4Leadership on Amazon.com As of the end of November, there were 75,277 hits on Amazon.com dealing with leadershipThere were 672 for Zig Ziglar alone, including 43 on leadershipSo, why are you here listening to me?
6E.F. Schumacher British (German ex-pat) economist (1911-1977) Wrote one of the 100 most influential books of the 20th century, “Small is Beautiful”.Makes use of the concept of two types of thinking and problem-solving, as defined by Liam Hudson, a British psychologist.
7E.F. SchumacherOne is called "convergent" thinking, in which the person is good at bringing material from a variety of sources to bear on a problem, in such a way as to produce the "correct" answer.This kind of thinking is particularly appropriate in science, math and technology.
9E.F. SchumacherThe other is termed "divergent" thinking. Here the student's skill is in broadly creative elaboration of ideas prompted by a stimulus, and is more suited to artistic pursuits and study in the humanities.
11Leadership Leadership, like raising children, is a divergent problem. Thus, there is rarely only one “right” answer to any given problem, unlike a majority of science and engineering problems.As engineers and managers, we are trained to think “convergently.”As leaders, we have to learn to think “divergently.”
12Management vs. Leadership What is the difference between management and leadership?The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other aspects of what they do.Many people, by the way, are both. They have management jobs, but they realize that you cannot buy hearts, especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so act as leaders too.
13ManagersManagers have subordinates. Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told.Management style is transactional, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so.Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates too), often within tight constraints of time and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their subordinates.
14LeadersLeaders have followers, not subordinates - at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers.But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity.
15LeadersTelling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing how following them will be to their benefit. They must want to follow you enough to stop what they are doing voluntarily and do what you ask.This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks – on the contrary, in fact they are often very achievement- focused.
16LeadersAlthough many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this does not require a loud personality.They are good with people, and quiet styles that give credit to others (and takes blame on themselves) can be very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders engender.And, although leaders are good with people, this does not mean they are always friendly with them. What leaders do realize, however, is the importance of enthusing others to work towards their vision.
17The Point to RememberEngineering is convergent thinking. Management is convergent thinking. Leadership is divergent thinking.
18Leadership in Emergency Response So, what does all of this have to do with leadership during an emergency?Leadership is not solely about being the senior member of management at the time of the crisis.Effective leadership will require a skill set that is larger than the one you learned in engineering school, or skills that are honed performing engineering work.Leadership must be established long before the actual emergency is upon you.
19Milton Friedman on Change “Only a crisis - actual or perceived - produces real change. When that crisis occurs, the actions that are taken depend on the ideas that are already lying around. “Milton Friedman ( )
20Before the Burner is Lit (Planning) Get to know your emergency respondersInternal—Full time and part time (ERT) staffExternal—Mutual aid and municipal respondersIdentify credible scenariosPHA/Hazard Identification Process
21Before the Burner is Lit (Planning) Review of past incidentsYoursOthers—”50 Incidents That Define Process Safety” from CCPS is an excellent resource for incident review informationExercises and Drills“Ride-Along” on non-emergency runsJoint inspectionsEmergency Preplans
22Tabletop ExerciseTabletop exercises are most useful in training personnel on responsibilities, use of available planning materials, and procedures.Most commonly done in a conference room setting, allowing free discussion and sharing of ideas and sources of information.
23Tabletop Exercise Example Emergency Control Center PreparednessScenario: A major fire at the local power company’s #1 substation has cut all electric power to your area of town. There is no lighting anywhere in the vicinity of the plant, and no computer servers or wireless networks are available as a result of the outage. No estimate for restoration has been given.
24Tabletop Exercise Example Questions to be answered/discussed during the exercise:Can you access the list of on call personnel and their phone numbers? (Consider both weekday on call and weekend call duty for both division personnel and any additional groups you may need to contact)Are your control centers equipped with back-up power and lights, and if so, how long should they last?If there is a back-up power source (e.g., generator), is it checked on a regular basis?Are there adequate flashlights and batteries available?How will your people access the plant in the event of a power outage?
25Functional DrillFunctional drills test one or more components of an emergency response system in isolation (without involving other elements).Most useful for testing communication systems, warning systems, or specific aspects of specialized response (e.g., hazardous materials response).
26Full Scale ExerciseThe most complete, complex , and expensive of exercises. All elements of the organization participate, including outside responders.Requires a great deal of coordination and planning.
27Before the Burner is Lit (Planning) Eisenhower on Planning “In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable. “Dwight D. Eisenhower ( )Upon a field of heraldic sable (BLACK), representing the darkness of Nazi oppression, is shown the sword of liberation in the form of a crusader's sword, the flames arising from the hilt and leaping up the blade. This represents avenging justice by which the enemy power will be broken in Nazi-dominated Europe. Above the sword is a rainbow emblematic of hope containing all the colors of which the National Flags of the Allies are composed. The heraldic chief of azure (BLUE) above the rainbow is emblematic of of a state of peace and tranquility the restoration of which to the enslaved people is the objective of the United Nations.
28Emergency PreplansEmergency preplans provide on-site emergency responders critical information during the first minutes of an emergency. They are also excellent documents for training and tabletop exercises.Emergency preplans may be generated for:All high-hazard chemicals on a site above certain threshold quantities (e.g., RMP chemicals)Other high-hazard chemicals present but below threshold quantitiesOther chemicals, per mutual agreement between operations and emergency response personnel (e.g, those with unique properties)
29Key Preplan Elements Location Map of Critical Emergency Response Items Building or plant numberPhysical location on site (GPS coordinates, etc.)Process identificationBuilding contact (typically the control room)Building Floor Plan, if applicableMap of Critical Emergency Response ItemsFirewater connectionsLocations and destinations for drains
30Key Preplan Elements Chemical Hazards Table of chemicals specific to the areaProperties of chemicals, noting anything unusual or non-obviousEvacuation / Traffic Control IssuesWorst Case Scenario and More Probable IncidentsCritical Equipment, with location in the facility marked on mapExample Preplan
31As Things Heat Up (Preparedness) Resource AssessmentPeopleWho is availableWho is on-callWhere to go if additional help is neededEquipmentPhysical FacilitiesTemporary HavensEvacuation RoutesCommunications equipment
32As Things Heat Up (Preparedness) Review of Emergency InformationEmergency PreplansModeling results (if applicable)Go Team/For Hire Contractor availability (if incident is in a remote location)Review the IC system, and identify key players
33Into the Fire (Response) The Federal Incident Command System Eastman ICS
34Into the Fire (Response) The Incident Command (IC) SystemKnow who the Incident Commander isIC is NOT necessarily the highest ranking person at the siteCan become a tug-of-war between law enforcement and emergency response when external responders are usedIf off-site responders are used, you MAY lose control of your site
35Into the Fire (Response) This is the point where leadership becomes critical:Know your role within the IC system—you probably will not be the one “in charge”, but you can play a vital role in the successful execution of the response IF your leadership qualities are recognized, accepted and properly exercised.
36Into the Fire (Response) Oftentimes, the role of technical personnel in emergency response fall into the logistical and/or communications sectorsThe IC will know far more than you about tactical response to the emergencyWhat the IC needs is help with things he either doesn’t have the expertise to do, or simply doesn’t have time to do
37Into the Fire (Response) You will need to do things like:Keep senior management’s “hands off the hose”Acquire additional resourcesContractorsCranesCompletely unexpected, “off-the-wall” tasks:Order Dog FoodMarshal the Boy ScoutsLand Balloons
61Into the Fire (Response) “One way of looking at this might be that for 42 years, I've been making small, regular deposits in this bank of experience: education and training. And on January 15, 2009 the balance was sufficient so that I could make a very large withdrawal." Chesley Sullenberger(Purdue Boilermaker!)
62Cooling Down (Recovery) Incident CritiqueDo as soon as practical, with emergency responders fully engagedIncident InvestigationProvide support, documentation and relevant evidence to lead investigatorsCoordinate with other key areasLegalPublic Affairs/External CommunicationsOther Employees/Internal Communications
63Cooling Down (Recovery) CleanupSite security, especially if transitioning from external IC structurePreservation of physical evidenceInternalExternal (regulatory agencies)Determination of minimum criteria for return-to-service.Planning for change
64Final Thoughts“It is worth discussing radical changes, not in the expectation that they will be adopted promptly but for two other reasons:One is to construct an ideal goal, so that incremental changes can be judged by whether they move the institutional structure toward or away from that ideal.
65Final Thoughts“The other reason is very different. It is so that if a crisis requiring or facilitating radical change does arise, alternatives will be available that have been carefully developed and fully explored.”Milton Friedman ( )
66Additional ResourcesGuidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies” CCPS (1995)Federal Incident Command (IC) System“Small is Beautiful” E.F. Schumacher (1973)“The 50 Incidents that Define Process Safety” CCPS (2008)
67Thank you for your attention, and the opportunity to present