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**Scientific Measurement**

Using Laboratory Equipment and The Metric System

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**By the end of this unit you**

Measurement By the end of this unit you must be able to: Measure length to the nearest millimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, force (weight) to the nearest Newton, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, and time to the nearest second.

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**Length INSTRUMENT: Metric Ruler Meter Stick UNIT: Meter (m)**

Centimeter (cm) Millimeter (mm) What is it used to measure? How long is the line? How tall is the tree? How far did they run?

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**Mass INSTRUMENT Balance UNIT: Gram (g) Kilogram (kg) Milligram (mg)**

What is it used to measure? How big is the elephant? Mass the rock? What is the mass of the book bag?

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**Regular Volume cm3 mL INSTRUMENT: Metric Ruler Meter Stick UNIT:**

**Do the math. What is the volume of this cube? Volume = length x width x height

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**The units are interchangeable!**

Irregular Volume INSTRUMENT: Graduated Cylinder Overflow Can* *We will not use this in our labs UNIT: mL cm3 BIG SECRET: 1 cm3 = 1 mL The units are interchangeable! What is it used to measure? What is the volume of a toy car? What is the volume of a rock?

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**Liquid Volume INSTRUMENT: Graduated cylinder UNIT: Milliliter (mL)**

Liter (L) What is it used to measure? How much soda is in the glass? How much milk does the recipe say goes in the pancake batter?

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****Why does there HAVE to be a spring in this instrument?**

Weight (Force) **Why does there HAVE to be a spring in this instrument? INSTRUMENT: Spring Scale (*Scale is NOT enough!) UNIT: Newton (N) A spring wants to hold its shape. But it is elastic, and if we apply a force to it, it changes shape. The amount of change in its shape will be proportional to the force applied to it. That's Hooke's law of elasticity. --- Spring scales work by Hooke's Law. This law states that the distance the spring is extended is proportional to the force needed to extend the spring. What is it used to measure? Measure the FORCE of gravity on the rock. How much does the book weigh?

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Temperature INSTRUMENT: Thermometer UNIT: Degrees Celsius (oC)

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**Time INSTRUMENT: Clock Wrist Watch Timer UNIT: Hour (hr) Minute (min)**

Second (sec)

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**POP QUIZ What instrument is used to measure weight? Unit?**

What instrument is used to measure mass? Unit? What instrument is used to measure temperature? Unit? How do you measure the volume of a box? How can you quickly measure the volume of a SMALL rock?

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**By the end of this unit you must be able to:**

The Metric System By the end of this unit you must be able to: Identify the basic metric units for volume, mass, and length. Convert between units within the metric system

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**What is the Metric System?**

The metric system is a system of weights and measures that was first implemented in 1795 in France. Scientists around the world use it as the international standard to clearly communicate data. The Metric System provides…. Simplicity Consistency

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Length The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter and is represented by a lowercase m. Metric Units 1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm) 1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm)

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**Mass Mass refers to the amount of matter in an object.**

The base unit of mass in the metric system in the gram and is represented by g. Metric Units 1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g) 1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)

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**Volume Volume is the amount of space an object takes up.**

The base unit of volume in the metric system is the liter and is represented by L or l. Metric Units 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) Note: Liquid volume should be measured in liters or milliliters while solid volume should be measure in cm3

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Measuring Volume Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water. What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL What causes the meniscus? A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides.

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**Volume of Irregular Objects**

We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement. Amount of H2O with object = ______ About of H2O without object = ______ Difference = Volume = ______

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**How to convert within the metric system**

METRIC CONVERSION How to convert within the metric system

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**1 x 10 = 10 10 X 10 = 100 10 x 100 = 1,000 The Metric System**

This system is based on sets of 10. 1 x 10 = 10 10 X 10 = 100 10 x 100 = 1,000

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Do you remember… King Henry?

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**The pneumonic: Memorize this! King Henry Died Unexpectedly**

Drinking Chocolate Milk Memorize this!

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You must also know… …how to convert within the Metric System. Here’s a good device: On your paper draw a line and add 7 tick marks:

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Next: Above the tick marks write the abbreviations for the King Henry pneumonic: k h d u d c m m l g Write the units in the middle under the “U”.

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**Let’s add the meter line:**

k h d u d c m km hm dam m dm cm mm l g

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**Let’s add the liter line:**

k h d u d c m km hm dam m dm cm mm kl hl dal l dl cl ml g

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**Let’s add the gram line:**

k h d u d c m km hm dam m dm cm mm kl hl dal l dl cl ml kg hg dag g dg cg mg

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**How to use this device: Look at the problem. Look at the unit**

that has a number. On the device put your pencil on that unit. Move to new unit, counting jumps and noticing the direction of the jump. 3. Move decimal in original number the same # of spaces and in the same direction.

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**Example #1: Look at the problem. 56 cm = _____ mm**

Look at the unit that has a number. 56 cm On the device put your pencil on that unit. k h d u d c m km hm dam m dm cm mm

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**Example #1: Move to new unit, counting jumps and**

noticing the direction of the jump! k h d u d c m km hm dam m dm cm mm One jump to the right!

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Example #1: Move decimal in original number the same # of spaces and in the same direction. 56 cm = _____ mm 56.0. One jump to the right! Move decimal one jump to the right. Add a zero as a placeholder.

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Example #1: 56 cm = _____ mm 56cm = 560 mm

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**Example #2: Look at the problem. 7.25 L = ____ kL**

Look at the unit that has a number L On the device put your pencil on that unit. k h d u d c m kl hl dal L dl cl ml

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**Example #2: Move to new unit, counting jumps and**

noticing the direction of the jump! k h d u d c m kl hl dal L dl cl ml Three jumps to the left!

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**.007.25 Example #2: Move decimal to the left three jumps.**

(3) Move decimal in original number the same # of spaces and in the same direction. 7.25 L = ____ kL Three jumps to the left! Move decimal to the left three jumps. Add two zeros as placeholders.

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Example #2: 7.25 L = ____ kL 7.25 L = kL

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**Example #3: Try this problem on your own: 45,000 g = ____mg**

k h d u d c m kg hg dag g dg cg mg

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**45,000.000. Example #3: Three jumps to the right! k h d u d c m**

kg hg dag g dg cg mg Three jumps to the right! 45,

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Example #3: 45,000 g = 45,000,000 mg Three jumps to the right!

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**Example #4: Try this problem on your own: 5 cm = ____ km k h d u d c m**

km hm dam m dm cm mm

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**.00005. Example #4: Five jumps to the left! k h d u d c m**

km hm dam m dm cm mm Five jumps to the left!

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Example #4: 5 cm = km Five jumps to the left!

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Examples #5-9: Solve these five problems on your own. Show your answers to your teacher. You may choose to use the King Henry Notes. You may choose the King Henry Staircase. You may also choose to make a King Henry Slider.

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**Examples #5-9: (5) 35 mm = ____ cm (6) 14,443 L = ____ kL**

(7) kg = ____ g (8)35.4 L = ____ mL (9)16 mm = ____ km

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**One last caution: Be careful NOT**

to count the spot you start from, where you put your pencil point. Only count the jumps!

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**The End You may choose to ask your teacher for a copy of :**

(1) King Henry Notes or (2) King Henry Staircase or (3) King Henry Slider.

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