Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress 1815-1914 Starting on Page 747
2Section 1: Reform in the British Empire Review of the British GovernmentConstitutional MonarchyKing or Queen, head of state (official leader)Parliament had the real powerVoting rightsMen: only those who owned a substantial amount of land could voteWomen: no voteIn total, barely 5% of the people could vote for parliament.
3Section 1: Reform in the British Empire Queen VictoriaBorn in 1819Becomes Queen in 1837, at the age of 18Married Prince Albert of Germany in 1840, they had nine children.The Royal couple presented a picture of loving family life that became the British ideal.Queen Victoria was very popular, and reigned until 1901, and her rule is known as “The Victorian Era.”
4Section 1: Reform in the British Empire Reform Bill of 1832Lessened property requirements, allowing the upper middle class to vote. Increased population that voted to 7%Chartist MovementThe People’s Charter of Wanted new reformsVoting for all menAnnual parliamentary electionsSecret BallotNo property requirements for Members of ParliamentSalaries for Members of ParliamentParliament rejects request, BUT…In 1867 and 1884, laws are passed that expands the vote to a majority of men
5Section 1: Reform in the British Empire Women’s Rights MovementEarly protests were peacefulResistance argued that women lacked the ability to take part in politicsEmmeline Pankhurst: Women’s Social & Political UnionGoal was to draw attention to women’s suffragePankhurst and her daughters protested, and would be arrested several times.The Right to Vote would be given after World War I in both Britain and America
6Section 1: Democracy in France The Third RepublicUnstable, between , there was a change in power nearly every yearNew constitution approved in 1875The Dreyfus AffairGroups in France wanted either a monarchy or military ruleCaptain Alfred Dreyfus, a rare Jewish officer in the military, was accused of selling secrets to Germany, sentenced to life in prison based on false evidenceBecame an issue between justice and honor for the armyHighlight the issue of anti-Semitism, or prejudice against JewsZionismMovement to create a separate Jewish homeland in Palestine (modern day Israel)
7Section 2: Self-Rule for Canada Upper and Lower CanadaUpper Canada (modern Ontario): English speaking majorityLower Canada (modern Quebec): French speaking majorityThe Durham Report, 1839Reunite Upper and Lower CanadaGive home rule for domestic matters
8Section 2: Self-Rule for Canada By the mid 1800s, many Canadians felt that they needed a central government to better unify the country against the United StatesIn 1867, Nova Soctia and New Brunswick were joined with the Province of Canada to create the new Dominion of Canada.The Dominion would have self-rule in all domestic matters, with its own Parliament and Prime MinisterBy 1871, the Dominion stretched from Atlantic to Pacific
9Section 2: Self-Rule for Australia and New Zealand Native Population: AboriginesOldest ongoing culture in the worldBritain Claimed part of Australia in 1770British used Australia as a Penal Colony (Prison Colony) starting in 1788Free Settlers join Australia in the 1800s, especially after a gold rush in 1851New ZealandNatives: MaoriPolynesian peopleClaimed by Britain in 1769First settlers were Christian missionaries
10Section 2: Self-Rule for Australia and New Zealand Colonies in New Zealand and Australia became self- governing in 1850sAustralian colonies unified as the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901New Zealand became a Dominion in 1907
11Section 2: The Irish Struggle for Home Rule The English began taking over Ireland in the 1100sDuring the 1500s and 1600s, English government limited the rights of Catholics.Ireland formally joined to Britain in 1801Catholic emancipation in 1829Great FamineBetween , Ireland’s potato crop ruined by plant fungus. 1 million people died during those yearsAnother 1.5 million emigrated to the United States, Canada, and Australia
12Section 2: The Irish Struggle for Home Rule British Resistance to Irish Home RuleFeared that Irish Protestants would be mistreated as a minority in a Catholic majority countryMost protestants lived in the north, in Ulster.Home Rule bill approved in 1914, but put on hold by World War IEaster Rising: 1916Irish Republican Army (IRA)Home Rule granted in 1921Ulster, also known as Northern Ireland, remained under British ruleFull independence declared in 1949
13Section 3: America Expands West Manifest Destiny: the idea that the United States had the right to rule North America from the Atlantic to the PacificUsed to justify removing Native Americans from their tribal LandsTrail of Tears, 1830sAmerican Expansion Westward:1803: Louisiana Purchase1819: Spain gives up Florida1846: Treaty with Britain gives America part of the Oregon Territory
14Section 3: America Expands West Texas Revolution and War with MexicoTexan settlers declare independence from Mexican rule in 1836In a treaty, Texas is annexed as a state into the United States in 1845Mexico still claims Texas, and declares war in 1846.Mexico is defeated in 1848, and gives up much of it’s northern territory, including present day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico1853 Gadsden Purchase (part of present day Southern Arizona and New Mexico) brought the continental United States to it’s modern day boundaries.
15Section 3: The American Civil War Differences between North and SouthThe North had a diverse economy, with both farms and a growing number of factories, and used free workers for laborThe South relied on a plantation economy, mainly relying on one type of crop (cotton), and used slaves for labor.Slavery IssueMost Southerners believed slavery was necessary for their economyA growing number of Northerners believed slavery was morally wrong, and slavery was outlawed in the North.Fought over the expansion of slavery to the western states.
16Section 3: The American Civil War War Breaks out between the StatesElection of 1860: Abraham LincolnSecession: Southern states voting to withdraw, or leave, the Union. First state to secede is South Carolina in December of 1860War Starts on April 12, 1861Southern advantages: better military leadership, better knowledge of the terrain (war primarily fought in the south)Northern advantages: larger population, better transportation, greater resources, more factoriesSouth surrenders in 1865Abolition of SlaveryEmancipation Proclamation – 186313th, 14th and 15th Amendments
17Section 3: America after the Civil War ImmigrationDuring the 1870s, nearly 2,000 immigrants arrived each dayBy 1914, 20 million people had immigrated to the U.S. since the Civil WarAllowed for increased industrialization, and westward settlementRailroadsFirst transcontinental railroad completed in 1869By 1900, there were 200,000 miles of track crossing the countryBy 1914, America was a leading industrial power
18Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science New InventionsNew types of Energy: Electricity and Internal CombustionThomas Edison: 1,000 inventions, including light bulb, the phonograph, “moving pictures.”Alexander Graham Bell: TelephoneGuglielmo Marconi: RadioHenry Ford: Model-T and the assembly lineThe Wright Brothers: First Flight of an Airplane
19Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science New Discoveries in MedicineThe Germ Theory of DiseaseLouis Pasteur: discovers bacteria, creates method called “pasteurization” (heating things up to kill bacteria)Joseph Lister: 1865, clean surgery room and use of antiseptics (germ killing liquids)Public cleanliness & health
20Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science New Discoveries in ScienceCharles Darwin: Theory of EvolutionOn the Origin of Species by Natural SelectionGregor Mendel: GeneticsInherited traits in plantsJohn Dalton: Atom TheoryDmitri Mendeleev: Periodic TableMarie & Pierre CurieRadioactivityPsychologyIvan Pavlov: human actions could be changed by trainingSigmund Freud: suppressed memories, desires and impulses shape behavior
21Section 4: The Rise of Mass Culture What creates Mass Culture?Better public educationImprovement in communicationsInvention of phonograph and recordsShorter workday (10 hours) and shorter workweek (5 ½ days)Music Halls and Vaudeville ShowsMoviesSportsUS: Football and BaseballEurope: SoccerBritish Empire: CricketOlympics, 1896