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Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress 1815-1914 Starting on Page 747.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress 1815-1914 Starting on Page 747."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress 1815-1914 Starting on Page 747

2 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire  Review of the British Government  Constitutional Monarchy  King or Queen, head of state (official leader)  Parliament had the real power  Voting rights  Men: only those who owned a substantial amount of land could vote  Women: no vote  In total, barely 5% of the people could vote for parliament.

3 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire  Queen Victoria  Born in 1819  Becomes Queen in 1837, at the age of 18  Married Prince Albert of Germany in 1840, they had nine children.  The Royal couple presented a picture of loving family life that became the British ideal.  Queen Victoria was very popular, and reigned until 1901, and her rule is known as “The Victorian Era.”

4 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire  Reform Bill of 1832  Lessened property requirements, allowing the upper middle class to vote. Increased population that voted to 7%  Chartist Movement  The People’s Charter of 1838. Wanted new reforms  Voting for all men  Annual parliamentary elections  Secret Ballot  No property requirements for Members of Parliament  Salaries for Members of Parliament  Parliament rejects request, BUT…  In 1867 and 1884, laws are passed that expands the vote to a majority of men

5 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire  Women’s Rights Movement  Early protests were peaceful  Resistance argued that women lacked the ability to take part in politics  Emmeline Pankhurst: Women’s Social & Political Union  Goal was to draw attention to women’s suffrage  Pankhurst and her daughters protested, and would be arrested several times.  The Right to Vote would be given after World War I in both Britain and America

6 Section 1: Democracy in France  The Third Republic  Unstable, between 1871-1914, there was a change in power nearly every year  New constitution approved in 1875  The Dreyfus Affair  Groups in France wanted either a monarchy or military rule  Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a rare Jewish officer in the military, was accused of selling secrets to Germany, sentenced to life in prison based on false evidence  Became an issue between justice and honor for the army  Highlight the issue of anti-Semitism, or prejudice against Jews  Zionism  Movement to create a separate Jewish homeland in Palestine (modern day Israel)

7 Section 2: Self-Rule for Canada  Upper and Lower Canada  Upper Canada (modern Ontario): English speaking majority  Lower Canada (modern Quebec): French speaking majority  The Durham Report, 1839  Reunite Upper and Lower Canada  Give home rule for domestic matters

8 Section 2: Self-Rule for Canada  By the mid 1800s, many Canadians felt that they needed a central government to better unify the country against the United States  In 1867, Nova Soctia and New Brunswick were joined with the Province of Canada to create the new Dominion of Canada.  The Dominion would have self-rule in all domestic matters, with its own Parliament and Prime Minister  By 1871, the Dominion stretched from Atlantic to Pacific

9 Section 2: Self-Rule for Australia and New Zealand  Australia  Native Population: Aborigines  Oldest ongoing culture in the world  Britain Claimed part of Australia in 1770  British used Australia as a Penal Colony (Prison Colony) starting in 1788  Free Settlers join Australia in the 1800s, especially after a gold rush in 1851  New Zealand  Natives: Maori  Polynesian people  Claimed by Britain in 1769  First settlers were Christian missionaries

10 Section 2: Self-Rule for Australia and New Zealand  Colonies in New Zealand and Australia became self- governing in 1850s  Australian colonies unified as the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901  New Zealand became a Dominion in 1907

11 Section 2: The Irish Struggle for Home Rule  The English began taking over Ireland in the 1100s  During the 1500s and 1600s, English government limited the rights of Catholics.  Ireland formally joined to Britain in 1801  Catholic emancipation in 1829  Great Famine  Between 1845-1848, Ireland’s potato crop ruined by plant fungus. 1 million people died during those years  Another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States, Canada, and Australia

12 Section 2: The Irish Struggle for Home Rule  British Resistance to Irish Home Rule  Feared that Irish Protestants would be mistreated as a minority in a Catholic majority country  Most protestants lived in the north, in Ulster.  Home Rule bill approved in 1914, but put on hold by World War I  Easter Rising: 1916  Irish Republican Army (IRA)  Home Rule granted in 1921  Ulster, also known as Northern Ireland, remained under British rule  Full independence declared in 1949

13 Section 3: America Expands West  Manifest Destiny: the idea that the United States had the right to rule North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific  Used to justify removing Native Americans from their tribal Lands  Trail of Tears, 1830s  American Expansion Westward:  1803: Louisiana Purchase  1819: Spain gives up Florida  1846: Treaty with Britain gives America part of the Oregon Territory

14 Section 3: America Expands West  Texas Revolution and War with Mexico  Texan settlers declare independence from Mexican rule in 1836  In a treaty, Texas is annexed as a state into the United States in 1845  Mexico still claims Texas, and declares war in 1846.  Mexico is defeated in 1848, and gives up much of it’s northern territory, including present day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico  1853 Gadsden Purchase (part of present day Southern Arizona and New Mexico) brought the continental United States to it’s modern day boundaries.

15 Section 3: The American Civil War  Differences between North and South  The North had a diverse economy, with both farms and a growing number of factories, and used free workers for labor  The South relied on a plantation economy, mainly relying on one type of crop (cotton), and used slaves for labor.  Slavery Issue  Most Southerners believed slavery was necessary for their economy  A growing number of Northerners believed slavery was morally wrong, and slavery was outlawed in the North.  Fought over the expansion of slavery to the western states.

16 Section 3: The American Civil War  War Breaks out between the States  Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln  Secession: Southern states voting to withdraw, or leave, the Union. First state to secede is South Carolina in December of 1860  War Starts on April 12, 1861  Southern advantages: better military leadership, better knowledge of the terrain (war primarily fought in the south)  Northern advantages: larger population, better transportation, greater resources, more factories  South surrenders in 1865  Abolition of Slavery  Emancipation Proclamation – 1863  13 th, 14 th and 15 th Amendments

17 Section 3: America after the Civil War  Immigration  During the 1870s, nearly 2,000 immigrants arrived each day  By 1914, 20 million people had immigrated to the U.S. since the Civil War  Allowed for increased industrialization, and westward settlement  Railroads  First transcontinental railroad completed in 1869  By 1900, there were 200,000 miles of track crossing the country  By 1914, America was a leading industrial power

18 Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science  New Inventions  New types of Energy: Electricity and Internal Combustion  Thomas Edison: 1,000 inventions, including light bulb, the phonograph, “moving pictures.”  Alexander Graham Bell: Telephone  Guglielmo Marconi: Radio  Henry Ford: Model-T and the assembly line  The Wright Brothers: First Flight of an Airplane

19 Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science  New Discoveries in Medicine  The Germ Theory of Disease  Louis Pasteur: discovers bacteria, creates method called “pasteurization” (heating things up to kill bacteria)  Joseph Lister: 1865, clean surgery room and use of antiseptics (germ killing liquids)  Public cleanliness & health

20 Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science  New Discoveries in Science  Charles Darwin: Theory of Evolution  On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection  Gregor Mendel: Genetics  Inherited traits in plants  John Dalton: Atom Theory  Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic Table  Marie & Pierre Curie  Radioactivity  Psychology  Ivan Pavlov: human actions could be changed by training  Sigmund Freud: suppressed memories, desires and impulses shape behavior

21 Section 4: The Rise of Mass Culture  What creates Mass Culture?  Better public education  Improvement in communications  Invention of phonograph and records  Shorter workday (10 hours) and shorter workweek (5 ½ days)  Music Halls and Vaudeville Shows  Movies Movies  Sports  US: Football and Baseball  Europe: Soccer  British Empire: Cricket  Olympics, 1896

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