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Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227

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1 Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227
Chapter 10 Board Work Define on flashcards the first three words on page 227

2 Question: What are the major theories of development?
HOLT Psychology Chapter 10 4/6/2017 Section 1: The Study of Development Question: What are the major theories of development? MAJOR THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Some psychologists believe that biological factors play a greater role in development, while others contend that environmental factors are most important Some psychologists also assert that development occurs in stages, while others believe that development occurs continuously Chapter 10

3 Developmental Psychology
Chapter 10 Developmental Psychology Because developmental psychologists want to see how people change across their life span what types of studies are they most likely to use? Longitudinal Cross-sectional

4 Chapter 10 Nature vs. Nurture Nurture / environment Nature / heredity
Some behaviors are biologically “programmed” to develop. Studies of twins & kinship support this theory. Heredity reveals itself in the process know as maturation – genetic signals establish sequence to development (readiness / critical period) Gesell John Locke – mind of infant is like a “blank slate” (tabula rasa) Watson & behaviorists believe factors such as nutrition, family background, culture, and learning experiences play key roles.

5 Chapter 10 Stages vs. Continuity Continuity (incline) Stages (stairs)
Gesell – rapid changes usher in dramatically new kinds of behavior and a new stage of life. Example: sitting, crawling, standing, and walking Piaget – cognitive development progresses in stages much as physical. (more about him in section 4) Flavell – continuous development occurs like walking up a slope Example: steady growth in weight and height.

6 Question: How do infants develop physically?
Chapter 10 Section 2: Physical Development Question: How do infants develop physically? PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS Height and weight increase rapidly Muscles and nervous systems soon develop allowing them to crawl, walk, and generally act more purposefully

7 A newborn enters the world possessing certain physical characteristics and equipped with certain abilities. Length Weight Reflex Changes in these are examples of physical development.

8 Height & Weight Chapter 10
1st eight weeks of pregnancy embryo develops eyes, toes, fingers, nose, mouth and heart. At 1 ½ months embryo becomes a fetus and develops body systems like respiratory system and organs A baby at birth weighs a billion times more than it did at conception.

9 Chapter 10 Height Weight Grows about 10 inches in the first year
1-6 inches in the second year After 2nd birthday, averages 2-3 inches per year Doubled in first five months of life Triples by first year 4-7 pounds in the second year After 2nd birthday, averages 4-6 pounds per year

10 Motor Development Usually proceeds in stages (chart pg. 231)
The point these behaviors occur vary by infant and even culture For example: Ugandan babies walk at an average of 10 months while American babies are typically around 12 months old before they walk. Why?

11 Reflexes Reflexes are inborn, not learned. 1. Lifetime reflexes
Breathing, sneezing, coughing, yawning, blinking 2. Infant reflexes (that disappear over time) Grasping Rooting – turn head when cheek or corner of mouth is touched Moro (startle) –pull back legs and arch back to painful or loud stimuli Babinski – raise big toe when soles of their feet are touched

12 Perceptual Development
Chapter 10 Perceptual Development The process by which infants make sense of sights, sounds, tastes, and other sensations. Infants tend to prefer new and interesting stimuli Age affects these preferences 5-10 week old babies look longest at patterns that are most complex (faces not preferred, variety and complexity) 15 – 20 week old – patterns begin to matter and face-like patterns become popular (better eyesight?)

13 Studies on depth perception
Chapter 10 Studies on depth perception Visual cliff - Sound perception Babies turn toward sound Respond more to high-pitched voices Are soothed by singing or soft talking

14 Read Section 3 and define the vocabulary words on page 227 from attachment to conditional positive regard on flashcards.

15 Chapter 10 Section 3: Social Development Question: What are some of the ways infants and children develop socially? SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN Attachment Styles of Parenting - 2 types Child Care – has both positive and negative effects on social development Self-Esteem – value or worth that people attach to themselves

16 Attachment- emotional ties that form between people
Feelings of attachment are essential to a infant’s survival AINSWORTH’S STUDY OF ATTACHMENT At birth babies don’t have a preference as to who holds them, just being with someone over being alone is preferable About the age of 4 months is when infants develop specific attachments to their main caregivers By 6 months the attachment grows stronger and will cry or complain when separated from their caregiver (mother)

17 Chapter 10 8 months is stage when stranger anxiety begins Less if held by caregiver Heightened if stranger is touching them About the same age separation anxiety develops Distress if caregiver leaves them Why? Research suggest contact comfort and imprinting

18 Chapter 10 Contact Comfort – for along time psychologists believed that infants were attached to those that fed them…then Harry Harlow – conducted a study of monkeys that proved it was the comfort, not the food that attracted infants and provided them with a sense of security that enabled them to explore the outside world. Imprinting – attachment is an instinct for most animal that occurs during a critical period (geese, ducks) Humans are different – THEY DO NOT IMPRINT ON THE 1ST THING THEY SEE – for humans it takes several months and there is NO CRITICAL PERIOD ! How is this helpful in considering adoption?

19 Secure Attachment Insecure Attachment Chapter 10
Caregivers are affectionate Bonding takes place Protests if caregiver is removed Happier, friendlier and more cooperative with parents Get along well with other children Less likely to misbehave Do well in school Caregiver is unresponsive or unreliable Don’t mind if removed from caregiver Make little or no effort to seek contact with caregiver May cry when picked up by caregiver as if they are angry

20 Chapter 10 Styles of Parenting Warm or Cold? Strict or Permissive?
Warm parents show a great deal of affection toward their children (kiss & smile at them) Cold parents are not as affectionate and appear not to enjoy them RESULTS: Children with warm parents are well adjusted, more likely to develop a conscience –a sense of moral responsibility and those with cold parents are more interested in avoiding punishment than doing the right thing. Strict parents impose rules and supervise their children closely; some cannot tolerate disorder Permissive parents impose fewer rules and tend to be less concerned about neatness and cleanliness RESULTS: Research suggests consistent and firm enforcement of rules can foster achievement and self-control especially when combined with warmth and support. BUT, physical punishment & constant inference can lead to disobedience & poor grades

21 Chapter 10 Authoritative – w/ authority Authoritarian
Parents combine warmth with positive kinds of strictness. Parental demands for responsible behavior combined with affection and support usually pay off. Children are more independent and achievement oriented. Believe in authority for its own sake Have strict guidelines they expect their children to follow w/o question Often are rejecting and cold Children often become either resistant or dependent on other people Tend to be less friendly and less spontaneous They generally do not do well in school

22 Gender & Self-Esteem Age & Self-Esteem Chapter 10
In grade school, girls “predict” that they will be better at tasks that are “feminine” and boys that are “masculine” People generally live up to the expectations they set for themselves. Age & Self-Esteem Self-esteem reaches a low point around age It increases again in later adolescence. What we know! Gives people the confidence they need to overcome difficulties. What factors influence self-esteem? Secure attachments Authoritative parenting Closeness to parents because they are loving Unconditional positive regard Children who know they are good at something, competent Warmth and encouragement from teachers and parents

23 Chapter 10 Jean Piaget Studied the cognitive development of children.
Worked on intelligence tests with children in his early career. Intrigued by how they answered questions incorrectly, he began to study the patterns. Core belief was that looking carefully at how knowledge develops in children will clarify the nature of knowledge.

24 PIAGET’S THEORY Chapter 10
Section 4: Cognitive Development Question: What are the stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? PIAGET’S THEORY Four stages of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor Stage – learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity Preoperational Stage – children begin to use language to represent objects Concrete-Operational Stage – begins at about the age of seven when children begin to show signs of adult thinking Formational-Operational Stage – begins at about puberty and represents cognitive maturity

25 Assimilation & Accommodation
Chapter 10 Assimilation & Accommodation Piaget believed humans organized information in two ways: 1. assimilation, processing information into categories that already exist 2. accommodation, changing how we process in light of new information.

26 The Sensorimotor Stage - Infants
Chapter 10 The Sensorimotor Stage - Infants Learning to coordinate sensation (pain) and perception with motor activity (kicking crib rail). Fascinated by own hands and legs Easily amused by watching themselves Exploring cause-and-effect relationships Object permanence develops at this age.

27 Preoperational Stage – two years of age
Chapter 10 Preoperational Stage – two years of age Thinking is one-dimensional – children can only see one side of a situation. Do not understand the law of conservation They are unable to see another person’s point of view Think the world exists to meet their needs Are artificialistic and animistic.

28 Concrete Operational Stage – seven years of age
Chapter 10 Concrete Operational Stage – seven years of age Children begin to show signs of adult thinking, they are logical only when they think of specific objects, not about abstract ideas. Thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences Seeing and touching help them understand abstract concepts (math) Can focus on a two-dimensional problem (understand law of conservation) Are less egocentric, can see the world from another’s point of view Can see that other’s see things differently

29 Formal-Operational Stage – Puberty (cognitive maturity)
Chapter 10 Formal-Operational Stage – Puberty (cognitive maturity) People in this stage think abstractly and realize that ideas can be compared and classified mentally just like objects. Understand what is meant by x in algebra Capable of dealing with hypothetical situations Realize they can’t control the outcome of a situation. If one approach doesn’t work they will try another.

30 Chapter 10 Section 4: Cognitive Development Question: What are the stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? A woman was near death from a unique kind of cancer. There is a drug that might save her. The drug costs $4,000 per dosage. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000. He asked the doctor scientist who discovered the drug for a discount or let him pay later. But the doctor scientist refused.

31 Chapter 10 Kohlberg Kohlberg wasn’t particularly interested in whether children thought Heinz was right or wrong, more importantly he wanted to know the reasons why the children thought Heinz should or should not steal the drug.

32 The Pre-conventional Level – through age 9
Chapter 10 The Pre-conventional Level – through age 9 Base judgments on consequences of behavior 1. What is “good” is what helps me avoid punishment. Heinz was wrong b/c he’d be caught for stealing and go to jail 2. “Good” is what satisfies a person’s needs. Heinz was right b/c his wife needed the drug

33 Chapter 10 Conventional Level
Make judgments in terms of whether an act conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong. 3. “Good” is what meets one’s needs and the expectations of other people. Moral behavior. (13 year olds) Heinz should NOT steal the drug b/c good people do not steal 4. Judgments are based on maintaining social order. High regard for authority (16 year olds) Breaking the law for any reason sets a bad example so he should NOT steal

34 Post-conventional Level – rarely occurs before adolescence
Chapter 10 Post-conventional Level – rarely occurs before adolescence Moral judgments reflect one’s own personal values, not conventional standards. 5. The law represents agreed-upon procedures, and have value, and should not be violated without good reason. Heinz should steal the drug, even though it is against the law, b/c the needs of his wife have created an exceptional situation. 6. Reasoning regards acts that support the values of human life, justice, and dignity as moral and good. They do not necessarily obey laws or agree with other people’s opinion. Heinz had the moral right to steal the drug

35 Chapter 10 Question: What factors influence human behavior, and how does development occur? Nature Nurture Stages Continuity

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