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Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress

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1 Chapter 26 An Age of Democracy and Progress 1815-1914
Starting on Page 747

2 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire
Review of the British Government Constitutional Monarchy King or Queen, head of state (official leader) Parliament had the real power Voting rights Men: only those who owned a substantial amount of land could vote Women: no vote In total, barely 5% of the people could vote for parliament.

3 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire
Queen Victoria Born in 1819 Becomes Queen in 1837, at the age of 18 Married Prince Albert of Germany in 1840, they had nine children. The Royal couple presented a picture of loving family life that became the British ideal. Queen Victoria was very popular, and reigned until 1901, and her rule is known as “The Victorian Era.”

4 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire
Reform Bill of 1832 Lessened property requirements, allowing the upper middle class to vote. Increased population that voted to 7% Chartist Movement The People’s Charter of Wanted new reforms Voting for all men Annual parliamentary elections Secret Ballot No property requirements for Members of Parliament Salaries for Members of Parliament Parliament rejects request, BUT… In 1867 and 1884, laws are passed that expands the vote to a majority of men

5 Section 1: Reform in the British Empire
Women’s Rights Movement Early protests were peaceful Resistance argued that women lacked the ability to take part in politics Emmeline Pankhurst: Women’s Social & Political Union Goal was to draw attention to women’s suffrage Pankhurst and her daughters protested, and would be arrested several times. The Right to Vote would be given after World War I in both Britain and America

6 Section 1: Democracy in France
The Third Republic Unstable, between , there was a change in power nearly every year New constitution approved in 1875 The Dreyfus Affair Groups in France wanted either a monarchy or military rule Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a rare Jewish officer in the military, was accused of selling secrets to Germany, sentenced to life in prison based on false evidence Became an issue between justice and honor for the army Highlight the issue of anti-Semitism, or prejudice against Jews Zionism Movement to create a separate Jewish homeland in Palestine (modern day Israel)

7 Section 2: Self-Rule for Canada
Upper and Lower Canada Upper Canada (modern Ontario): English speaking majority Lower Canada (modern Quebec): French speaking majority The Durham Report, 1839 Reunite Upper and Lower Canada Give home rule for domestic matters

8 Section 2: Self-Rule for Canada
By the mid 1800s, many Canadians felt that they needed a central government to better unify the country against the United States In 1867, Nova Soctia and New Brunswick were joined with the Province of Canada to create the new Dominion of Canada. The Dominion would have self-rule in all domestic matters, with its own Parliament and Prime Minister By 1871, the Dominion stretched from Atlantic to Pacific

9 Section 2: Self-Rule for Australia and New Zealand
Native Population: Aborigines Oldest ongoing culture in the world Britain Claimed part of Australia in 1770 British used Australia as a Penal Colony (Prison Colony) starting in 1788 Free Settlers join Australia in the 1800s, especially after a gold rush in 1851 New Zealand Natives: Maori Polynesian people Claimed by Britain in 1769 First settlers were Christian missionaries

10 Section 2: Self-Rule for Australia and New Zealand
Colonies in New Zealand and Australia became self- governing in 1850s Australian colonies unified as the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 New Zealand became a Dominion in 1907

11 Section 2: The Irish Struggle for Home Rule
The English began taking over Ireland in the 1100s During the 1500s and 1600s, English government limited the rights of Catholics. Ireland formally joined to Britain in 1801 Catholic emancipation in 1829 Great Famine Between , Ireland’s potato crop ruined by plant fungus. 1 million people died during those years Another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States, Canada, and Australia

12 Section 2: The Irish Struggle for Home Rule
British Resistance to Irish Home Rule Feared that Irish Protestants would be mistreated as a minority in a Catholic majority country Most protestants lived in the north, in Ulster. Home Rule bill approved in 1914, but put on hold by World War I Easter Rising: 1916 Irish Republican Army (IRA) Home Rule granted in 1921 Ulster, also known as Northern Ireland, remained under British rule Full independence declared in 1949

13 Section 3: America Expands West
Manifest Destiny: the idea that the United States had the right to rule North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Used to justify removing Native Americans from their tribal Lands Trail of Tears, 1830s American Expansion Westward: 1803: Louisiana Purchase 1819: Spain gives up Florida 1846: Treaty with Britain gives America part of the Oregon Territory

14 Section 3: America Expands West
Texas Revolution and War with Mexico Texan settlers declare independence from Mexican rule in 1836 In a treaty, Texas is annexed as a state into the United States in 1845 Mexico still claims Texas, and declares war in 1846. Mexico is defeated in 1848, and gives up much of it’s northern territory, including present day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico 1853 Gadsden Purchase (part of present day Southern Arizona and New Mexico) brought the continental United States to it’s modern day boundaries.

15 Section 3: The American Civil War
Differences between North and South The North had a diverse economy, with both farms and a growing number of factories, and used free workers for labor The South relied on a plantation economy, mainly relying on one type of crop (cotton), and used slaves for labor. Slavery Issue Most Southerners believed slavery was necessary for their economy A growing number of Northerners believed slavery was morally wrong, and slavery was outlawed in the North. Fought over the expansion of slavery to the western states.

16 Section 3: The American Civil War
War Breaks out between the States Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln Secession: Southern states voting to withdraw, or leave, the Union. First state to secede is South Carolina in December of 1860 War Starts on April 12, 1861 Southern advantages: better military leadership, better knowledge of the terrain (war primarily fought in the south) Northern advantages: larger population, better transportation, greater resources, more factories South surrenders in 1865 Abolition of Slavery Emancipation Proclamation – 1863 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments

17 Section 3: America after the Civil War
Immigration During the 1870s, nearly 2,000 immigrants arrived each day By 1914, 20 million people had immigrated to the U.S. since the Civil War Allowed for increased industrialization, and westward settlement Railroads First transcontinental railroad completed in 1869 By 1900, there were 200,000 miles of track crossing the country By 1914, America was a leading industrial power

18 Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science
New Inventions New types of Energy: Electricity and Internal Combustion Thomas Edison: 1,000 inventions, including light bulb, the phonograph, “moving pictures.” Alexander Graham Bell: Telephone Guglielmo Marconi: Radio Henry Ford: Model-T and the assembly line The Wright Brothers: First Flight of an Airplane

19 Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science
New Discoveries in Medicine The Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur: discovers bacteria, creates method called “pasteurization” (heating things up to kill bacteria) Joseph Lister: 1865, clean surgery room and use of antiseptics (germ killing liquids) Public cleanliness & health

20 Section 4: Inventions, Medicine and Science
New Discoveries in Science Charles Darwin: Theory of Evolution On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection Gregor Mendel: Genetics Inherited traits in plants John Dalton: Atom Theory Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic Table Marie & Pierre Curie Radioactivity Psychology Ivan Pavlov: human actions could be changed by training Sigmund Freud: suppressed memories, desires and impulses shape behavior

21 Section 4: The Rise of Mass Culture
What creates Mass Culture? Better public education Improvement in communications Invention of phonograph and records Shorter workday (10 hours) and shorter workweek (5 ½ days) Music Halls and Vaudeville Shows Movies Sports US: Football and Baseball Europe: Soccer British Empire: Cricket Olympics, 1896

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