Presentation on theme: "Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 ‘What’s sex got to do with it’ Understanding normal sexual functioning to understand deviancy 1."— Presentation transcript:
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 ‘What’s sex got to do with it’ Understanding normal sexual functioning to understand deviancy 1
Embarrassment Lack of confidence Fear of what might hear Fear of what we might say/think Similarity with the offender but Impact on ability to assess, challenge and enable change Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 20142
3 Sexuality I think’ he replied ‘ it is here to stay’ Groucho Marx on Sex After people are clothed and fed, then they think about sex. K’ung Fu-Tzu (Confucius) BC
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Sexual Health Integration of the somatic, emotional, intellectual and social aspects of A sexual being in ways that are positively enriching and enhance personality, communication and love. (conveys being alive and human) WHO 1975
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6 Sexuality – what’s normal to know what is deviant Gender similarities / differences Impact of age on sexuality Impact of medication/illness on sexuality Psychosexual dysfunctions What do we need to know?
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 What do we need to do? 7
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10 Perceptions of sexual behaviour – Normal? Perceptions of sexual behaviour – Normal? Sex when young………………..wrong Sex when old …………………doesn’t happen Sex when ill, disabled etc ………..harmful So when is it the right time?
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Sexual Development Bancroft’s (1989) model of sexual development: prenatal childhood adolescence young adulthood adulthood middle age later years Explore sexual identity sexual responsiveness capacity for dyadic relationships Consideration in the exploring of an offender’s sexual pathway
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 So what’s normal sexuality 12 NATSAL Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyle in Britain August , 162 men and women aged Gender Age Culture / Religion Background Partner Ability/ Disability Circumstances LIFE
3 Components of sexual desire: 1.Drive 2.Beliefs and values 3.Motivation 13 Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014
14 Four overlapping phases make sexual function: 1. Drive 2. Arousal – marked by erection 3. Release – orgasm and ejaculation 4. Resolution – degree of refractoriness therefore biopsychosocial process With offenders these 4 phases should also be considered in interviewing and analysis of offending
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Research undertaken with 1065 women and 447 men attending General Practices. Results; 97 men and 422 women received at least one ICD-10 diagnosis. The most common problems were: erectile failure and lack or loss of sexual desire in men lack or loss of sexual desire and failure of orgasmic response in women. Increasing age and being unemployed predicted sexual problems in women, bisexual orientation, being non-white, and being unemployed were demographic predictors in men. The main clinical predictors were poor physical function and dissatisfaction with current sex life in both sexes and higher psychological morbidity in women, increasing age, sexual dissatisfaction Normal sexual behaviour?
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Normal sexual behaviour Normal sexual behaviour ? 2/3 of participants reported sexual intercourse in the preceding month. Men were significantly more likely than women to report having masturbated and to express satisfaction with their sex life. Of the 139 (32%) men who did not report sexual intercourse, 81 (58%) had masturbated and 17 (12%) had received oral sex in the preceding four weeks. Of the 357 (34%) women who did not report sexual intercourse in the preceding four weeks, 108 (30%) had masturbated and 18 (5%) had received oral sex in the preceding four weeks. People who had not had sexual intercourse were much more likely to be dissatisfied with their sex life than the remainder.
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 Gender Differences and Similarities 17
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Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Sexual Behaviour – Normal ?. Male and sexuality Performance heavy Female and sexualityEmotionally heavy
Leonard Consultancy23 Intimacy and human functioning Duncombe and Marsden 1993 study Women complained of: Men complained of: Lack of intimacy Lack of sex Lack of empathy Lack of validation Having to accommodate to low levels of intimacy
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 Lowenstein (1996) noted the significance of visceral states (including heightened sexual arousal) on decision making and suggested that such heightened states can impact decision making in 3 broad ways 1.Narrow attention to factors related to that state 2.Reduce time horizons, focusing on short term factors 3.Narrow focus of attention inwards, where the individuals own needs gain primacy over other decisional factors. Impact on risk taking behaviour. 24
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 ‘ erotic plasticity’ refers to the extent to which sexual drive can be shaped by social, cultural and situational factors i.e low plasticity – sex drive inflexible, independent of circumstances and suggests strong biological programming i.e high plasticity- entails the capacity to change and adapt High plasticity means individuals are able to change their sexual patterns and preferences as they move through adult life 25 Sex Drive
Wives tend to change and adjust sexually over the course of marriage more than men do (Ard 1977) and that women are more likely than men to add new sexual activities Later in life ( Adams and Turner 1985). A man’s sexual tastes appear to be fairly well set by adulthood but a woman’s may change significantly Eg women more likely to switch back and forth re sexual orientation than men Baumeister 2004 IMPACT ON CHANGE 26 Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014
Impact of age on sexual functioning 27
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Age related changes in sexual functioning Male sexuality peaks sharply around 17 years of age and then gradually declines Females do not reach their full sexual potential until their late 30’s or early 40’s and then they slow down to a lesser degree than men.
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Potency and the Aging Process Belief that sex is among first biological functions to fall to the aging process – myth. Sexuality among last of facilities to decline with maturity Elderly people are still having enjoyable sexual experiences – although some may not remember the name of their partner!
Age and Sexual Functioning Age and Sexual Functioning 1.Starr & Weiner 1981 – 800 adults - age range from years 68% men and 36% women still have sexual intercourse 2. Brecher (1984) Largest study of 4000 men and women aged 50 and over 50% men and women aged over 70 sexually active 60% men and 40% women still had sexual intercourse 30 Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014
3. Bretschneider and Mc Coy (1988) 100 men and 102 women aged Majority said had active sex Affectionate, and intimate with someone of opposite sex at least once a year Mutual caressing 82% men, 64% women Masturbation 72% men, 40% women Penetration 63% men and 30% women 4. Mulligan and Moss (1991) 1031 war veterans aged Sexual interest remained present but diminished with age Frequency of penetration from once weekly year olds to once a year Sexual activity may depend more on availability of sexually functioning partner Age and Sexual Functioning 31
Age and Sexual Functioning Factors associated with sexual life decline Fatigue, physical and mental Routine Unsatisfying family relations Boredom Career / finance worries Performance anxiety Monotony of sexual relations Decline in the physical appearance of the partner 32Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014
33 Sex and Aging (kaplan ) PhaseMale Female I (a) Significantly lengthened No effect, Multiple Orgasm refractory period (b) Decreased volume of ejaculate II (a) Erections less firmVaginal dryness Excitement(b) Older men require & atrophy caused more physical & by oestrogen mental stimulationdeficiency to attain/maintain erection (c) Duration of maintenance decreased (d) Erections more vulnerable to emotions III DesireVariable, some men and women maintain sexual desire into 80 /90’s. Sex drive of others decline in menopausal years- testosterone is a factor for both genders
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota ‘ the need for unusual sexual stimulation’ Oxford Text Book Of Psychiatry Second Edition 1993 Lasts for 6 months, causes significant clinical distress or impairment in social, occupational and /or other areas of individual’s functioning Aggrawal (2009) listed 547 terms describing paraphilic sexual interests Paraphilia
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Paraphilia 1. Abnormalities of sexual preference Has 3 aspects: Social Harm to other person Suffering experienced by person Behaviour includes: Indecent exposure, voyeurism fetishists, cross dressing, sexual activity with child, incest, pornography
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Paraphilia ( cont) 2. Abnormalities in preference of sexual ‘object’ Preference for something other than another adult person in achievement of sexual excitement. ‘Object’ may be inanimate as in fetishist transvestism a child as in paedophilia an animal as in zoophilia dead person as in necrophilia
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Paraphilia (cont) 3. Abnormalities in the preference of sexual act Variations in the behaviour that is carried out to obtain sexual arousal. Behaviours such as: exhibitionism voyeurism sexual sadism sexual masochism frotteurism coprophilia coprophagia sexual urethism urophilia
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Psychosexual Dysfunctions Definition: The persistent impairment of the normal patterns of sexual interest or response.
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Normal population sexual dysfunctions Between May 1999 and February 2001 of men and women aged years resident in Britain. The response rate was 65.4%. A total of 34.8% of men and 53.8% of women who had at least one heterosexual partner in the previous year reported at least one sexual problem lasting at least one month during this period. The most common problems among men were lacking interest in sex, premature orgasm and anxiety about performance; and among women, lack of interest, inability to experience orgasm and painful intercourse
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction Inclusive: Anti hypertensives Anti-ulcer drugs Alcohol Sedative/hypnotics Mood stabilizers Antipsychotics Antidepressants Depression associated with: Decreased libido Diminished erectile function Decreased sexual function Gitlin 1997
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Psychological causes of sexual dysfunction Predisposing factorsrestrictive upbringing disturbed family relationships traumatic early sexual experiences inadequate sexual knowledge Precipitantschildbirth discord in relationship infidelityunreasonable expectations dysfunction in partnerorganic factors ageingalcohol / drugs depression, anxiety traumatic sexual experience Maintaining factorsperformance anxietydiscord in relationship sexual guiltimpaired self image anticipation of failureinadequate sexual knowledge loss of attractionrestricted foreplay poor communicationpsychiatric disorder fear of intimacy
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Female Psychosexual Dysfunctions Orgasmic dysfunction vaginismus impaired sexual interest impaired sexual arousal sexual phobias dyspareunia
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Male psychosexual dysfunctions premature ejaculation retarded ejaculation erectile dysfunction (impotence) impaired sexual interest sexual phobias
Leonard Consultancy44 Impact on staff working with issues of sexuality Working with sexuality whether from an abuse or Dysfunction perspective will for the worker create ‘ encounters with self and sexuality that prove rewarding enlightening and liberating, but it may for some reveal aspects of our own sexual development and sexual values which are unresolved.’ Morrison 1997
Leonard Consultancy45 an inability to talk to partners about sex, about work or about the connections between the two sexual dysfunctions, including arousal problems and a a lack of interest in sex a heightening of the importance of sex in personal or friendship relationships, or self soothing over – sensitive to sex Sexual Impact Issues
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota Application to Practice Offender’s sexual development pathway Consideration of age, health, medication Awareness of existence of paraphilia / deviancy Use knowledge of what the norms are in society Awareness of your own sexuality, attitudes and beliefs
Leonard Consultancy - Scotland Nota 2014 Thank you 47