2The Two Empires of Mesopotamia “You go and carry off the enemy’s land; the enemy comes and carries off your land”This quote was the theme of ancient Mesopotamia. It was a period in which one ruler after the next came to power only to be conquered.
3The Two Empires of Mesopotamia The largest and most important Mesopotamian civilizations were:BabyloniaAssyriaEmpire – area of many territories and peoples that is controlled by one government.Babylon – capital city of Babylonia.
4Babylonian and Assyrian Similarities Two things that Babylonia and Assyria had in common were:They were both vicious warrior empires.Once they conquered an area, they used the riches they gained to build grand cities where learning was valued.
5Map of Ancient Mesopotamia: Babylonia and Assyria
6Babylonian EmpireBabylonian king named Hammurabi created Babylonia by uniting the city-states of Sumer.Trade was increased by a network of roads that were built throughout the empire.Caravans – groups of travelers. They stopped in Babylon on their way between Assyria and Sumer.Bazaars – markets where trade occurred.
8Wealth Through Conquest When a king conquered a land, he gained all of the wealth associated with that land.Hammurabi conquered the city of Mari in 1760 BC and seized their chariots, weapons, and tools.
10Assyrian EmpireAssyria was located in northern Mesopotamia along the Tigris River. It was located in open land which was an easy target for enemies.Since the Assyrians were always defending themselves, they became excellent warriors.
11Assyria’s Contributions Battering Ram – powerful weapon having a wooden beam mounted on wheels.Battering ram, sling shots, and archers were used by the Assyrians to conquer their enemies.Capital of Assyria, Nineveh, was a city of great learning. Nineveh library contained thousands of clay tablets from Babylon and Sumer.
13Assyria OverthrownThe Assyrians were eventually overthrown by the combined efforts of the Medes and the Chaldeans in the year 612 BC.
14Babylonia Rises AgainUnder the Chaldeans, Babylon rose again to even greater splendor. It became the New Babylonian Empire.King Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt the city of Babylon, putting up huge walls for protection.Neb II also built a royal palace that was 350 feet tall. On top of the palace hung huge gardens. The “Hanging Gardens of Babylon became one of the ancient wonders of the world.
16Advances in LearningUnder the rule of the Chaldeans, the New Babylonian Empire (NBE) became a center for learning and science.Chaldean astronomers charted the paths of stars and measured the length of a year.In 539 BC, the NBE was conquered by the Persians but the capital city of Babylon was spared.