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Honors Physics

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Then we will no longer be infants, tossed back and forth by the waves. Ephesians 4:14

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Back and forth motion that is caused by a force that is directly proportional to the displacement. The displacement centers around an equilibrium position.

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One of the simplest type of simple harmonic motion is called Hooke's Law. This is primarily in reference to springs.

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The negative sign tells us that “F” is a restoring force; it works in the opposite direction of the displacement.

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Common formulas which are set equal to Hooke's law are Newton’s Second Law and weight.

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A 0.55 kg mass is attached to a vertical spring, which stretches 36 cm from it’s original equilibrium position. What is the spring constant?

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A load of 50 N attached to a spring hanging vertically stretches the spring 5.0 cm. The spring is now placed horizontally on a table and stretched 11.0 cm. What force is required to stretch the spring this amount?

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The amplitude, A, of a wave is the same as the displacement,x, of a spring. Both are in meters. Crest Trough Equilibrium Line

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CREST Trough Equilibrium Line Period (T): the time for one revolution or one complete oscillation (one crest and trough). Oscillations could also be called vibrations and cycles. T s = sec/cycle In the wave above we have 1.75 cycles or waves (vibrations or oscillations). Assume that the wave crosses the equilibrium line in one second intervals. T = 3.5 seconds/1.75 cycles. T = 2 sec.

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The Frequency of a wave is the inverse of Period. That means that the frequency is cycles/sec. The commonly used unit is Hertz (HZ).

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The period of a Spring-Mass System is: ◦ Proportional to 2 ◦ Inversely proportional to the square root of the spring constant ◦ Proportional to the square root of the mass on the spring The greater the mass, the larger the period The greater the spring constant (more stiff), the smaller the period

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A 125 N object vibrates with a period of 3.56 seconds when hanging from a spring. Find the spring constant.

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The period of a pendulum is: ◦ Proportional to 2 (it’s sweeping out an arc of a circle) ◦ Inversely proportional to the square root of gravity ◦ Proportional to the square root of the length of the pendulum

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The height of a tower is unknown, but a pendulum, extending from the ceiling almost touches the floor. If the period of the pendulum is 12 s, what is the approximate height of the tower?

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A Wave is a vibration or disturbance in space. A Medium is the substance that all sound waves travel through and need to have in order to move.

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Longitudinal Wave - A fixed point will move parallel with the wave motion 2 areas: Compression - an area of high molecular density and pressure Rarefaction - an area of low molecular density and pressure

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Transverse Wave - A fixed point will move perpendicular with the wave motion. Wave parts: Crest, Trough, Wavelength, Amplitude, Frequency, Period

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All waves have 4 basic properties: Amplitude Wavelength λ lambda Frequency f Speed c

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Amplitude – the maximum distance the wave moves up and down. The more energy a wave has the greater the amplitude.

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Wavelength – the distance between two corresponding parts of a wave Short Waves can complete more cycles than Long Waves in the same amount of time.

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Frequency – the number of complete waves that pass a given point Frequency is measured in the unit called Hertz (Hz). A wave that occurs every second has a frequency of 1 Hz.

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Speed – the distance a wave travels in a given amount of time. The speed of sound through air is 331 m/s.

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You can find the speed of a wave by multiplying the wave’s wavelength in meters by the frequency (cycles per second). Since a “cycle” is not a standard unit this gives you m/s.

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A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. It is observed that the oscillator that generates the wave completes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. Also, a given maximum travels 425 cm along a rope in 10.0 s. What is the wavelength?

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Superposition - The combination of two overlapping waves Wave Behavior Interference - The result of superposition

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Two main parts of standing waves: Antinodes – Areas of maximum amplitude Nodes – Areas of zero amplitude A standing wave is produced when a wave that is traveling is reflected back upon itself.

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Interference is the interaction between waves that meet There are two types of interference: Constructive and Destructive

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When an object hits a surface it can not pass, it bounces back. This is called reflection.

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The bending of waves due to a change in speed is called refraction.

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When a wave moves around a barrier or through an opening in a barrier, it bends and spreads out. This is known as diffraction.

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