2 Civil War and Reconstruction The fifteen years or so between the end of the major Indian removals to the West and the outbreak of the Civil War have been called by some the “Golden Years” of Indian Territory.During these years, the Five Civilized Tribes rested from the onslaught of white poachers onto their lands, and they recovered from their suffering and losses along the trail of tears.All of the Five Tribes adopted constitutions very much like that of the United States, incorporating executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.Each written constitution contained a Bill of Rights, and all Five Tribes supported education in their nations.Education was important to the Indians. Many of their leaders were well-educated. It was their education that enabled them to deal with the whites.
3 Farms and PlantationsTribal lands were still owned in common by all members of the tribe, but in most places separate farms were established by tribesmen.
4 Slavery in the Territory Much of Indian Territory appeared to be a replica of the American South with approximately the same divisions of wealth – only about 1 percent of the people were large slaveholders and planters.A large group owned a few slaves, but most were farmers who owned no slaves at all, just land.A good number lived in poverty.Although slavery was not proclaimed as strongly in Indian Territory as it was in the American South, slaves were still valuable chattel worth about $1200 each in 1861.
5 Slave rebellionOne of the common fears among slaveholders everywhere was the fear of slave rebellion – the fear that the blacks would rise up against their owners and in retaliation against the bondage in which they lived.The United States Government with whom they were allied appeared to have abandoned the people of Indian Territory. Most tribal agents were loyal to the confederate states.When the union appointed new agents, they congregated in Kansas but did not venture into the Territory because of the ever-present Confederate soldiers.Military posts were abandoned by Union troops running from invading Texas confederates. Even the annuity payments were stopped because the federal government feared the money would fall into Confederate hands.
6 Confederate interests Geographically the Union was at a disadvantage in Indian Territory. Texas on the South and west, and Arkansas on the east were solidly Confederate. To the North, Kansas was Union, but vast areas of Kansas were largely unsettled and permitted little, if any, protection for the Indian tribes.The confederacy was interested in Indian Territory as a source of supply. Grain and meat were unavailable to them from the North, and the United States had blockaded southern ports so that European sources could not reach them.The Five Tribes had large herds of cattle and horses and produced plentiful crops.
7 Confederate interests cont. The South had produced none of these things for itself in many years, most Southerners raised cotton, tobacco, or rice.The Northern blockades were very effective warfare in that they threatened starvation for the Southerners.Indian Territory quickly became an attractive answer to the Confederate problem.Indian agents living in the Territory were almost exclusively Southern. They used all their influence to persuade the Indians to ally with the confederacy. They argued that the Union had been divided and that Indian Territory lay in the South.They pointed out that the Union had abandoned the Indians and they claimed that the new Southern Government would take the place of the Northern government which had once ruled them both.
8 Indian Sympathies with the South William H. Seward who had campaigned for Lincoln advocated opening Indian Lands to white settlement. It had been the Federal Congress and Andrew Jackson who successfully forced Indian removal, although Southern states such as Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi were strongly behind those moves.Many Indians feared another removal action by the union and the confederates promised to protect Indians and their lands in Indian Territory.
9 Tribal divisionsConsidering these factors, perhaps the surprise is, that all the Indians didn’t immediately align themselves with the Confederacy.They remembered other factors. A majority of Indians owned no slaves. The southern states instrumental in forcing Indian removal in the 1830’s. It was the Union government with whom they had made treaties and to whom they were bound by those treaties.
10 Tribal division cont.Probably the majority of citizens in Indian Territory favored neutrality. Cherokee Chief John Ross became the leader for neutrality.He wrote letters to all tribes advising them to remain neutralFearing a Cherokee civil war more than he feared a white civil war, John Ross became the last chief of the Five Tribes to sign an alliance treaty with the Confederates.
11 CherokeesAll Southern Treaties with the Five Tribes were more advantageous to the Indians than had been any treaties they had made with the United States Government.Delegates from the Cherokee tribe, the Choctaw-Chickasaw tribes, and the Creek-Seminole tribes were to sit in the Confederate Congress.No Indian tribe ever had a delegate in the Federal Congress.
12 CreeksThe full-blood Creeks, under the leadership on Sands and Opothleyahola, called an intertribal meeting at the western edge of Creek territory. It was attended by Union sympathizers and neutrals from all the southeastern tribes.They drafted a letter declaring their neutrality and asking the Union for the protection they had been promised in all their treaties.Sands and Opothleyahola prepared their people to move to a new location to wait out the war.Groups of Creeks, Seminole, Chickasaws, Cherokees, Kickapoo's, Shawnees, Delaware's, Comanche's, and African Americans loaded their possessions on their wagons and drove their livestock to converge on Round Mountain, near the mouth of the Cimarron River.
13 Battle of Round Mountain Confederates discovered the camp, and on November 19,1861 the first territorial battle of the Civil War took place.The Confederate troops were under the command of Colonel Douglas Cooper, and the neutral Indians were under the leadership of Opothleyahola and Sands. The Indians forced the Confederates retreat and Opothleyahola led his followers to a new hiding place near the Creek settlement, Tulsey Town.
14 Battle cont.The Confederates sought out the new hiding place, and a second battle occurred. Once again the Confederate troops were driven back and the neutral Indians moved, this time making camp at Chustenalah in the Cherokee Outlet.On December 26, 1861, Coopers troops surrounded the camp and defeated the Indians who had run out of ammunitionThe men resented the hardships placed on their families and wanted to join Union troops to retake their home country. The neutral Indians were finally enlisted as the First Regiment of Indian Home Guards.
15 Destroying the Territory The Civil War in Indian Territory was fought Indian against Indian and no tribe was left out.Battles were fought in all areas of the Territory and refugees roamed from one area to another.
16 Battle of Honey Springs There were no decisive battles fought in Indian Territory, but the most important battle in the area was the Battle of Honey Springs, fought on July 17, 1863, just south of present day Muskogee.Honey springs was the turning point of the war in Indian Territory.
17 General Stand WaiteIn 1864 Confederate officials promoted Stand Waite to the rank of Brigadier General.He was the only Indian to attain such a rankHis greatest victory was at the Battle of Cabin Reeks in September of He captured a Union supply train and shared the food, clothing, medical supplies, and blankets with Confederate Indian refugees camped along the Red River
19 End of the WarThe official end of the war came on April 9, Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee surrendered his forces to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.The war in Indian Territory continued into the summer. Confederate officers surrendered to Union officers at Doaksville, Choctaw nation.
20 Negotiating Reconstruction Treaties Although the term “Reconstruction” applied to Federal dealings with all of the South after the Civil War, it was especially applicable in Indian Territory.The map of Indian Territory was completely reconstructed.Four of the Five Tribes had furnished loyal warriors to the Union cause during the war, and all four tribes boasted more Union Soldiers than confederate.The Western tribes also signed treaties with the Confederacy, but most of their warriors fought for the Union.Despite these facts, Cooley informed the Indian leaders that they had forfeited their annuities and lands.He made it clear that the federal government intended to punish them for their supposed par tin the war.
21 Conditions of the Treaties The severity of the treaties depended largely on the bargaining power held by the individual tribes. The Choctaws and Chickasaws displayed a united front as Southern sympathizers and received the best treaty terms.Although the Cherokees were divided John Ross obtained leniency for the whole tribe.The Creeks and the Seminoles however were forced to sign confessions of war guilt.The Seminoles ceded all of their tribal lands and were given a small area of the Creek nation.As a group all five tribes ceded the western half of Indian Territory and agreed to the construction of two railroads across the Territory – one north–south railroad and one east-west railroad.Regardless of the hardships they inflicted, the Reconstruction treaties did allow the Indians the re-establish themselves under their own governments and did not require a federal territorial government.
22 Reconstruction Treaties Reconstruction Treaties with the Five Tribes reduced the land of those tribes to about half its previous size. They divided what had once been Indian Territory into two distinct parts.The southeastern Indians were located in the eastern half, along with several small tribes form the Old Northwest Territory and a few tribes from other areas.
23 Indian TerritoryIndian Territory did not actually belong to the United States and was not a part of the political make-up of that nations.Only those lands which had not been assigned to Indian tribes were under the direct jurisdiction of the United States Government.Indian agencies were established in the new tribal territories, and Indian agents were assigned there to distribute goods and services owed the tribes.
24 Goods and ServicesServices provided medical care and education to replace the schools which were left behind or to train Indians for a necessarily new way of life, and new medicine to replace the traditional medicine which was by nature a regional art.Each tribe or confederacy of tribes governed itself. The tribes made their own laws and set the penalties for breaking those laws. They provided their own police forces and patrolled their own boundaries.The greater a tribes need the more control the United States had.The Civil War not only reduced tribal lands but also reduced Indian power.The reservation era was a whole new proposition for all Native Americans.
25 The Leased DistrictAfter the Civil War the entire western half of Indian Territory was available for settlement by western tribesTribes the government intended to remove from areas of the Western Plains and resettle in the Territory.
26 Sand Creek MassacreIn 1864 colonel John Chivington and 700 mounted well armed troops attacked a camp of 500 sleeping Cheyenne and Arapaho.Black Kettle hoisted the American flag that had been given to him in Washington D.C. by an official who told him he would be protected by it.He gathered his people beneath it and told them to be unafraid. In addition he hoisted the white flag of surrender.Black Kettles friend, White Antelope, and several others were shot down while standing beneath the flag.The attack took place at the Sand Creek camp in Colorado and became known as the Sand Creek massacre.
27 Medicine Lodge Peace Council In October 1867 a peace council met at Medicine Lodge Creek in Kansas.Among the well known Indian representatives were Satanta, Wolf’s Sleeve, Ten Bears, and Black Kettle.The commission warned that the buffalo were disappearing and that for survival the chiefs should take their people to reservations to learn to farm.The Commissioners left Washington with instructions to accomplish three thingsPrevent Indian attacks on white emigrants and settlersStop Indian wars by removing their causeConvince Indians the become farmers and stockmen stopping their restless wandering about in search of a precarious living by hunting buffaloes and other game.
29 Broken PromisesThe Medicine Lodge treaties further reduced the tribal lands specified in the 1865 treaties.Despite their peaceful promises the government did not deliver the goods and services exchanged for depleted tribal landsYoung Warriors believed that the United States had broken the treaty and Therefore the Indians were no longer bound by it. Many of them left the reservations and made their way north looting and raiding en route.
30 Treaty ViolationsWhite settlers coveting Indian lands pressed into areas stipulated in current treaties as tribal lands.The government wanted more tribal land reductions to satisfy the ever-moving frontier.Angry Indians, who could not depend on government agents to protect their territories, retaliated against poachers. This brought the military to control marauding Indians.The summer of 1867 saw constant warring between the Unites States Army in the west and the Kiowa's, Comanche's, Cheyenne's, Arapahoe's, and Apaches.
31 Battle of the WashitaIn retaliation, Colonel George Armstrong Custer and the Seventh Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s peaceful band camped on the Washita River.On November 27, 1868 in another early morning attack, Custer virtually annihilated the unsuspecting Indians.He killed 102 warriors many women and children, and slaughtered a herd of 800 horses.Black Kettle was shot and killed as he fled on horseback across the Washita River.
32 Conquering the Indians Battles and skirmishes between the army and the Indians continued. The army patrolled the reservations in Western Indian Territory. Young Indian Warriors slipped away to raid Texas and Kansas farms and ranches.In 1871, the government declared that no Indian tribes were sovereign and that they no longer would be treated as free and independent states.
34 Americanization and Reservations During the conquest of the western and Plains Tribes as well as the constant removal of the tribes of the Old Northwest some tribes suffered great wrongs.One policy seemed to remain constant throughout the dealings of the United States with the Indians, and that was that the Indians should be “Americanized”The reservation Indians were given their rations and taught to farm and raise livestock. If they resisted Americanization agents were instructed to withhold supplies.Indian children who spoke tribal languages were punished in school.Ministers and teachers berates the customary tribal dress and hairstyles. All signs of Indian culture were to be obliterated, if possible.
35 Cattle Trails and Railroads After their removal to Indian Territory the Five Civilized Tribes raised livestock.The war virtually wiped out the herds that had grazed territorial pasture lands, along with the prosperity of cattlemen.The Indian ranchers did not have the funds to rebuild their herds.In Texas however the range cattle industry was booming. Large herds were raised on Texas grass, then driven north to markets in Missouri and Kansas. The first major cattle drive rumbled up the East Shawnee Trail in 1866 across eastern Indian Territory.
36 The Chisholm TrialThe most famous of all trials through Indian Territory was the Chisholm Trail.It entered the Territory on the south at the Red River Crossing and ran roughly adjacent to the 98th Parallel until it crossed into Kansas as Caldwell.The Chisholm Trail solved the geographical problems of forests and mountains encountered on the East Shawnee Trail.The first cattle drive up the Chisholm Trial took place in 1867.
37 The Western TrailThe Western Trail or Dodge City Trail entered Indian Territory at Doan's Crossing on the Red River. It crossed into Kansas northeast of Laverne.Other cattle trails cut through Indian Territory but by 1885 all the surrounding states had passed quarantine laws against Texas cattle. The trails in those states became quiet.
39 RailroadsWhile the cattle industry was growing in the west, railroads were vying for right of way agreements elsewhere. The Reconstruction Treaties provided for a North-South line and an east-west line through the Territory.The Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad familiarly known as the Katy won the right to complete a line across the Territory from Kansas to Texas.The MK&T was the first of three competing companies to arrive at a specified destination in a railroad building contest.
40 Boomer SoonerNot all Indians in the Territory opposed land allotment and white settlement.Many believed that individual Indians land ownership and white settlement would bring economic opportunities for Indians.Elias C. Boudinot encouraged the abandonment of old tribal customs concerning land ownership. He felt that progress and the Indian economy would be served by opening the Territory to white settlement.
41 David L. PayneDavid Payne went to Kansas where he organized a “Colonization Association”The group hoped to establish a colony in the Unassigned lands. Payne claimed it would include 5,000 to 10,000 people.Payne’s group became known as the “Boomers” A Boomer is a person who works up a boom or gets others excited when promoting a cause.
42 Opening the LandsMarch 2,1889 President Cleveland signed a bill authorizing the opening of the Unassigned Lands to white settlement. On March 23 Cleveland's successor Benjamin Harrison announced the opening set for April 22.The lands would be opened for settlement on the date by means of a race which would begin at noon. No one was to enter the area before the specified date.Male citizens who were at least 21 years of age were eligible to enter the race, as were women of the same age who were single, widowed, or legally separated from their husbands.Each entrant would claim a quarter section of land, 160 acres. No one who already owned 160 acres of land or more could participate.
43 Opening of Lands cont.Preventing people form slipping into Oklahoma District as the area had come to be called was next to impossible.The black soldiers, called Buffalo Soldiers, who had escorted the Boomers back to Kansas so often found their problems multiplied.As thousands of other people gathered at the boundaries countless new arrivals tried early entry. Many of them succeeded.Dubbed “Sooners” by the other entrants the people who crossed the boundaries early found choice plots of land, staked their claim and hid until time for the race.They were called Sooners because they crossed the line “sooner” than they were suppose to.
44 The Race for LandOn April 22, 1889, designated military officers fired their guns at noon to start the race. Fifteen trains entered the area from the north along with thousands of wagons, horses, buggies, carts, and other conveyances, all carrying passengers who were rushing into the “promised land” to posses long dreamed of homes.On the South border at Purcell another train pulled into the area carrying home seekers and more vehicles dashed across the muddy South Canadian River into the countryside.Many fights ensued as legal racers encountered Sooners already occupying coveted land.
45 Race for Land cont.Successful racers stood in lines which were literally miles long to file their claims.All claims were subject to Federal Homestead Act, which meant that improvements had to be made on the land and the claimant had to occupy it within a given length of time.Town sites were also laid out, and claimants filed for the city lots just as farmers filed for quarter sections of land.In an afternoon towns sprang up where there had been none the day before. Town sites were restricted to 320 acres and this caused problems in many areas.With 12,000 people camped outside the location which was to be Guthrie, and all of them wanting lots in that city, 320 acres was not nearly enough.To get around the restriction additional town sites were established adjacent to the original Guthrie site – East Guthrie, South Guthrie, West Guthrie, Capitol Hill, and Dyers Guthrie.Estimates vary as to the number of people who participated in the Land Run. The most likely figure is somewhere around 50,000.