Presentation on theme: "Decision-Making in Small Groups Group decisions are usually better than individual ones, but this depends on several factors, including the type of."— Presentation transcript:
Decision-Making in Small Groups Group decisions are usually better than individual ones, but this depends on several factors, including the type of task, the abilities of the members, whether group norms support high or low production, and the decision-making procedures used. Ideally, groups achieve an assembly effect— that is, the group’s decision is superior to the summative effect of all the individual members’ decisions. Group decision making entails not only rational but other psychological processes that can lead to a group polarization effect, or the tendency of people in groups to adopt more extreme solutions. Group decisions can be made by the designated leader, by majority vote, or by consensus. Consensus takes more time. To help achieve valuable consensus, envision the process as a cooperative rather than competitive one. Don’t be stubborn, avoid win–lose thinking, be on guard against groupthink, don’t use conflict- suppressing techniques, and use differences of opinion to improve group outcomes. Groups often pass through predictable phases during decision making, such as the four Fisher identified (orientation, conflict, decision emergence, and reinforcement). Recent researchers, such as Poole, suggest that the types, lengths, and sequence of phases depend on several group and individual factors. There are several ways to improve group decision making: defining the problem carefully, agreeing on criteria, thoroughly evaluating the positive and negative characteristics of all the options, second- guessing the tentative choice, and, most important, thinking critically. Both the information available to the group and also the reasoning that links that information to conclusions must be carefully evaluated. Members should be especially watchful for common fallacies that impair reasoning, such as over generalizing, ad hominem attacks, making inappropriate causal links, posing a false dilemma, and making faulty analogies. Cohesive groups need to guard against groupthink, characterized by a failure to evaluate information and reasoning thoroughly. Overestimating a group’s morality, close-mindedness, and pressure to conform indicate groupthink. Establishing a devil’s advocate role can help counteract this tendency.
Students will understand: Problem Solving Discussion Techniques Student Understanding will be evidenced through planning and implementing each part of the problem solving discussion process.
Choose small groups Choose topic and develop a question of policy Break the question into areas for investigation Develop criteria for solutions Research area and create an informative report to share with group. Create, type, and print a complete sentence formal outline use 3 cites and include a MLA works cited page of 3 credible sources.
1A and 3A – Present on February 10 th. 4B – Present February 7th
Is focused on the speaker Is blocking out all competing thoughts Is using physical feedback to show listening: Eye contact, physical cues to show listening Is having control over your own behavior.
How did you... ? What... ? How did... ? Lead to a clear picture or understanding of a topic or idea Usually are answered quickly Seek understanding Are used to gather information
So... So what you are asking is... So you’re thinking... Is restating what was stated, Is used to check for understanding Clarifies what was heard by summarizing Indicates acceptance and encouragement Establishes relationship between speakers
You said..., have you ever thought about... ? Why... ? What might the next step be? What did you learn from that? Are there other strategies that you could use to... ? Are thought provoking and encourage deeper thinking. Usually start with a paraphrase. Are often open-ended
What federal programs should be cut or reduced to curtail federal spending? Or a questions of your choice?
What are the levels of implementation for your solution? What are costs? (Who or How will your solution be funded?) Who is responsible for implementing solution? Who or what organizations will most benefit from the solution?
Who else is working to solve this problem? How are they solving the problem? Is it effective? What is the evidence that their solution is working? (Comparison- is the example enough like our situation to merit comparison?) Print one article that answers these questions. So, you need to find an article that : Discusses an organization that has implemented a program/solution to solve your problem, and the article needs to offer evidence of how well the program is solving the problem.
Specific purpose: To inform my group members __________________. Central Idea of your report: Introduction: May be briefer, more straightforward, still build goodwill and credibilty, and preview your main ideas. Body: Main ideas, points, and details! Cite your sources – have your gone beyond the surface sources? Are your cites credible? Conclusion: Summarize, Remind group members what is at stake, and encourage group to use info to help support a solution. MLA: Works cited page – note how to do surveys and interviews