Presentation on theme: "Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227"— Presentation transcript:
1Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227 Chapter 10Board WorkDefine on flashcards the first three words on page 227
2Question: What are the major theories of development? HOLT PsychologyChapter 104/6/2017Section 1: The Study of DevelopmentQuestion: What are the major theories of development?MAJOR THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENTSome psychologists believe that biological factors play a greater role in development, while others contend that environmental factors are most importantSome psychologists also assert that development occurs in stages, while others believe that development occurs continuouslyChapter 10
3Developmental Psychology Chapter 10Developmental PsychologyBecause developmental psychologists want to see how people change across their life span what types of studies are they most likely to use?LongitudinalCross-sectional
4Chapter 10 Nature vs. Nurture Nurture / environment Nature / heredity Some behaviors are biologically “programmed” to develop.Studies of twins & kinship support this theory.Heredity reveals itself in the process know as maturation – genetic signals establish sequence to development (readiness / critical period)GesellJohn Locke – mind of infant is like a “blank slate” (tabula rasa)Watson & behaviorists believe factors such as nutrition, family background, culture, and learning experiences play key roles.
5Chapter 10 Stages vs. Continuity Continuity (incline) Stages (stairs) Gesell – rapid changes usher in dramatically new kinds of behavior and a new stage of life.Example: sitting, crawling, standing, and walkingPiaget – cognitive development progresses in stages much as physical. (more about him in section 4)Flavell – continuous development occurs like walking up a slopeExample: steady growth in weight and height.
6Question: How do infants develop physically? Chapter 10Section 2: Physical DevelopmentQuestion: How do infants develop physically?PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTSHeight and weight increase rapidlyMuscles and nervous systems soon develop allowing them to crawl, walk, and generally act more purposefully
7A newborn enters the world possessing certain physical characteristics and equipped with certain abilities.LengthWeightReflexChanges in these are examples of physical development.
8Height & Weight Chapter 10 1st eight weeks of pregnancy embryo develops eyes, toes, fingers, nose, mouth and heart.At 1 ½ months embryo becomes a fetus and develops body systems like respiratory system and organsA baby at birth weighs a billion times more than it did at conception.
9Chapter 10 Height Weight Grows about 10 inches in the first year 1-6 inches in the second yearAfter 2nd birthday, averages 2-3 inches per yearDoubled in first five months of lifeTriples by first year4-7 pounds in the second yearAfter 2nd birthday, averages 4-6 pounds per year
10Motor Development Usually proceeds in stages (chart pg. 231) The point these behaviors occur vary by infant and even cultureFor example: Ugandan babies walk at an average of 10 months while American babies are typically around 12 months old before they walk. Why?
11Reflexes Reflexes are inborn, not learned. 1. Lifetime reflexes Breathing, sneezing, coughing, yawning, blinking2. Infant reflexes (that disappear over time)GraspingRooting – turn head when cheek or corner of mouth is touchedMoro (startle) –pull back legs and arch back to painful or loud stimuliBabinski – raise big toe when soles of their feet are touched
12Perceptual Development Chapter 10Perceptual DevelopmentThe process by which infants make sense of sights, sounds, tastes, and other sensations.Infants tend to prefer new and interesting stimuliAge affects these preferences5-10 week old babies look longest at patterns that are most complex (faces not preferred, variety and complexity)15 – 20 week old – patterns begin to matter and face-like patterns become popular (better eyesight?)
13Studies on depth perception Chapter 10Studies on depth perceptionVisual cliff -Sound perceptionBabies turn toward soundRespond more to high-pitched voicesAre soothed by singing or soft talking
14Read Section 3 and define the vocabulary words on page 227 from attachment to conditional positive regard on flashcards.
15Chapter 10Section 3: Social DevelopmentQuestion: What are some of the ways infants and children develop socially?SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS AND CHILDRENAttachmentStyles of Parenting - 2 typesChild Care – has both positive and negative effects on social developmentSelf-Esteem – value or worth that people attach to themselves
16Attachment- emotional ties that form between people Feelings of attachment are essential to a infant’s survivalAINSWORTH’S STUDY OF ATTACHMENTAt birth babies don’t have a preference as to who holds them, just being with someone over being alone is preferableAbout the age of 4 months is when infants develop specific attachments to their main caregiversBy 6 months the attachment grows stronger and will cry or complain when separated from their caregiver (mother)
17Chapter 108 months is stage when stranger anxiety beginsLess if held by caregiverHeightened if stranger is touching themAbout the same age separation anxiety developsDistress if caregiver leaves themWhy? Research suggest contact comfort and imprinting
18Chapter 10Contact Comfort – for along time psychologists believed that infants were attached to those that fed them…thenHarry Harlow – conducted a study of monkeys that proved it was the comfort, not the food that attracted infants and provided them with a sense of security that enabled them to explore the outside world.Imprinting – attachment is an instinct for most animal that occurs during a critical period (geese, ducks)Humans are different – THEY DO NOT IMPRINT ON THE 1ST THING THEY SEE – for humans it takes several months and there is NO CRITICAL PERIOD !How is this helpful in considering adoption?
19Secure Attachment Insecure Attachment Chapter 10 Caregivers are affectionateBonding takes placeProtests if caregiver is removedHappier, friendlier and more cooperative with parentsGet along well with other childrenLess likely to misbehaveDo well in schoolCaregiver is unresponsive or unreliableDon’t mind if removed from caregiverMake little or no effort to seek contact with caregiverMay cry when picked up by caregiver as if they are angry
20Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Warm or Cold? Strict or Permissive? Warm parents show a great deal of affection toward their children (kiss & smile at them)Cold parents are not as affectionate and appear not to enjoy themRESULTS: Children with warm parents are well adjusted, more likely to develop a conscience –a sense of moral responsibility and those with cold parents are more interested in avoiding punishment than doing the right thing.Strict parents impose rules and supervise their children closely; some cannot tolerate disorderPermissive parents impose fewer rules and tend to be less concerned about neatness and cleanlinessRESULTS: Research suggests consistent and firm enforcement of rules can foster achievement and self-control especially when combined with warmth and support. BUT, physical punishment & constant inference can lead to disobedience & poor grades
21Chapter 10 Authoritative – w/ authority Authoritarian Parents combine warmth with positive kinds of strictness.Parental demands for responsible behavior combined with affection and support usually pay off.Children are more independent and achievement oriented.Believe in authority for its own sakeHave strict guidelines they expect their children to follow w/o questionOften are rejecting and coldChildren often become either resistant or dependent on other peopleTend to be less friendly and less spontaneousThey generally do not do well in school
22Gender & Self-Esteem Age & Self-Esteem Chapter 10 In grade school, girls “predict” that they will be better at tasks that are “feminine” and boys that are “masculine”People generally live up to the expectations they set for themselves.Age & Self-EsteemSelf-esteem reaches a low point around ageIt increases again in later adolescence.What we know!Gives people the confidence they need to overcome difficulties.What factors influence self-esteem?Secure attachmentsAuthoritative parentingCloseness to parents because they are lovingUnconditional positive regardChildren who know they are good at something, competentWarmth and encouragement from teachers and parents
23Chapter 10 Jean Piaget Studied the cognitive development of children. Worked on intelligence tests with children in his early career.Intrigued by how they answered questions incorrectly, he began to study the patterns.Core belief was that looking carefully at how knowledge develops in children will clarify the nature of knowledge.
24PIAGET’S THEORY Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive DevelopmentQuestion: What are the stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?PIAGET’S THEORYFour stages of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development:Sensorimotor Stage – learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activityPreoperational Stage – children begin to use language to represent objectsConcrete-Operational Stage – begins at about the age of seven when children begin to show signs of adult thinkingFormational-Operational Stage – begins at about puberty and represents cognitive maturity
25Assimilation & Accommodation Chapter 10Assimilation & AccommodationPiaget believed humans organized information in two ways: 1. assimilation, processing information into categories that already exist 2. accommodation, changing how we process in light of new information.
26The Sensorimotor Stage - Infants Chapter 10The Sensorimotor Stage - InfantsLearning to coordinate sensation (pain) and perception with motor activity (kicking crib rail).Fascinated by own hands and legsEasily amused by watching themselvesExploring cause-and-effect relationshipsObject permanence develops at this age.
27Preoperational Stage – two years of age Chapter 10Preoperational Stage – two years of ageThinking is one-dimensional – children can only see one side of a situation.Do not understand the law of conservationThey are unable to see another person’s point of viewThink the world exists to meet their needsAre artificialistic and animistic.
28Concrete Operational Stage – seven years of age Chapter 10Concrete Operational Stage – seven years of ageChildren begin to show signs of adult thinking, they are logical only when they think of specific objects, not about abstract ideas.Thinking is still grounded in concrete experiencesSeeing and touching help them understand abstract concepts (math)Can focus on a two-dimensional problem (understand law of conservation)Are less egocentric, can see the world from another’s point of viewCan see that other’s see things differently
29Formal-Operational Stage – Puberty (cognitive maturity) Chapter 10Formal-Operational Stage – Puberty (cognitive maturity)People in this stage think abstractly and realize that ideas can be compared and classified mentally just like objects.Understand what is meant by x in algebraCapable of dealing with hypothetical situationsRealize they can’t control the outcome of a situation.If one approach doesn’t work they will try another.
30Chapter 10Section 4: Cognitive DevelopmentQuestion: What are the stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?A woman was near death from a unique kind of cancer. There is a drug that might save her. The drug costs $4,000 per dosage. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000. He asked the doctor scientist who discovered the drug for a discount or let him pay later. But the doctor scientist refused.
31Chapter 10KohlbergKohlberg wasn’t particularly interested in whether children thought Heinz was right or wrong, more importantly he wanted to know the reasons why the children thought Heinz should or should not steal the drug.
32The Pre-conventional Level – through age 9 Chapter 10The Pre-conventional Level – through age 9Base judgments on consequences of behavior 1. What is “good” is what helps me avoid punishment. Heinz was wrong b/c he’d be caught for stealing and go to jail 2. “Good” is what satisfies a person’s needs. Heinz was right b/c his wife needed the drug
33Chapter 10 Conventional Level Make judgments in terms of whether an act conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong. 3. “Good” is what meets one’s needs and the expectations of other people. Moral behavior. (13 year olds) Heinz should NOT steal the drug b/c good people do not steal 4. Judgments are based on maintaining social order. High regard for authority (16 year olds) Breaking the law for any reason sets a bad example so he should NOT steal
34Post-conventional Level – rarely occurs before adolescence Chapter 10Post-conventional Level – rarely occurs before adolescenceMoral judgments reflect one’s own personal values, not conventional standards. 5. The law represents agreed-upon procedures, and have value, and should not be violated without good reason. Heinz should steal the drug, even though it is against the law, b/c the needs of his wife have created an exceptional situation. 6. Reasoning regards acts that support the values of human life, justice, and dignity as moral and good. They do not necessarily obey laws or agree with other people’s opinion. Heinz had the moral right to steal the drug
35Chapter 10Question: What factors influence human behavior, and how does development occur?NatureNurtureStagesContinuity