Presentation on theme: "I. A Booming Economy II. The Business of Government III. Clash of Values IV. The New Mass Culture V. The Harlem Renaissance The Twenties, 1919-1929 “The."— Presentation transcript:
I. A Booming Economy II. The Business of Government III. Clash of Values IV. The New Mass Culture V. The Harlem Renaissance The Twenties, “The Jazz Age”
4 Major Trends of the 1920s great prosperity. 1. The 1920s were a time of great prosperity. great tension between groups in society. 2. The 1920s were a time of great tension between groups in society. great creativity 3. The 1920s were a time of great creativity. great inequality. 4. The 1920s were a time of great inequality.
The Century: Americas Time : Boom to Bust
1920s Timeline 1919—18 th Amendment =Prohibition on alcohol 1920—19 th Amendment gave women the right to vote 1921—Warren Harding, President, —Teapot Dome Scandal (government corruption) 1923—Calvin Coolidge, President, —National Origins Act limits immigration to U.S. 1925—Scopes Trial in TN: Science and Religion 1927—The Jazz Singer, first talking movie 1929—Herbert Hoover enters the White House Stock Market Crashes Prosperity of the 1920s ends
The “New Economy” 1. After WWI, the American economy grew rapidly. 2. With mass production, workers produced more goods faster and cheaper than ever before; they also began buying goods on credit. 3. The economic boom of the 1920s changed the lives of millions of people and helped create our modern consumer society of today.
What factors drove the economic boom of the 1920s? Two Major factors: 1. Europe had been devastated by war. The U.S. was the only healthy industrial power in the world. 2. But the most important factor was new technology and inventions led to industrial expansion to produce goods for the growing market
New technology and products of the 1920s 1. Electric vacuum cleaners, refrigerators and freezers 2. Automatic washing machines 3. *** Radios 4. Scotch tape, Kleenex tissue paper, electric razor 5. Computers at MIT 6. Genetic Research 7. Faster Trains 8. Early stages of commercial aviation It took over 100 years for the US Patent Office to issue its millionth patent in 1911; within 15 years it issued its two- millionth.
The Automobile was the most important new technological invention of the 1920s: *The Automobile was the most important new technological invention of the 1920s: 1. Automobile industry drove the booming economy 2. Autos led to the growth of other industries: Steel, rubber, glass, gasoline, oil, road construction, housing construction (suburbs), motels, restaurants, gas stations
The Ford Assembly Line Mass production=production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines Assembly line=arrangement of equipment and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in a direct line until the product is assembled Scientific management=experts study ways to improve efficiency by studying every step of the process
Innovation =change in way of doing something Model T=Henry Ford’s car many Americans could afford Henry Ford= his assembly line revolutionized production, wages, and working conditions, and daily life
Ford Assembly Line
1920s Gas Station
In 1929, the nation produced 5.5 million cars and 5 of every 6 cars in the world were owned by Americans.
Automobiles transformed American society: 1. Drove the economy and promoted buying on credit 2. Social freedom, dating and privacy 3. Drinking alcohol 4. Cars were a status symbol 5. Americans were mobile and took vacations 6. Americans moved to the suburbs which transformed cities 7. Increased socialization, ended isolation 8. Gave rise to a youth culture
“Story of Us” Video-Automobiles 12 ideoId=dubvgA7Je7Y&name=%288%29+America%2C+the+ Story+of+US+- +Boom&uploadUsername=9kYmo6fsrySOonVIbdINtw&hitC ount=11328
Advertising and Buying on Credit Consumer revolution= more goods were affordable and available to more people in American society than ever before The 1920s was the first true “Age of the Consumer” Installment purchases =customers would make small down payment on an item and pay the rest in monthly payments. Americans went into debt to buy the consumer goods of the 1920s.
Walking ads for stockings
Movies of the 1920s
The Bull Market of the 1920s
The Bull Market Bull Market=stock prices rose in the 1920s and more Americans began to invest in stocks Get rich quick! Buying on Margin=to pay for stocks, many people bought stocks on “credit” by only putting 10% down. They believed they could pay the rest of the cost with profits from the stock market.
Cities, Suburbs and the Country Cities and suburbs grew and more Americans moved to urban areas for jobs and entertainment. More skyscrapers were built. Americans began to move to the suburbs (Cars made travel in and out of the city possible.) Farmers were NOT prosperous.
First African American Union: Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
African Americans in office in Hempstead, TX
Story of Us: Red Summer, 1919 Blacks migrate North during WWI for jobs Racial tensions increase in cities in the North and West Boom: 25:00 Chicago 1919, Red Summer
Farmers at the Market, 1920s
Signs of the Booming Economy of the 1920s: 1.Wages rose from $36 billion to $51 billion 2. Gross National Product (GNP) jumped from $69 billion to $93 billion 3. Mass production led to lower prices for goods 4. US entered WWI a debtor nation and emerged the largest creditor ($12 billion) Compared to other nations, America was rich 5. Advertising increased and Americans bought goods on credit *In the 1920s, Americans had the highest per capita income in the world.
Republicans Dominate Politics of the 1920s 1. Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge and the government in the 1920s supported business growth. Both believed in a smaller federal government. 2. This is a part of a pattern in U.S. history where economic cycles and government action are tied together.
Republican Presidents of the 1920s 1. Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, 1928 Republicans controlled government for 12 years
Warren Harding, Ohio
WARREN HARDING (R), Elected because he promised a “Return to Normalcy.” Americans were tired of war and Progressive reform movements. Harding promised smaller government and lower taxes. “Ohio Gang” –Harding placed his friends in public office
Harding’s Cabinet Members 1. Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury Wealthy banker Lowered taxes Few regulations on businesses 2. Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce Promoted business 3. “Ohio Gang”-Harding’s corrupt and greedy friends who saw government as a way to get rich. This leads several scandals in the administration.
Teapot Dome Scandal Senator Albert Fall, Secretary of the Interior, took bribes to lease lands with oil reserves for the navy to businessmen. He was convicted and served a year in jail. Warren Harding died of a heart attack. Calvin Coolidge became president.
Warren Harding as President Go to 13 minutes The Presidents of the 1920s: Warren G. Harding
“Silent Cal”-Calvin Coolidge,
Calvin Coolidge and the Nation 1. Time of prosperity 2. Reduced the federal budget 3. Lowered taxes 4. Gave incentives to businesses 5. Believed in small government “The chief business of the American people is business.” “The man who builds a factory, builds a temple.”
America’s Role in the World 1. No war had been as deadly as World War I. 2. All Americans agreed it should never happen again 3. The U.S. and other nations took steps to reduce weapons and avoid war.
U.S. International Affairs GOALU.S. Action League of Nations To prevent war and settle disputes between nations W. Wilson wanted to join. U.S. Senate rejected membership World Court To settle international disputes Warren Harding wanted U.S. to participate; rejected by the U.S. Senate Washington Naval Disarmament Conference To reduce the number of arms and size of navies of major powers U.S. and other nations agreed to limit construction of warships Kellogg- Briand Pact To “outlaw war….as an instrument of national policy.” U.S. and other nations agreed
Economic Question of 1920s: How do we pay for WWI? Dawes Plan-provided loans to Germany so they could pay their debts to Great Britain and France (so they could pay the U.S. ) This cycle of debt contributed to the Great Depression.
Herbert Hoover, the Forgotten Progressive, Elected in 1928
1920s, Clash of Cultures: Many Americans Resisted the Changes to Society in 1920s 1920s, Clash of Cultures: Many Americans Resisted the Changes to Society in 1920s 1. During the 1920s, the nation became increasingly divided over major issues related to religion, science, immigration, morality, and the changing economy. 2. These divisions increased tensions between those living in urban areas and those living in rural areas. 3. For the first time, urban Americans outnumbered rural Americans. Many saw the new urban culture as a threat to traditional values Major Questions: What kind of nation are we? What kind of nation do we hope to become?
Terms to Know Modernism-a growing trend that emphasized science and secular values over traditional ideas and religious beliefs. Religious fundamentalism-belief in strict interpretation of the Bible and that there are “fundamental” truths based on scripture Nativism-fear, suspicion, or resentment of foreigners
Clash of the Cultures, 1920s City vs. Country Religious fundamentalism Prohibition-end alcohol consumption Slower to embrace change Suspicious of foreigners (nativism) Modern religion Embraced science Promoted change Focus was more on the individual TRADITIONAL/ RURAL VIEWMODERN/ URBAN VIEW
Three Examples of the conflicts created by cultural change in the 1920s: 1. Debate over prohibition 2. The rise of nativism and the New Ku Klux Klan 3. Religious fundamentalism vs. modern religion (The Scopes Trial)
Prohibition: “Drys” vs the “Wets”
History of U.S. Alcohol Consumption video/#id= video/#id=
Ken Burns: Prohibition Preview, 2 minutes
Why did Americans outlaw alcohol in 1919? Alcoholism, child abuse, injuries, job loss, gambling, and prostitution were all connected to alcohol abuse. Women were very active in the prohibition movement The crusade against alcohol in the U.S. dated back to the 1850s. Alcohol consumption in the 1800s and early 1900s was much higher than today. **During WWI, Americans argued the grain used to make alcohol was needed for food. Resentment toward German brewers in America after WWI
The Laws (Prohibition) 18 th Amendment to the Constitution-(1919) prohibited the distribution, sale, or manufacture of alcohol. Volstead Act (1920) law to officially enforce the amendment.
Stories from the Prohibition Period Freddie Johnson, historian: People made money during prohibition a number of rather ingenious ways. One was right here in the city of Frankfurt that went on for a number of years. There was one family that came up with a system that was based on the delivery of milk in the mornings. So what they did was they had their still located down in the basement of their home in a little cellar. It was underneath the mother's bedroom floor in the little cellar. And what she would do is when they would make the moonshine they would move the bed out of the way, move the throw rug, and they would go down and they'd make a batch of hooch. Their little truck was painted just like a milk truck. Their uniforms were white and the jugs, they painted them up just like milk. And so they would fill it up with moonshine. And they did this for years.
Impact of Prohibition (1920s) Alcohol consumption did drop for a short period, but the law did not stop Americans from drinking. Speakeasies were illegal bars for drinking “hooch” or white lightning An illegal trade in bootleg alcohol led to a rise in organized crime and violence. The most famous organized crime boss was Al Capone. Bootleggers produced, transported and sold alcohol. The issue of Prohibition divided America : Drys vs. Wets
TWO AMERICAS: Election of minutes PBS Prohibition: Election 1924, A Divided America WETS vs DRYS and KKK
Al Capone’s Hangout and Coroner’s Report
Largest moonshine still seized—”hooch” and white lightning
Story of Us: 1920s Prohibition (33:00)
Nativism Increased in the 1920s Nativism, resentment of foreigners, increased in the 1920s. Americans argued they took jobs and threatened the nation’s political, religious, and cultural traditions. Two laws were passed that limited immigration: Quota System Quota System 1. Emergency Quota Act (1921) 1. Emergency Quota Act (1921) 2. National Origins Act (1924) 2. National Origins Act (1924) Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti (Italian Immigrants) were convicted of murder based on little evidence. Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti (Italian Immigrants) were convicted of murder based on little evidence.
Rise in Nativism: Sacco and Vanzetti
Decline in immigration to the U.S. after the passage of Emergency Quota Act (1921) and National Origins Act (1924)
The New Ku Klux Klan of 1920s Connected to nativism, this organization persecuted Jews, Catholics, African Americans, and immigrants. “Old” Klan had been formed in the South after the Civil War. The “New” Klan was strong in the South, but also in the Midwest (Indiana) and the Northeast. Many Americans opposed the KKK: NAACP Jewish Anti-Defamation League Klan members were often corrupt.
KKK Marches in Washington
KKK Initiation in Mississippi, 1923
Religious Fundamentalism vs Modern Religion: Clash of Values, 1920s Scopes Trial, occurred in Dayton, TN to test the Butler Law Butler Law-forbade the teaching of evolution in schools John Scopes taught high school Dayton and had assigned readings on the theory of evolution The trial pitted Clarence Darrow against William Jennings Bryan The trial was a part of the debate between modernism and fundamentalism in American Society
Religion and Science: the Ongoing Debate In 1632 Galileo published his work on the solar system asserting that the earth revolved around the sun (heliocentric). He was tried and convicted of heresy and sentenced to house arrest.
Charles Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species (1859) =Within 20 years it convinced most of the international scientific community that evolution was a fact.
John Scopes and the Scopes Trial, Clash of Cultures Science teacher in Dayton, TN who was charged with violating a TN law that banned the teaching of evolution in schools. He was tried and found guilt. Defense Attorney: Clarence Darrow Prosecuting Attorney: William Jennings Bryan
High School in Dayton, TN
Outcome of the Scopes Trial John Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. William Jennings Bryan died 6 days later. The case was appealed to the state supreme court but overturned on a technicality. Of the 15 states that banned the teaching of evolution only two continued to enforce the law: Mississippi and Arkansas **The debate between science and religion and what should be taught in schools continues today.
Why was the Scopes Trial so important in American history? It has been studied for 75 years Scopes trial and the subsequent dramatizations mirror a continuous cultural conflict between different belief systems: modernists and fundamentalists. People were looking for meaning in an increasingly complex world. This is a common theme throughout history.
Current and Future Debates Between Science and Religion Intelligent design or evolution? Birth Control and Abortion Stem Cell Research Cloning What types of changes and laws will Americans support? How will the government react?
The Harlem Renaissance Why It Matters: 1. Around WWI, African Americans began to migrate from the South to cities in the North. 2. This movement led to the rise of jazz and literary traditions that impacted all of American culture.
Reasons Blacks Migrated North s Pull Factors 1. Seeking manufacturing jobs in the North 2. Greater political rights 3. Social advancement Push Factors 1. Low paying jobs in the South 2. Jim Crow oppression and racism 3. Very few good schools
Blacks faced challenges in the North Wages were better in the North They still experienced racism and segregation in Northern cities Race riots occurred in cities across the nation in 1919 Over 200,000 African Americans settled in Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City.
The Jazz Age: 1920s JAZZ-a style of music where musicians creatively combine different forms of music often including blues and ragtime. Improvisation-create music as you play *Jazz-one of the only truly indigenous forms of American music (created in this nation) Jazz originated in New Orleans and moved North with the migration. JAZZ GREATS: 1. Louis Armstrong 2. Bessie Smith
Duke Ellington made his debut at the Cotton Club in 1927
Louis Armstrong From New Orleans Trumpet Player (soloist) “Satchmo”
Bessie Smith “Empress of the Blues” Singer (vocalist)
Jazz for Bears in the Park
The Harlem Renaissance: Harlem Renaissance-an explosion of African American culture during the 1920s in the New York neighborhood of Harlem of black writers, poets, artists and musicians. African American Writers: Claude McKay-writer who wrote about ordinary African Americans struggling for dignity and advancement in the face of discrimination. Langston Hughes-the most powerful literary voice of his time. He celebrated African culture and life. Zora Neale Hurston –in her book, Their Eyes Were Watching God, she talked about the independence women were seeking in society.
Zora Neal Hurston
History Channel Video: Harlem Renaissance (3min)
Significance of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s 1. The movement gave a voice to African American culture 2. Promoted black creativity and pride in the African American community 3. Jazz spread to Europe and other nations around the world.
N.A.A.C.P.-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded in 1920
Women in the 1920s Young women were more independent Voted, some went to college Had more free time thanks to new technology-vacuum cleaners, washing machines,… Many young women worked: secretaries, teachers, nurses Became major consumers Number of children declined, New Ideal: “Flappers” –loose dresses, shorter dresses, bobbed hair, smoking, consuming alcohol
Education in the 1920s ***The number of Americans attending high school grew rapidly (p447) Americans were more informed because of radio and newsmagazines (mass media) Many realized they needed more education for the jobs in society More people attended college Helped promote the rise of a YOUTH CULTURE: Sports, time with friends, dancing, fads, music
Important Americans of 1920s Charles Lindbergh—(1927) first nonstop flight from New York to Paris in the Spirit of St. Louis Babe Ruth—Baseball great F. Scott Fitzgerald –writer--coined the phrase “Jazz Age”, criticized the excesses of the 1920s in The Great Gatsby Earnest Hemingway—writer— A Farewell to Arms Marcus Garvey --Black activist who promoted black pride and a back to Africa movement Harlem Renaissance writers and artists: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Zora Neal Hurston Musicians of the 1920s: Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Paul Robeson