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10.3 Polar Coordinates

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**A polar coordinate pair**

One way to give someone directions is to tell them to go three blocks East and five blocks South. Another way to give directions is to point and say “Go a half mile in that direction.” Polar graphing is like the second method of giving directions. Each point is determined by a distance and an angle. A polar coordinate pair determines the location of a point. Initial ray r – the directed distance from the origin to a point Ө – the directed angle from the initial ray (x-axis) to ray OP.

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**Some curves are easier to describe with polar coordinates:**

(Circle centered at the origin) (Ex.: r = 2 is a circle of radius 2 centered around the origin) (Line through the origin) (Ex. Ө = π/3 is a line 60 degrees above the x-axis extending in both directions)

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**More than one coordinate pair can refer to the same point.**

All of the polar coordinates of this point are: Each point can be coordinatized by an infinite number of polar ordered pairs.

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Tests for Symmetry: x-axis: If (r, q) is on the graph, so is (r, -q).

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Tests for Symmetry: y-axis: If (r, q) is on the graph, so is (r, p-q) or (-r, -q).

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Tests for Symmetry: origin: If (r, q) is on the graph, so is (-r, q) or (r, q+p) .

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Tests for Symmetry: If a graph has two symmetries, then it has all three:

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Try graphing this. (Pol mode)

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**SPECIAL GRAPHS Circles: Lemniscates: Limaçons: r = a cosθ**

r2 = a2sin(2θ) r = a ± b(cosθ) r = a sinθ r2 = a2cos(2θ) r = a ± b(sinθ) Types of Limaçons: a > 0, b > 0 If , limaçon has an inner loop If , limaçon called a cardiod (heart shaped) If , limaçon with a dimple.

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**SPECIAL GRAPHS Types of Limaçons: If , limaçon has an inner loop**

If , limaçon called a cardiod (heart shaped) If , limaçon with a dimple. If , convex limaçon.

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**SPECIAL GRAPHS Rose curves: r = a cos(nθ) r = a sin(nθ)**

If n is odd, the rose will have n petals. If n is even, the rose will have 2n petals.

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**CONVERTING TO RECTANGULAR COORDINATES:**

1.) x = r cosΘ y = r sinΘ 2.)

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**Example: Convert the point represented by the polar coordinates (2, π) to rectangular coordinates. **

x = r cos(θ) y = r sin(θ) So, (–2, 0) x = 2cos(π) y = 2 sin(π) x = –2 y = 0

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Example: Convert the point represented by the rectangular coordinates (–1, 1) to polar coordinates.

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**Converting Polar Equations**

You can convert polar equations to parametric equations using the rectangular conversions. Example:

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Homework Section 10.4 #1, 3, 11, 13, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37, 41

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