2 PARTICIPLE CLAUSESParticiples can combine with other words into participle clauses. We often use participle clauses after nouns in order to define or identify the nouns. Participle clauses are often very like relative clauses.
3 P.C can be used adjectivally Examples:Who is the girl being interwiewed by the journalist? = who is being interwiewed.Look at that woman sitting in the corner. = who is sitting in the corner.
4 P.C can be used adverbially Examples:Washed by hand, this jersey will keep its shape for years. = If it is washed by handFeeling exhausted after the flight, I went to bed assoon as I got to the hotel. = Because I felt exhausted...
5 Perfect Participles Causes are often adverbial clauses showing when or why something happened Examples:Having made your decision, it is not possible to change your mind. = When you have made...Having spent happy holidays in Spain as a child, she was keen to return there with her own family. = Because she had spent...
6 The subject of the participle clauses is usually the same as that of the main clause. However, it is possible to have participle clauses with a different subject.Examples:There being no money left, we had to start making our way home. = Because there were no money left...Its being too late to get a bus, we took a taxi. = Because it was too late...
7 When the participle cause describes a situation, a different subject is often introduced with the word with.Examples:With it being Sunday in New Zealand, we couldn't find any shops open.I was beginning to get a headache with the children all talking at the same time.
8 So... Here is the work part. YOU will have to do some exercises that will never be useful for us, but to the teacher.Present ParticipleParticiple MixForm of Present Participle Participles (Mix) Combine Sentences using the Present Participle Combine Sentences using Participle Constructions Participles after certain Verbs Past ParticipleForm of Past Participle have something done Combine Sentences using Participle Constructions (with Conjunctions) Combine Sentences using the Past Participle Perfect ParticipleReplace Relative Clauses by Participle Constructions Combine Sentences using the Perfect Participle Rewrite Sentences without using the Participle Constructions Active or Passive Voice
9 EXERCISES 2Rewrite the sentences below using a present participle, past participle or perfect participle clause. Identify the new clause underlining it.I smelt something. It was burning.I was exhausted through lack of sleep and fell asleep at my desk.She was doing the high jump. She twisted her ankle.John spent the summer of 1990 in Europe. He was testing his boards on Austrian glaciers.Peter was abandoned by his parents at an early age and took to stealing.I had plenty of time to spare so I had a good look round the town.Mary had been shoplifting for many years before she was found out.I left them. They were doing the washing-up.He was frequently criticized for his self-centred attitude but was nonetheless very popular.I had been out all day so I was quite happy to stay in for the evening.The bedrooms that overlook the sea are the best ones in the hotel.I had failed one of my exams so I couldn't get into university.He couldn't understand the message. He hadn't learnt any Japanese.After he was released from prison, Andy could not find a job anywhere.
10 SOLUTION EXERCISES 2I smelt something burning.Exhausted through lack of sleep, I fell asleep at my desk.She twisted her ankle doing the high jump.John spent the summer of 1990 in Europe testing his boards on Austrian glaciers.Abandoned by his parents at an early age, Peter took to stealing.Having plenty of time to spare, I had a good look round the town.Mary had been shoplifting for many years before being found out.I left them doing the washing -up.Frequently criticised for his self-centred attitude, he was nonetheless very popular.Having been out all day, I was quite happy to stay in for the evening.The bedrooms overlooking the sea are the best ones in the hotel.Having failed one of my exams, I couldn't get into university.Not having learnt Japanese, he couldn't understand the message.After being released from prison, Andy could not find a job anywhere.
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