Presentation on theme: "Unit 8 Modals María Casas Gómez Javier Álvarez-Casariego."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 8 Modals María Casas Gómez Javier Álvarez-Casariego
Must Must can be used to express obligation ▫Ex: you must do exactly what the exam questions ask you to do Mustn't expresses prohibition ▫Ex: You mustn't talk during the exam The past form of must is had to and the negative wasn´t ▫Ex: We had to write to compositions last week ▫Ex: We weren´t allowed to take any books to the exam Must can be used to express certainty ▫Ex: That must be john, I recognize his hair The past form of must expressing certainty is must + have + past participle. ▫Ex: The train is late, the heavy snow must have caused delays Must be going to + infinitive is used to make deductions about the future. ▫Ex: They bought lots of paint, They must be going to decora te
Must and mustn't are used to give strong advice ▫Ex: You must stop smoking ▫Ex: You mustn't give up hope Must and mustn't are used to make recommendations ▫Ex: You must see Spielberg's new film, it´s brilliant ▫Ex: You mustn't miss it Must and mustn't are used to talk about strong necessity ▫Ex: We must have oxygen to survive
Will and would Will and would are used to make polite invitations and requests, but would is more polite. ▫Ex: “ Will/would you sit here, please?” Will and wont are used to describe habits and characteristic behavior in the present and in general. ▫Ex: “He will watch TV all evening. Sometimes he wont talk for hours” Would and wouldn't are used to talk about past habits and characteristics. ▫Ex: “He would insist on smoking. It killed him in the end, of course” Will is used to express demands, insist that something happens in the future or express determination. ▫Ex: “I will go there I want and don’t try to stop me!”
Ought to and should. Ought to and should are used to say that something seems likely because it is logical or normal. ▫Ex: “It is 6 o clock. He ought to/ should be home soon.” Ought to and should can be used to give advice or suggest that something would be a good idea. ▫Ex: “You ought to/ should tell her how you feel.” Ought to and should are used to talk about duty and express weak obligation. ▫Ex: “People ought to/ should wait in the queue and not push in.” Ought to and should are used to criticize actions or attitudes. ▫Ex: “People ought to/ should show more respect for old people.”
Ought to and should are used to talk about the importance of doing something. -Ex: “The manager suggested that we ought to/ should leave the restaurant as quickly as possible.” Ought to and should are used to talk about necessity. -Ex: “Sport clothes should be light and allow you to move easily.” The negative forms are ought not to or oughtn't to and should not or shouldn't. -Ex: “You oughtn't to/ shouldn’t be late on your first day at work.” The past forms are ought to/ should + have + past participle. -Ex: “You ought to have/ should have told us you were coming.”
Exercices 1. This ________ be dangerous if you don't have the right equipment. 2. You ________ yell at your parents. It's not nice. 3. I ________ have seen that movie eight times. 4. I can't allow you to hang around here = I ________ have you hanging around here. 5. Isn't that Charlie's umbrella? Yes, he ________ have left it here yesterday. 6. ________ I borrow your pen for a minute? 7. ________ you speak Japanese? No, I can't. 8. It's late. I ________ get going. 9. I saw that pen this morning... it ________ be around here somewhere. can 10. I ________ understand what he's saying.