whoseDefining words which, whoseThe following words are pre-determiners. They go before determiners, such as articles: such and what, half, rather, quite