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Stigmatisation – its effects and being released from its hold Ex-prisoners, their families, victims and society.

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Presentation on theme: "Stigmatisation – its effects and being released from its hold Ex-prisoners, their families, victims and society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stigmatisation – its effects and being released from its hold Ex-prisoners, their families, victims and society

2  Stigmatisation – branding someone as a disgrace. Discrediting the individual to the extent that their actual social identity differs from the societal view.  Shame - a state of humiliation or disgrace. The person views themselves as “a bad person” and may be hindered by this self titled label.  Toxic shame – “you are inadequate and deficient and there is nothing you can do about it” (Booth & Bradshaw)  Guilt – an inner conflict brought about through violating a moral standard the person believes in. “I have done a bad thing” A motivator to put things right, turns to shame if no redeeming action takes place. Definitions

3  Marginalisation – feel alienated, don’t belong (Murphy & Helmer 2013)  Externalise blame – to avoid the associated feelings but become more angry (ibid, 2013)  Devalued social identity – low self esteem depression, powerlessness (Yang et al, 2007).  “Master status” – the label becomes who the person is e.g. “just a criminal” (Miller & Kaiser, 2001)  Greater stress levels – am I experiencing this because I’m an ex prisoner or for some other reason? (ibid, 2001)  Injustice – feeling the effect when aware of injustice being experienced by someone else (ibid 2001)  Pressure – to be a “success” and prove that ex prisoners can “make it” (ibid, 2001).  Stifles the person’s need to belong (Bastian et al, 2012) The effects on the released prisoner

4  Social isolation due to shame of facing others or what others have said.  Become secretive to avoid negative reactions (Gordon, 2009).  Moving house to avoid the shame or to be nearer the prisoner (ibid, 2009).  Depression and anxiety (ibid, 2009).  The effects on the family

5  Bullying – children bullied, justification is a parent in prison or is a bully through emotions linked to parent’s imprisonment (Gordon, 2009).  Loss of friendships – shame of being seen with a child who’s parent is a “criminal” (ibid, 2009).  Greater risk of low self esteem, poor academic achievement and mental or physical health (Yang et al, 2007)  Prison visiting – negative attitudes by some prison officers and the emphasis on security reinforce the stigma already experienced Gordon, (2009). The effects on the child

6  Avoid responsibility – any societal factors are hidden (Murphy & Helmer, 2013)  A more unsafe community – the actions of an ostracised isolated ex offender are less likely to be known  Fear – “monsters” in society.  Inequality – sections of the community have limited opportunities (Miller & Kaiser, 2001)  Dehumanisation – see others as inhuman and behave in that way toward them (Bastian et al, 2012) The effects on society

7  Shame corrodes the very part of us that believes we are capable of change.  Shame derives its power from being unspeakable.  We cannot grow when we are in shame and we can’t use shame to change ourselves or others  If we can share our story with someone who responds with empathy and understanding, shame can’t survive.  Quotes from Bren’e Brown

8  Restorative justice – exposes secrets the “unspeakable”.  Forgiveness – shame gets displaced, blaming stops (Murphy & Helmer 2013)  Community engagement – counters the stigma and resulting isolation  Increased coping skills – able to handle the stresses brought on by the stigma and prejudice (Miller & Kaiser, 2001)  No labels – making a conscious choice not to label anyone, no one belongs in a box.  Be vulnerable – encourages the stigmatised to do the same resulting in shame lifting. Release from its hold

9 Bastian B., Jetten J., Chen H., Radke H.R.M., Harding, J.F., & Fasoli, F. (2012) Losing our humanity: The Self-dehumanising Consequences of Societal Ostracism Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 39 (2) 156-169 Booth L. & Bradshaw J. Toxic Shame accessed from Gordon, L. (2009) Invisible Children: First year research report “A study of the children of prisoners” accessed from Miller C.T. & Kaiser, C.R. (2001) A Theoretical Perspective on Coping with Stigma Journal of Social Issues Vol. 57 No. 1 2001 p.p. 73-92 Murphy K. & Helmer I. (2013) Testing the Importance of forgiveness for reducing repeat offending Australia & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 46 (1) 138-156. Yang L.H., Kleinman A., Link B., Phelan J.C., Sing L., & Good B. (2007) Culture and Stigma: Adding moral experience to stigma theory Social science & Medicine 64 (2007) 1524-1535. References

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