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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Board Work Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227 1 Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Board Work Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227 1 Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Board Work Define on flashcards the first three words on page Chapter 10

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 2 Chapter 10 Question: What are the major theories of development? MAJOR THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Some psychologists believe that biological factors play a greater role in development, while others contend that environmental factors are most important Some psychologists also assert that development occurs in stages, while others believe that development occurs continuously Section 1: The Study of Development

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Developmental Psychology Because developmental psychologists want to see how people change across their life span what types of studies are they most likely to use?  Longitudinal  Cross-sectional 3 Chapter 10

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Nature vs. Nurture Nature / heredity Some behaviors are biologically “programmed” to develop. Studies of twins & kinship support this theory. Heredity reveals itself in the process know as maturation – genetic signals establish sequence to development (readiness / critical period) Gesell Nurture / environment John Locke – mind of infant is like a “blank slate” (tabula rasa) Watson & behaviorists believe factors such as nutrition, family background, culture, and learning experiences play key roles. 4 Chapter 10

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Stages vs. Continuity Stages (stairs) Gesell – rapid changes usher in dramatically new kinds of behavior and a new stage of life. Example: sitting, crawling, standing, and walking Piaget – cognitive development progresses in stages much as physical. (more about him in section 4) Continuity (incline) Flavell – continuous development occurs like walking up a slope Example: steady growth in weight and height. 5 Chapter 10

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 6 Chapter 10 Question: How do infants develop physically? PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS Height and weight increase rapidly Muscles and nervous systems soon develop allowing them to crawl, walk, and generally act more purposefully Section 2: Physical Development

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE A newborn enters the world possessing certain physical characteristics and equipped with certain abilities.  Length  Weight  Reflex Changes in these are examples of physical development. 7

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Height & Weight  1 st eight weeks of pregnancy embryo develops eyes, toes, fingers, nose, mouth and heart.  At 1 ½ months embryo becomes a fetus and develops body systems like respiratory system and organs  A baby at birth weighs a billion times more than it did at conception. 8 Chapter 10

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Height  Grows about 10 inches in the first year  1-6 inches in the second year  After 2 nd birthday, averages 2- 3 inches per year Weight Doubled in first five months of life Triples by first year 4-7 pounds in the second year After 2 nd birthday, averages 4-6 pounds per year 9 Chapter 10

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE  Usually proceeds in stages (chart pg. 231)  The point these behaviors occur vary by infant and even culture  For example: Ugandan babies walk at an average of 10 months while American babies are typically around 12 months old before they walk. Why? Motor Development 10

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Reflexes are inborn, not learned. 1. Lifetime reflexes  Breathing, sneezing, coughing, yawning, blinking 2. Infant reflexes (that disappear over time)  Grasping  Rooting – turn head when cheek or corner of mouth is touched  Moro (startle) –pull back legs and arch back to painful or loud stimuli  Babinski – raise big toe when soles of their feet are touched  related related Reflexes 11

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Perceptual Development The process by which infants make sense of sights, sounds, tastes, and other sensations. Infants tend to prefer new and interesting stimuli Age affects these preferences 5-10 week old babies look longest at patterns that are most complex (faces not preferred, variety and complexity) 15 – 20 week old – patterns begin to matter and face-like patterns become popular (better eyesight?) 12 Chapter 10

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Studies on depth perception Visual cliff - JA Sound perception Babies turn toward sound Respond more to high-pitched voices Are soothed by singing or soft talking 13 Chapter 10

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Read Section 3 and define the vocabulary words on page 227 from attachment to conditional positive regard on flashcards. 14

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 15 Chapter 10 Question: What are some of the ways infants and children develop socially? SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN Attachment Attachment Styles of Parenting Styles of Parenting - 2 types Child Care Child Care – has both positive and negative effects on social development Self-Esteem Self-Esteem – value or worth that people attach to themselves Section 3: Social Development

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Feelings of attachment are essential to a infant’s survival AINSWORTH’S STUDY OF ATTACHMENT o At birth babies don’t have a preference as to who holds them, just being with someone over being alone is preferable o About the age of 4 months is when infants develop specific attachments to their main caregivers o By 6 months the attachment grows stronger and will cry or complain when separated from their caregiver (mother) Attachment- emotional ties that form between people 16

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE o 8 months is stage when stranger anxiety begins o Less if held by caregiver o Heightened if stranger is touching them o About the same age separation anxiety develops o Distress if caregiver leaves them o Why? Research suggest contact comfort and imprinting 17 Chapter 10

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Contact Comfort – for along time psychologists believed that infants were attached to those that fed them…then Harry Harlow – conducted a study of monkeys that proved it was the comfort, not the food that attracted infants and provided them with a sense of security that enabled them to explore the outside world. Imprinting – attachment is an instinct for most animal that occurs during a critical period (geese, ducks)  Humans are different – THEY DO NOT IMPRINT ON THE 1 ST THING THEY SEE – for humans it takes several months and there is NO CRITICAL PERIOD !  How is this helpful in considering adoption? 18 Chapter 10

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Secure Attachment Caregivers are affectionate Bonding takes place Protests if caregiver is removed Happier, friendlier and more cooperative with parents Get along well with other children Less likely to misbehave Do well in school Insecure Attachment Caregiver is unresponsive or unreliable Don’t mind if removed from caregiver Make little or no effort to seek contact with caregiver May cry when picked up by caregiver as if they are angry 19 Chapter 10

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Styles of Parenting Warm or Cold? Warm parents show a great deal of affection toward their children (kiss & smile at them) Cold parents are not as affectionate and appear not to enjoy them RESULTS: Children with warm parents are well adjusted, more likely to develop a conscience –a sense of moral responsibility and those with cold parents are more interested in avoiding punishment than doing the right thing. Strict or Permissive? Strict parents impose rules and supervise their children closely; some cannot tolerate disorder Permissive parents impose fewer rules and tend to be less concerned about neatness and cleanliness RESULTS: Research suggests consistent and firm enforcement of rules can foster achievement and self-control especially when combined with warmth and support. BUT, physical punishment & constant inference can lead to disobedience & poor grades 20 Chapter 10

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Authoritative – w/ authority Parents combine warmth with positive kinds of strictness. Parental demands for responsible behavior combined with affection and support usually pay off. Children are more independent and achievement oriented. Authoritarian Believe in authority for its own sake Have strict guidelines they expect their children to follow w/o question Often are rejecting and cold Children often become either resistant or dependent on other people Tend to be less friendly and less spontaneous They generally do not do well in school 21 Chapter 10

22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Self -Esteem Gender & Self-Esteem In grade school, girls “predict” that they will be better at tasks that are “feminine” and boys that are “masculine” People generally live up to the expectations they set for themselves. Age & Self-Esteem Self-esteem reaches a low point around age It increases again in later adolescence. What we know! Gives people the confidence they need to overcome difficulties. What factors influence self- esteem? Secure attachments Authoritative parenting Closeness to parents because they are loving Unconditional positive regard Children who know they are good at something, competent Warmth and encouragement from teachers and parents 22 Chapter 10

23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Jean Piaget Studied the cognitive development of children. Worked on intelligence tests with children in his early career. Intrigued by how they answered questions incorrectly, he began to study the patterns. Core belief was that looking carefully at how knowledge develops in children will clarify the nature of knowledge. 23 Chapter 10

24 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 24 Chapter 10 Question: What are the stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? PIAGET’S THEORY Four stages of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: 1.Sensorimotor Stage 1.Sensorimotor Stage – learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity 2.Preoperational Stage 2.Preoperational Stage – children begin to use language to represent objects 3.Concrete-Operational Stage 3.Concrete-Operational Stage – begins at about the age of seven when children begin to show signs of adult thinking 4.Formational-Operational Stage 4.Formational-Operational Stage – begins at about puberty and represents cognitive maturity Section 4: Cognitive Development

25 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Assimilation & Accommodation Piaget believed humans organized information in two ways: 1. assimilation, processing information into categories that already exist 2. accommodation, changing how we process in light of new information. 25 Chapter 10

26 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE The Sensorimotor Stage - Infants Learning to coordinate sensation (pain) and perception with motor activity (kicking crib rail). Fascinated by own hands and legs Easily amused by watching themselves Exploring cause-and-effect relationships Object permanence develops at this age. 26 Chapter 10

27 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Preoperational Stage – two years of age Thinking is one-dimensional – children can only see one side of a situation.  Do not understand the law of conservation  They are unable to see another person’s point of view  Think the world exists to meet their needs  Are artificialistic and animistic. 27 Chapter 10

28 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Concrete Operational Stage – seven years of age Children begin to show signs of adult thinking, they are logical only when they think of specific objects, not about abstract ideas. Thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences Seeing and touching help them understand abstract concepts (math) Can focus on a two-dimensional problem (understand law of conservation) Are less egocentric, can see the world from another’s point of view Can see that other’s see things differently 28 Chapter 10

29 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Formal-Operational Stage – Puberty (cognitive maturity) People in this stage think abstractly and realize that ideas can be compared and classified mentally just like objects. Understand what is meant by x in algebra Capable of dealing with hypothetical situations Realize they can’t control the outcome of a situation. If one approach doesn’t work they will try another. 29 Chapter 10

30 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 30 Chapter 10 Question: What are the stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? A woman was near death from a unique kind of cancer. There is a drug that might save her. The drug costs $4,000 per dosage. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000. He asked the doctor scientist who discovered the drug for a discount or let him pay later. But the doctor scientist refused. Section 4: Cognitive Development

31 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Kohlberg 31 Chapter 10  Kohlberg wasn’t particularly interested in whether children thought Heinz was right or wrong, more importantly he wanted to know the reasons why the children thought Heinz should or should not steal the drug.

32 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE The Pre-conventional Level – through age 9 Base judgments on consequences of behavior 1. What is “good” is what helps me avoid punishment. Heinz was wrong b/c he’d be caught for stealing and go to jail 2. “Good” is what satisfies a person’s needs. Heinz was right b/c his wife needed the drug 32 Chapter 10

33 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Conventional Level Make judgments in terms of whether an act conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong. 3. “Good” is what meets one’s needs and the expectations of other people. Moral behavior. (13 year olds) Heinz should NOT steal the drug b/c good people do not steal 4. Judgments are based on maintaining social order. High regard for authority (16 year olds) Breaking the law for any reason sets a bad example so he should NOT steal 33 Chapter 10

34 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Post-conventional Level – rarely occurs before adolescence Moral judgments reflect one’s own personal values, not conventional standards. 5. The law represents agreed-upon procedures, and have value, and should not be violated without good reason. Heinz should steal the drug, even though it is against the law, b/c the needs of his wife have created an exceptional situation. 6. Reasoning regards acts that support the values of human life, justice, and dignity as moral and good. They do not necessarily obey laws or agree with other people’s opinion. Heinz had the moral right to steal the drug 34 Chapter 10

35 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 35 Chapter 10 Question: What factors influence human behavior, and how does development occur? Nature StagesContinuity Nurture


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