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Presentation on theme: " Legally High? With Scott Jardine D and G Police Katy MacLeod- Training and Outreach Coordinator- Crew."— Presentation transcript:

1 Legally High? With Scott Jardine D and G Police Katy MacLeod- Training and Outreach Coordinator- Crew

2 What are legal highs? Legal Highs are substances made from assorted herbs, herbal extracts and ‘research chemicals’, which emulate the effects of some illegal drugs such as Cannabis, LSD, Cocaine, or others. These substances are not currently controlled by the Misuse of Drugs or Medicine Acts.” Page 2 Arthur & Grunert (2005)

3 Terminology Legal highs New Psychoactive substances Novel Psychoactive Substances Research chemicals Designer drugs Page 3

4 Head shops 47 known head shops in Scotland Page 4

5 Page 5

6 ONLINE SALES OF NPS (Legal Highs) Jan 2010 : 170 Online Shops Jan 2011: 314 Online Shops Jan 2012: 639 Online Shops March 2013 : ??? Page 6 Source: EMCDDA, 2013

7 “Eric” the chemist Page 7

8 Current legislation UK Misuse of drugs Medicines act Temporary class drug orders Consumer protection legislation Ireland- New Psychoactive substances bill NZ-Psychoactive Substances bill Page 8

9 Enforcement No Change to Police action 1/5 contain control drugs* Purity Adulterants Festivals Hospital admissions Page 9 * Home Office, 2012

10 Novel Psychoactive substances Page 10

11 NPS- how much a problem in Scotland? We don’t know!! What we do know.. Crime survey Salsus Global Drug Survey People often don’t present at drug services People don’t report/aren’t asked Page 11

12 Drugs Crew’s clients present with Shop (harm reduction advice sessions) CounsellingFestival Crisis Intervention Outreach survey (drug used most often) Cannabis 34%Cannabis 57%Alcohol 75%Cannabis 42% General NPS 23%Cocaine 31%Ecstasy/MDMA 33% Alcohol 24% Alcohol 15%Alcohol 13%Unknown 10%MDMA/Ecstasy 14% MDMA 8%GHB/GBL 11%Cannabis 8%Cocaine 9% Cocaine 6%General NPS 10%Cocaine 6%Mephedrone 4% Steroids 3%Mephedrone 10%LSD/Mushrooms 6% Ketamine 2% Speed 10%Legal Highs 5%Valium 1% Mephedrone 2%MDMA 6%Benzos 3%Speed 1% Page 12

13 Club Drug Clinic Page 13

14 Amphetamine and cocaine replacements Opiate and benzo replacements Cannabis replacements Ecstasy replacements LSD and psychedelic replacements

15 Page 15

16 Page 16

17 10/10/2014 17

18 The return of MDMA! Page 18 Source: Images courtesy of SCDEA

19 Ecstasy Still can find piperazines in Ecstasy tablets-include BZP, mcPP, TMFPP PMA and PMMA has been found in some ecstasy tablets More recently AMT/5-IT in tablets Page 19 Source: Images courtesy of SCDEA

20 Why NPS? Able to buy online Other drugs unavailable Value for money Quality of other drugs poor Better quality then illegal drugs Legal status Prefer effect Think they are safer No access to illegal drugs Dog detection less Urine screen detection less Page 20 GDS, 2012

21 Synthetic versions often not preferred by users Other drivers for use: Legality Drug tests Ease of purchase Page 21

22 Intended effects Page 22 Dissocociation/alt ered perceptions Euphoria Relaxation Elevated mood Empathy/co nnection with others Connection with music Feelings of stimulation and energy Escapism

23 Side effects Page 23 Palpitations Chest pain Breathing problems Headaches Nausea Renal issues Tachycardia Peripheral Vasoconstriction Cravings Agitation Irritability Restlessness Insomnia Hallucinations Depression Anxiety Paranoia Crisis mental state

24 Ivory Wave poisoned patients NPIS 2012

25 Presentation of toxicity - symptoms NPIS 2012

26 The drug is only one part… Effects on the user (experiences & long term) Set DrugSetting Page 26 Adapted from Norman Zinberg

27 OMG THAT TREE IS EATING THE SKY!! Yeah, me neither. Where’d you get this stuff Steve? I’m not feeling anything… A friend of a friend sold it to me, but it hasn’t hit me yet, How ‘bout you Mike? Page 27

28 High risk groups? Users using to excessive levels Naive users (young/new to NPS) Users with underlying health issues Poly drug users Injectors Page 28 Freestock image:

29 Other key issues Active ingredients unknown Dose Duration of using episode Plain stupidity! Page 29

30 Some user perspectives.. Page 30 “It was like being inside a purple washing machine for 10 hours on high spin” unknown legal high user “Synthetic varieties are surprisingly potent… it’s quite a chemical stone. I much prefer cannabis but I like the fact it doesn’t stink the place out like good grass does.” synthetic cannabinoid user “I thought it was going to be like coke, I didn’t realise it was going to be trippy. I was looking for a high and I got a bloody high all right..” AMT user

31 Internet user forums Erowid Bluelight Pill reports Drugs Forum Partyvibes Hundreds More… Page 31

32 Harm reduction Advice around administration route Test dosing and dosage information Avoid poly drug use including alcohol Considering set and setting Having a “sitter” Thinking about safe sex Getting home safely Going to sleep on their side Page 32

33 Treatment Drug counselling Residential treatment Fellowships and self help Alternative therapies Sleep management Tapering strategies Prescribing? Page 33

34 Dumfries and Galloway NPS Working Group set up in May 2012 Partnership Working Briefing Documents Education Inputs Survey Monkey Basic Awareness for professionals App development Conference ED / Mental Health Caffeine Based Drinks

35 Crew Training packages Information and advice to professionals and staff Drug monitoring groups Crew online “My Crew” Drugs database/Phone App Ongoing research in trends Page 35

36 What can workers do? Ask about new psychoactive substances Its ok not to know therefore gain knowledge from service users Appropriate signposting Share local trends with DMG groups, Crew, Police and others Page 36

37 What does the future hold ? Page 37 Potential dilemma: Less users and more problems Or More users and less problems (Moro, 2012)

38 Questions? Page 38

39 Contact details Page 39 Scott Jardine 0845 600 5701 Katy MacLeod 0131 220 3404

40 Acknowledgements Thanks to: The club drug clinic (London) Dr Adam Winstock The Global Drugs Survey Dr. John Ramsay TicTac Mark Adley (The Drugs Wheel) SCDEA James Dear-National Poisons information Service References: EMCDDAEU DRUG MARKETS REPORT | A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT ON THE HOME OFFICE FORENSIC EARLY WARNING SYSTEM (FEWS)A SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCESI N THE UK Page 40

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