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COLONIALISMCOLONIALISM in NIGERIA.. FIRST OF ALL.

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Presentation on theme: "COLONIALISMCOLONIALISM in NIGERIA.. FIRST OF ALL."— Presentation transcript:

1 COLONIALISMCOLONIALISM in NIGERIA.

2 FIRST OF ALL.

3 WHAT is colonialism?

4 co·lo·nial·ism: \kə- ˈ lō-nē-ə- ˌ li-zəm, -nyə- ˌ li-\ (noun) 1853 : control by one power over a dependent area or people

5 ✴ when people take control of territory outside their own nation or country for their own benefit ✴ idea originated during the “Age of Exploration” (1500’s ’s) ✴ European explorers contacted/discovered “new” lands ✴ the “New World” was established ✴ colonies were built for economic, political, and religious reasons

6 EXAMPLES?

7 ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”.

8 EXAMPLES? ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain. ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”.

9 EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ From the mid-1800’s to about 1950, India was a colonial area under the rule of the British East India Trading Company. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain.

10 EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ Hong Kong was formerly a British colony (from 1841 to 1997). ~ From the mid-1800’s to about 1950, India was a colonial area under the rule of the British East India Trading Company. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain.

11 EXAMPLES? ~ The United States of America began as a series of British colonies, originally called the “Thirteen Colonies”. ~ Hong Kong was formerly a British colony (from 1841 to 1997). ~ From the mid-1800’s to about 1950, India was a colonial area under the rule of the British East India Trading Company. ~ The island of Tokelau is a current colony of New Zealand. ~ Mexico, Brazil, and other South American countries were originally colonies of either Portugal or Spain.

12 SO... Why the heck did Europeans want to build colonies?

13 THE MOTIVES gold, glory, and GOD

14 THE MOTIVES gold, glory, and GOD more land = more power

15 THE MOTIVES gold, glory, and GOD more land = more power must convert HEATHENS into CHRISTIANS!

16 THE MOTIVES gold, glory, and GOD more land = more power must convert HEATHENS into CHRISTIANS! Triangular Trade Route: slave trade picks up millions in Africa

17 THE MOTIVES gold, glory, and GOD more land = more power must convert HEATHENS into CHRISTIANS! Triangular Trade Route: slave trade picks up millions in Africa later on.. needed raw materials to fuel the Industrial Revolution

18 A short satire about colonization (imperialism).

19 NIGERIA Hold onto that thought for a moment. For now, let’s look at..... Hold onto that thought for a moment. For now, let’s look at.....

20 1.

21 1. Where in the world is this place?

22

23 Geography

24 located on West African coast

25 Geography located on West African coast shares borders with Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

26 Geography located on West African coast shares borders with Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Abuja = capital

27 Geography on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean)

28 Geography on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) land area of 923,768 km² (California x2)

29 Geography on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) land area of 923,768 km² (California x2) two main rivers: the Niger and the Benue

30 Geography on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) land area of 923,768 km² (California x2) two main rivers: the Niger and the Benue varied landscapes: includes mountains in southeast, beaches, rain forests, swamps, savannah plains, and some of the Sahara desert in the north

31 Geography natural resources: petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc

32 Geography natural resources: petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc periodic/seasonal droughts and floods

33 PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090

34 PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 life expectancy: 47 years

35 PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 life expectancy: 47 years average number of children: 5 per woman

36 PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 life expectancy: 47 years average number of children: 5 per woman Africa’s most populated country

37 PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 life expectancy: 47 years average number of children: 5 per woman Africa’s most populated country ethnicities: more than 250 ethnicities (Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv religions: Muslim (50%), Christian (40%), Native (10%)

38 PEOPLE current population: 149,229,090 life expectancy: 47 years average number of children: 5 per woman Africa’s most populated country ethnicities: more than 250 ethnicities (Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv religions: Muslim (50%), Christian (40%), Native (10%)

39 NIGERIA today

40 was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA...

41 was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA...

42 was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems African societies on coast had greater contact with the outside world

43 A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems African societies on coast had greater contact with the outside world 1700’s: slave trade = HUGE industry

44 A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA... was composed mainly of small tribes and clans of people supporting themselves with farming, cattle, or hunting hundreds of different ethnicities and indigenous belief systems African societies on coast had greater contact with the outside world 1700’s: slave trade = HUGE industry late 1800’s: scramble for Africa, European nations struggle to imperialize/colonize sections of Africa

45 “The scramble for Africa”

46 To understand what happened to Nigeria, you must first look at the “Scramble for Africa”, when European nations sliced up sections of Africa to take as their own, and make colonies. And this is what happened...

47 Colonialism in AFRICA

48 in the late 1800’s, European nations such as Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands participated in the Berlin Conference at this meeting, the nations divided up Africa like a birthday cake there was no representation for African tribes or societies Europeans did not consider ethnic or religious differences among Africans when they made borders

49 Colonialism in AFRICA instead, Europeans took advantage of differences between Africans, and pit different ethnic groups against each other Europeans set up their own government systems to rule African peoples; often forced them to convert to Christianity; slavery some “modernization” occurred: roads, communication lines, railroads, literacy and education, better medical care

50 So... what’s the deal with

51 So... what’s the deal with COLONIALISM

52 and NIGERIA?

53 COLONIALISM in NIGERIA

54 : major African civilizations and tribes thrived along Niger River : first contact with white Europeans; began colonizing Nigeria from coast towards inland 1900: Great Britain established a charter to rule Northern Nigeria British used a “divide & conquer” method; pitting ethnic groups against each other British introduced Christianity into Southern Nigeria; especially to people like the Ibo (central theme in Things Fall Apart. Native beliefs disrespected; bonds of clan and kin broken : major African civilizations and tribes thrived along Niger River : first contact with white Europeans; began colonizing Nigeria from coast towards inland 1900: Great Britain established a charter to rule Northern Nigeria British used a “divide & conquer” method; pitting ethnic groups against each other British introduced Christianity into Southern Nigeria; especially to people like the Ibo (central theme in Things Fall Apart. Native beliefs disrespected; bonds of clan and kin broken

55 COLONIALISM in NIGERIA concept of “civilizing” the native people; Christian evangelists Church Missionary Society & Methodist Missionary Society establish schools in Southern Nigeria translated bible into local languages introduced English as main language at school and society made a “proper” code of conduct/behavior for Nigerian villages concept of “civilizing” the native people; Christian evangelists Church Missionary Society & Methodist Missionary Society establish schools in Southern Nigeria translated bible into local languages introduced English as main language at school and society made a “proper” code of conduct/behavior for Nigerian villages

56 COLONIALISM in NIGERIA “If children were to develop along civilized lines, their daily life must be supervised, controlled and directed along ‘proper lines'. That is, if a ‘raw' African is to be made a civilized, Christian black European, he must be isolated from the evil influences of his pagan past and present.” - Babs Fafunwa “A ‘good' citizen in Nigeria … meant one who was African by blood, Christian by religion and British or French in culture and intellect.” - Babs Fafunwa “If children were to develop along civilized lines, their daily life must be supervised, controlled and directed along ‘proper lines'. That is, if a ‘raw' African is to be made a civilized, Christian black European, he must be isolated from the evil influences of his pagan past and present.” - Babs Fafunwa “A ‘good' citizen in Nigeria … meant one who was African by blood, Christian by religion and British or French in culture and intellect.” - Babs Fafunwa

57 The reaction... An example of people that suffered from European colonization.

58 QUOTES “And at last the locusts did descend. They settled on every tree and on every blade of grass; they settled on the roofs and covered the bare ground. Mighty tree branches broke away under them, and the whole country became the brown-earth color of the vast, hungry swarm.”

59 QUOTES The coming of the locusts represents the coming of the white men to Nigeria. For example, only a few “scouts” of locusts came at first, and then a huge, impenetrable swarm followed. This represents the few early white missionaries that came before the rest. Like the locusts, the white men covered the land and took over the Nigerians’ lives. The tree branches that broke underneath the locusts represent the traditions and lifestyles that were broken as a result of the white men coming to the land.

60 QUOTES “The white man is very clever... Now he has won our brothers, and our clan cannot act as one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and now we have fallen apart.”

61 QUOTES This quote describes the climax of this story. The townspeople have realized that they have underestimated the white men and the damage they could cause. This quote very accurately reflects what actually happened in Nigeria when the British began colonizing it. The colonists played on the weaknesses of the clans and the differences that divided them; for example, they encouraged the outcasts of the village to join their church. In doing this, they broke the bonds that had bound the native people together (religion, customs) and the Nigerians found their lives “fallen apart”.

62 QUESTIONS How do you think white Europeans justified taking over African territories without the peoples’ consent? Think about religious, racial, and social reasons.

63 > “Manifest Destiny” belief > the “White Man’s burden” belief > Europeans said that it was their “duty” to civilize and educate the “heathens” > many believed that white Europeans were biologically superior (Darwin’s theory) to blacks

64 QUESTIONS Do you think the British improved or harmed Nigeria by colonizing it? Explain.

65 > Yes, improved: - Nigerians received modern knowledge and education of science, world history, languages, and contact with the outside world (i.e. Nwoye eventually attends the Western school in Umuofia) - Nigerians were given the opportunity to practice a non- traditional religion (i.e. Nwoye finds more peace in Christianity than the inexplicable actions of his native religion) - Nigeria became more modern; roads, communication lines, industries, and trains were introduced > No, harmed: - British colonists exploited Nigerian resources, such as oil and metal - Nigerian culture, religion, language, customs, and traditional lifestyle was ignored and destroyed

66 QUESTIONS In “Things Fall Apart”, we see many unusual customs and beliefs that characterized Nigerian identity. For example, newborn twins were left to die in the wilderness because they were believed to be unholy. In your opinion, were the villagers of Umuofia “uncivilized” for adhering to these beliefs? Would you agree with the British in saying that they were “barbarians”? Explain.

67 > Yes, it is uncivilized/barbaric: - relying on an “Oracle” and the gods - using beliefs/legends instead of science to explain things like twins or infertility - killing innocent children because of a command from a supposed “oracle” > No, it is not barbaric/uncivilized: - each civilization has its own reasons for their beliefs and actions - different cultures cannot be labelled “uncivilized” because they are different from our own; some customs that we find normal may be considered “barbaric” and “uncivilized” by other people (i.e. abortions, pre-marital sex, eating meat, etc.)

68 Things Fall Apart

69 SOURCES: “ _8cb370643a_o.jpg (JPEG Image, 552x561 pixels).” 23 Apr 2009.http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1280/ _8cb370643a_o.jpg “90px-Stamp_Southern_Nigeria_1901_1sh.jpg (JPEG Image, 90x106 pixels).” 23 Apr 2009.Southern_Nigeria_1901_1sh.jpg/90px- Stamp_Southern_Nigeria_1901_1sh.jpg>. “Bainbridge, David. The Mad Scramble for Africa. (africa.jp“Bainbridge, David. The Mad Scramble for Africa. (africa.jpg) (JPEG Image, 600x787 pixels) - Scaled (40%).” 23 Apr “CIA - The World Factbook -- Nigeria.” 23 Apr "colonialism." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary lism." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary Merriam-Merriam-Webster Online. 21 April 2009 Hughes, Katy. “Causes for Conflict in Nigeria: The Damage Caused by British Colonialism and Western Interference.” 17 Apr Apr Conflict in Nigeria: The Damage Caused by British Colonialism and Weste Ihuegbu, Nnamdi. “"Colonialism and Independence: Nigeria as a Case Study" by Nnamdi Ihuegbu.” 23 Apr 2009.ria as a Case Study" by Nnamdi Ihuegbu.” 23 Apr 2009 Le Roy, Alexandre. "Upper and Lower Nigeria." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, Apr Apr . "Nig"Nigeria." World History: The Modern Era ABC-CLIO. 23 Apr “YouTube - A Tale of Monsters.” 23 Apr 2009.?v=sHPCbhu79zo&feature=related>. “YouTube - Colonialism in 10 Minutes: The“YouTube - Colonialism in 10 Minutes: The Scramble For Africa. Uganda Rising..” 23 Apr “YouTube - WHAT THE TOURISTS SAY ABOUT NIGERIA!!!.” 23 Apr 2009.


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