34 Major Trends of the 1920s1. The 1920s were a time of great prosperity.2. The 1920s were a time of great tension between groups in society.3. The 1920s were a time of great creativity.4. The 1920s were a time of great inequality.
4The Century: Americas Time 1920-1929: Boom to Bust
51920s Timeline 1919—18th Amendment =Prohibition on alcohol 1920—19th Amendment gave women the right to vote1921—Warren Harding, President,1922—Teapot Dome Scandal (government corruption)1923—Calvin Coolidge, President,1924—National Origins Act limits immigration to U.S.1925—Scopes Trial in TN: Science and Religion1927—The Jazz Singer, first talking movie1929—Herbert Hoover enters the White HouseStock Market CrashesProsperity of the 1920s ends
6The “New Economy” 1. After WWI, the American economy grew rapidly. 2. With mass production, workers produced more goods faster and cheaper than ever before; they also began buying goods on credit.3. The economic boom of the 1920s changed the lives of millions of people and helped create our modern consumer society of today.
7What factors drove the economic boom of the 1920s? Two Major factors:1. Europe had been devastated by war. The U.S.was the only healthy industrial power in theworld.2. But the most important factor was newtechnology and inventions led toindustrial expansion to producegoods for the growing market
8New technology and products of the 1920s 1. Electric vacuum cleaners, refrigerators and freezers2. Automatic washing machines3. *** Radios4. Scotch tape, Kleenex tissue paper, electric razor5. Computers at MIT6. Genetic Research7. Faster Trains8. Early stages of commercial aviationIt took over 100 years for the US Patent Office to issue its millionth patent in 1911; within 15 years it issued its two- millionth.
9*The Automobile was the most important new technological invention of the 1920s: 1. Automobile industry drove the booming economy2. Autos led to the growth of other industries:Steel, rubber, glass, gasoline, oil, road construction, housing construction (suburbs), motels, restaurants, gas stations
10Henry FordHenry Ford was at the center of these great changes of the 1920s, and he wasn't modest about his place in history. As he once said: "I invented the modern age." Now that's pushing it. But this cranky cultural reactionary, who, at the height of the Jazz Age, tried to revive square dancing and country fiddling, was one of the greatest revolutionaries of the Industrial Age.His Model T Ford began this country's love affair with the car and turned America into an automobile civilization. But Ford's greatest innovation wasn't the Model T. It was the system he developed for making it, and thousands of other products. This was modern mass production, the single most important factor in making America the economic and military powerhouse of the 20th century.Ford's system of belt-driven assembly line production is arguably the most important innovation of the Industrial Age. Ford, in fact, coined the word, "mass production." Until he did, in 1926, it was called Fordism. All of us are products, in one way or another, of Fordism.Henry Ford was born on a farm near Dearborn, Michigan in l863, only a few weeks after the Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. As a boy, he loved to roam in the woods and fields by the River Rouge, near his home, and he developed a lifelong attachment to rural values of thrift, self-reliance, and simple living. But in truth, he hated the isolation and boredom of farm life.This was the Machine Age, and he was enthralled by modern machinery. At age sixteen, he left home and walked to Detroit, where he found work in a machine shop. His dream was the dream of countless other backyard mechanics of that time with names like Dodge, Buick, and Olds. It was to build a horseless carriage, a self-propelling road machine that ran, not on steam, but on the fuel of the coming age, gasoline.Ford spent his evenings after work in a small shed behind his house putting together his first car. When he finished it on June 4th 1896, it was almost two in the morning, but he was so excited he wanted to take it for a run. Then he realized that the door of the shed wasn't wide enough to get his road machine through. So he grabbed an axe, demolished the doorframe, and rode off into the night.His wasn't the first car. Europeans like Karl Benz had been making cars for at least a decade. But Ford's could go 20 miles per hour, a terrific speed back then; and it was reliable and didn't cost that much. As he built more cars and formed his own company with the backing of Detroit capitalists, Ford developed the idea that would make him the most powerful industrialist in America.Mass Production & the Assembly LineIn 1900, most cars were rich men's toys. Ford wanted to build an inexpensive car for farmers like his Irish father. It would be rugged, reliable, and designed for rough country roads; and it would liberate rural people from the isolation that had nearly driven him crazy on his father's farm.Ford was convinced there was only one way to make such a car. He'd fix on a design, freeze it, and then work on ways to reproduce it year after year. As he said, "The way to make cars is to make one automobile just like another automobile; just as one pen is like another pen, or one match is like another match when it comes from a match factory."When Ford's chief financial backer kept pushing for big, fancy cars, Ford bought him out in 1906, built a new production plant at Highland Park, north of Detroit, and began work on the Model T with a team of dedicated mechanics. Here was Ford, the backyard mechanic, in his glory, working day and night on his dream product, tinkering, testing, playing with new ideas, working with men he respected, all of them self-taught. And the car they produced was a beauty. It ran like a dream, but at $825, the equivalent of a teacher's salary back then, it was still too expensive for the common man.The car would stay the same. What had to change was the way of making it. This is where Ford would make his outstanding contribution to the machine age: as a systems-builder, the creator of a gigantic technological system capable of producing, well, almost anything.To drive down the price of his car he'd have to make lots of them. The profits would come from volume, not pricing. And that meant speeding up the work by simplifying it. Adam Smith had called it the division of labor.By 1914, Ford and his engineers had installed a belt-driven movable production line that took the work to the worker, and then carried that man's work to another worker, and so, until a shining Model T rolled off the line. It was continuous flow production. No one had ever done this before.Before Ford, the closest thing to continuous flow production was the dis-assembly line of the Chicago meat packing plants, where animal carcasses hung on a rail and moved from butcher to butcher. Ford claimed that this was the inspiration for his own assembly line. Ford worked incessantly to simplify manufacturing until most work was done automatically, without thought. The culmination was a system where men and machines were merged into a single tremendous machine, a megamachine, with the belt as the boss.Before the assembly line, it took 13 hours to make a car. Soon it took less than an hour. By saving time, Ford saved money and drove down the price of his car nearly every year. The last Model T, built in 1927, cost a mere $290.
11The Ford Assembly LineMass production=production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly linesAssembly line=arrangement of equipment and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in a direct line until the product is assembledScientific management=experts study ways to improve efficiency by studying every step of the process
12Innovation =change in way of doing something Model T=Henry Ford’s car many Americans could affordHenry Ford= his assembly line revolutionized production, wages, and working conditions, and daily life
13Ford Assembly Line Labor Conditions While the car liberated the driver, it enchained the workers who made it. It's ironic that the challenging, experimental enterprise that produced the assembly line at Highland Park created a new kind of work devoid of excitement and challenge. Here is the continuing dilemma of mass production. Speed and specialization drives down prices. But in democratizing consumption, it debases work.At Ford's plants, spotters and foreman enforced regulations that forbade leaning against machines, sitting, talking, singing, even whistling and smiling. Ford workers learned to communicate without moving their lips. They called this "the Ford whisper." And men went crazy from the speedup and the tedium of the work.The result was an enormous, hugely expensive labor turnover; almost 400% in the first year the line was installed. Ford solved this problem with another radical innovation: the five-dollar, eight hour day. This was when the average work day was 9 hours and the average industrial wage, $2.45. Workers all over the country poured into Detroit, and the press hailed Ford as an enlightened employer. But Ford's fellow industrialists blasted him for undermining the capitalist system.Ford, however, understood something most of them hadn't figured out yet: that a mass production economy would grind to a halt unless workers were paid back enough to buy back the products they made. When Ford's advertising department brought him a slogan "Buy a Ford, Save the Difference," he changed it to "Buy a Ford, Spend the Difference." The advocate of rural thrift had certainly altered his tune. Still, Ford's passion was production, not distribution. Yet this obsessive preoccupation with production would soon undermine his dominance of the auto industry.
20Automobiles transformed American society: 1. Drove the economy and promoted buying on credit2. Social freedom, dating and privacy3. Drinking alcohol4. Cars were a status symbol5. Americans were mobile and took vacations6. Americans moved to the suburbs which transformed cities7. Increased socialization, ended isolation8. Gave rise to a youth culture
21“Story of Us” Video-Automobiles 12 ideoId=dubvgA7Je7Y&name=%288%29+America%2C+the+ Story+of+US+- +Boom&uploadUsername=9kYmo6fsrySOonVIbdINtw&hitC ount=11328
22Advertising and Buying on Credit Consumer revolution= more goods were affordable and available to more people in American society than ever beforeThe 1920s was the first true “Age of theConsumer”Installment purchases =customers would make small down payment on an item and pay the rest in monthly payments. Americans went into debt to buy the consumer goods of the 1920s.
27Movies of the 1920sBy this time, the auto-age city had become, as well, Tinsel Town, the capital of American movie-making. That too happened in the 20s, when a sleepy little retirement community called Hollywood became the home of the world's greatest concentration of movie studios.The movie industry grew up in New York City in the first two decades of the 20th century, and many of the first movie houses and small studios were run by immigrant Jews who got started in the garment industry, a business based, as movies were, on changing styles.These silent movies were universal entertainment. There were no language barriers to overcome, so they became wildly popular in ethnic communities. The New York Jews who created Hollywood were risktakers and dreamers. They started small and became big: Samuel Goldwyn, William Fox, Adolph Zukor, Louis B. Mayer, Marcus Loew, the Warner Brothers (Harry and Jack).They came for the sunshine and the space. In that age of poor lighting, most movies had to be made outdoors. California sunlight allowed producers to make movies all year round. Land was also cheap and available in big parcels, giving studios lots of room to expand as they moved to the production of biblical extravaganzas with huge casts and sets.Henry Ford hated movies. Even the religious epics were, he said, "all about sex and sin." And they were made by Jews, who Ford blamed for everything, from jazz ("Jews ruled the music industry"), to short skirts ("Jews also controlled the garment industry"). But even Ford used newsreel-type films to advertise his cars to a country hooked on movies.By the mid-'20s, 100 million people were going to movies every week. And films about the rich and famous whetted the appetite of people for cars and other expensive consumer goods.Ford held his nose while his wallet expanded. Like most Americans, Ford looked to a future of unstoppable economic growth. But just when people were thinking that the prosperity wave would never break, it broke.
28The Bull Market of the 1920s A Bull market—stocks are rising in value Bear Market –stocks are losing value
29The Bull MarketBull Market=stock prices rose in the 1920s and more Americans began to invest in stocksGet rich quick!Buying on Margin=to pay for stocks, many people bought stocks on “credit” by only putting 10% down. They believed they could pay the rest of the cost with profits from the stock market.
30Cities, Suburbs and the Country Cities and suburbs grew and more Americans moved to urban areas for jobs and entertainment.More skyscrapers were built.Americans began to move to the suburbs (Cars made travel in and out of the city possible.)Farmers were NOT prosperous.
40Signs of the Booming Economy of the 1920s: 1.Wages rose from $36 billion to $51 billion2. Gross National Product (GNP) jumped from $69 billion to $93 billion3. Mass production led to lower prices for goods4. US entered WWI a debtor nation and emerged the largest creditor ($12 billion) Compared to other nations, America was rich5. Advertising increased and Americans bought goods on credit*In the 1920s, Americans had the highest per capita income in the world.
41Republicans Dominate Politics of the 1920s 1. Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge and the government in the 1920s supported business growth. Both believed in a smaller federal government.2. This is a part of a pattern in U.S. history where economic cycles and government action are tied together.
42Republican Presidents of the 1920s 1. Warren Harding, 19202. Calvin Coolidge, 19233. Herbert Hoover, 1928Republicans controlled government for 12 years
44WARREN HARDING (R),Elected because he promised a “Return to Normalcy.”Americans were tired of war and Progressive reform movements.Harding promised smaller government and lower taxes.“Ohio Gang” –Harding placed his friends in public office
45Harding’s Cabinet Members 1. Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury Wealthy banker Lowered taxes Few regulations on businesses 2. Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce Promoted business 3. “Ohio Gang”-Harding’s corrupt and greedy friends who saw government as a way to get rich. This leads several scandals in the administration.
46Teapot Dome ScandalSenator Albert Fall, Secretary of the Interior, took bribes to lease lands with oil reserves for the navy to businessmen. He was convicted and served a year in jail.Warren Harding died of a heart attack.Calvin Coolidge became president.
47Warren Harding as President Go to 13 minutes The Presidents of the 1920s: Warren G. Harding
49Calvin Coolidge and the Nation Time of prosperityReduced the federal budgetLowered taxesGave incentives to businessesBelieved in small government“The chief business of the American people is business.”“The man who builds a factory, builds a temple.”
50America’s Role in the World 1. No war had been as deadly as World War I. 2. All Americans agreed it should never happen again 3. The U.S. and other nations took steps to reduce weapons and avoid war.
51Kellogg-Briand Pact World Court League of Nations U.S. International AffairsGOALU.S. ActionLeague of NationsTo prevent war and settle disputes between nationsW. Wilson wanted to join. U.S. Senate rejected membershipWorld CourtTo settle international disputesWarren Harding wanted U.S. to participate; rejected by the U.S. SenateWashington Naval Disarmament ConferenceTo reduce the number of arms and size of navies of major powersU.S. and other nations agreed to limit construction of warshipsKellogg-Briand PactTo “outlaw war….as an instrument of national policy.”U.S. and other nations agreed
52Economic Question of 1920s: How do we pay for WWI? Dawes Plan-provided loans to Germany so they could pay their debts to Great Britain and France (so they could pay the U.S. )This cycle of debt contributed to the Great Depression.
53Herbert Hoover, the Forgotten Progressive, Elected in 1928
541920s, Clash of Cultures: Many Americans Resisted the Changes to Society in 1920s 1. During the 1920s, the nation became increasingly divided over major issues related to religion, science, immigration, morality, and the changing economy.2. These divisions increased tensions between those living in urban areas and those living in rural areas.3. For the first time, urban Americans outnumbered rural Americans. Many saw the new urban culture as a threat to traditional valuesMajor Questions: What kind of nation are we?What kind of nation do we hope to become?
55Terms to KnowModernism-a growing trend that emphasized science and secular values over traditional ideas and religious beliefs.Religious fundamentalism-belief in strict interpretation of the Bible and that there are “fundamental” truths based on scriptureNativism-fear, suspicion, or resentment of foreigners
56Clash of the Cultures, 1920s City vs. Country TRADITIONAL/ RURAL VIEWMODERN/ URBAN VIEWReligious fundamentalismProhibition-end alcohol consumptionSlower to embrace changeSuspicious of foreigners(nativism)Modern religionEmbraced sciencePromoted changeFocus was more on the individual
592. The rise of nativism and the New Ku Klux Klan Three Examples of the conflicts created by cultural change in the 1920s:1. Debate over prohibition2. The rise of nativism and the New Ku Klux Klan3. Religious fundamentalism vs.modern religion(The Scopes Trial)
63Why did Americans outlaw alcohol in 1919? Alcoholism, child abuse, injuries, job loss, gambling, and prostitution were all connected to alcohol abuse. Women were very active in the prohibition movementThe crusade against alcohol in the U.S. dated back to the 1850s. Alcohol consumption in the 1800s and early 1900s was much higher than today.**During WWI, Americans argued the grain used to make alcohol was needed for food.Resentment toward German brewers in America after WWI
65The Laws (Prohibition) 18th Amendment to the Constitution-(1919) prohibited the distribution, sale, or manufacture of alcohol.Volstead Act (1920) law to officially enforce the amendment.
66Stories from the Prohibition Period Freddie Johnson, historian: People made money during prohibition a number of rather ingenious ways. One was right here in the city of Frankfurt that went on for a number of years. There was one family that came up with a system that was based on the delivery of milk in the mornings. So what they did was they had their still located down in the basement of their home in a little cellar. It was underneath the mother's bedroom floor in the little cellar. And what she would do is when they would make the moonshine they would move the bed out of the way, move the throw rug, and they would go down and they'd make a batch of hooch. Their little truck was painted just like a milk truck. Their uniforms were white and the jugs, they painted them up just like milk. And so they would fill it up with moonshine. And they did this for years.
67Impact of Prohibition (1920s) Alcohol consumption did drop for a short period, but the law did not stop Americans from drinking.Speakeasies were illegal bars for drinking “hooch” or white lightningAn illegal trade in bootleg alcohol led to a rise in organized crime and violence.The most famous organized crime boss was Al Capone.Bootleggers produced, transported and sold alcohol.The issue of Prohibition divided America: Drys vs. Wets
68TWO AMERICAS: Election of 1924 8 minutes PBS Prohibition: Election 1924, A Divided AmericaWETS vs DRYS and KKK
73Nativism Increased in the 1920s Nativism, resentment of foreigners, increased in the 1920s.Americans argued they took jobs and threatened the nation’s political, religious, and cultural traditions.Two laws were passed that limited immigration:Quota System1. Emergency Quota Act (1921)2. National Origins Act (1924)Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti (Italian Immigrants) were convicted of murder based on little evidence.
75Decline in immigration to the U. S Decline in immigration to the U.S. after the passage of Emergency Quota Act (1921) and National Origins Act (1924)
76The New Ku Klux Klan of 1920sConnected to nativism, this organization persecuted Jews, Catholics, African Americans, and immigrants.“Old” Klan had been formed in the South after the Civil War.The “New” Klan was strong in the South , but also in the Midwest (Indiana) and the Northeast.Many Americans opposed the KKK:NAACPJewish Anti-Defamation LeagueKlan members were often corrupt.
80Religious Fundamentalism vs Modern Religion: Clash of Values, 1920s Scopes Trial, occurred in Dayton, TN to test the Butler LawButler Law-forbade the teaching of evolution in schoolsJohn Scopes taught high school Dayton and had assigned readings on the theory of evolutionThe trial pitted Clarence Darrow against William Jennings BryanThe trial was a part of the debate between modernism and fundamentalism in American Society
81Religion and Science: the Ongoing Debate In 1632 Galileo published his work on the solar system asserting that the earth revolved around the sun (heliocentric).He was tried and convicted of heresy and sentenced to house arrest.
82Charles Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species (1859) =Within 20 years it convinced most of the international scientific community that evolution was a fact.
83John Scopes and the Scopes Trial, Clash of Cultures Science teacher in Dayton, TN who was charged with violating a TN law that banned the teaching of evolution in schools. He was tried and found guilt.Defense Attorney: Clarence DarrowProsecuting Attorney: William Jennings Bryan
91Outcome of the Scopes Trial John Scopes was found guilty and fined $100.William Jennings Bryan died 6 days later.The case was appealed to the state supreme court but overturned on a technicality.Of the 15 states that banned the teaching of evolution only two continued to enforce the law: Mississippi and Arkansas**The debate between science and religion and what should be taught in schools continues today.
94Why was the Scopes Trial so important in American history? It has been studied for 75 yearsScopes trial and the subsequent dramatizations mirror a continuous cultural conflict between different belief systems: modernists and fundamentalists.People were looking for meaning in an increasingly complex world.This is a common theme throughout history.
95Current and Future Debates Between Science and Religion Intelligent design or evolution?Birth Control and AbortionStem Cell ResearchCloningWhat types of changes and laws will Americans support?How will the government react?
96The Harlem Renaissance Why It Matters:1. Around WWI, African Americans began to migrate from the South to cities in the North.2. This movement led to the rise of jazz and literary traditions that impacted all of American culture.
97Reasons Blacks Migrated North 1915-1920s Pull Factors1. Seeking manufacturing jobs in the North2. Greater political rights3. Social advancementPush Factors1. Low paying jobs in the South2. Jim Crow oppression and racism3. Very few good schools
98Blacks faced challenges in the North Wages were better in the NorthThey still experienced racism and segregation in Northern citiesRace riots occurred in cities across the nation in 1919Over 200,000 African Americans settled in Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City.
99The Jazz Age: 1920sJAZZ-a style of music where musicians creatively combine different forms of music often including blues and ragtime.Improvisation-create music as you play*Jazz-one of the only truly indigenous forms of American music (created in this nation)Jazz originated in New Orleans and moved North with the migration.JAZZ GREATS:1. Louis Armstrong2. Bessie Smith
107The Harlem Renaissance: Harlem Renaissance-an explosion of African American culture during the 1920s in the New York neighborhood of Harlem of black writers, poets, artists and musicians.African American Writers:Claude McKay-writer who wrote about ordinary African Americans struggling for dignity and advancement in the face of discrimination.Langston Hughes-the most powerful literary voice of his time. He celebrated African culture and life.Zora Neale Hurston –in her book, Their Eyes Were Watching God, she talked about the independence women were seeking in society.
111Significance of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s 1. The movement gave a voice to African American culture2. Promoted black creativity and pride in the African American community3. Jazz spread to Europe and other nations around the world.
112N.A.A.C.P.-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded in 1920
113Women in the 1920s Young women were more independent Voted, some went to collegeHad more free time thanks to new technology-vacuum cleaners, washing machines,…Many young women worked: secretaries, teachers, nursesBecame major consumersNumber of children declined,New Ideal: “Flappers” –loose dresses, shorter dresses, bobbed hair, smoking, consuming alcohol
114Education in the 1920s***The number of Americans attending high school grew rapidly (p447)Americans were more informed because of radio and newsmagazines (mass media)Many realized they needed more education for the jobs in societyMore people attended collegeHelped promote the rise of a YOUTH CULTURE:Sports, time with friends, dancing, fads, music
115Important Americans of 1920s Charles Lindbergh—(1927) first nonstop flight from New York to Paris in the Spirit of St. LouisBabe Ruth—Baseball greatF. Scott Fitzgerald –writer--coined the phrase “Jazz Age”, criticized the excesses of the 1920s in The Great GatsbyEarnest Hemingway—writer— A Farewell to ArmsMarcus Garvey --Black activist who promoted black pride and a back to Africa movementHarlem Renaissance writers and artists: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Zora Neal HurstonMusicians of the 1920s: Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Paul Robeson