Part 1. Spectral Knowledge ‘Ghosts haunt places that exist without them...’ Spectral knowledge contrasts with knowledge produced by dominant, largely quantitative modes of knowing Has little status in ‘scientific’ knowledge paradigms Speculative, attentive to uncertainties,ambiguities, doubts, and gaps existing in all knowledge, irrespective of how that knowledge formulated All knowledge shaped by ideologies, power, ethnicity, location
Key questions posed by spectral knowledge. Where does an account of an issue come from? Who speaks? Whose interests does the account support and whose are marginalised and (largely) silenced? What modes of practice and regulation are embedded in different accounts or representations of domains of the social world? What discourses support what relations of power and with what social outcomes?
UK Prison Reform Trust Report (2011/12). Prison’s role as to return prisoners to the society ‘in a state of mind’ that means they are less, and certainly not more, likely to reoffend.’
UK Prison Reform Trust Report. Building prisoners’ sense of responsibility involves shift in their relationship to penal system so system and prisoners develop a partnership enabling prisoners to ‘use their knowledge, skills as well as their hopes and ambitions’ Prisoners advising and mentoring others taking trade qualifications
Taking account of spectral knowledge *Mark Johnson and prisoners’ participation in democratic practices through practising their role as citizens *Prisoners as knowledgeable, able to contribute valuably to development of penal policies *Ex-prisoners work with prisoners (Stone 2013) *Desistance work with offenders: Offenders as active partners in formulation of probation plan and its development and modification *‘Co-production’-offenders contribute to development of local services (Weaver 2011) and are employed in these services (Stone 2013)
Accessing spectral knowledge and contribution to potential seismic shifts in criminal justice system *Recognition of offenders’ ability to contribute valuably to correctional policies and work (Edgar et al. 2012/13) *Builds offenders’ confidence, knowledge, capabilities and challenges mainstream highly negative accounts of prisoners Burnett/Maruna 2006) *Contributes to focus of attention to singularity and humanity of each person (Opie 2012) *Could lead to a review of inadequacies of dominance of risk-oriented practices, technologies *Foregrounds how reintegration dependent on public tolerance and acceptance (McNeill & Whyte 2007)
Major question What enables institutions and organisations to engage with differently located, spectral knowledge that: *questions the privileged, self-evident and taken-for-granted knowledge *contributes to re-thinking practices, policies and the accounts or representations of offenders that inform their accepted knowledge paradigms?
Part 2. ‘Simply by sailing in a new direction You can enlarge the world...’: shifts in knowledge and collaborative relationships Alan Curnow, Landfall in Unknown Seas, 1974 Poem written to commemorate Abel Tasman’s arrival in New Zealand waters
Collaboration as enabling development of reflexive knowledge informing policy and practice development across the correctional system 1.Collaboration between providers leading to development of each agency’s work & growing organisational interdependence 2.Collaboration between provider partnership & Corrections, given interrelatedness of work crossing organisational lines and responsibilities, to develop new modes of work and practice
Critical factors in collaborative relationships building are: “coherent long-term vision clarity of roles and responsibilities commitment to joint working at all levels strong leadership dedicated posts for developing capacity time for strong personal relationships and trust to develop between partners” (Katz, 2011 quoting Stratham)
(1) Inter agency collaboration and achieving systemic organisational change enabled by: Clarifying modes of operation Identifying how/where current systems work against desired changes through: *developing shared principles of operation *sustaining systemic change thro ‘the institutionalization of new values and mindsets’ (Foster-Fisher and Watson 2012)
(2) Inter agency collaboration and achieving systemic organisational change through: i)Establishing inter-organisational circles of enquiry that: *write and circulate widely critiques of literature drawn from advanced, inter- disciplinary research and spectral knowledge *produce on-going analyses of the field and outcomes of introduced changes ii) Developing learning organisations, appreciative of the importance of professionalised staff having time to reflect & learn from their work (Foster-Fishman & Watson 2012)
Principles central to the development of reintegrative work in New Zealand Collaboration involves reworking organisational power relations All staff working directly prisoners should hold professional practice qualifications; receive regular on-going professional training Learning organisations engage with advanced spectral knowledge Spectral knowledge disrupts familiar knowledge and engages in methodologically suspect work. Value needs to be argued for by researchers and users (Squires 2013)