Presentation on theme: "GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 AM"— Presentation transcript:
1GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 AM Year 10 Revision BookletGCSE GeographyEdexcel BDynamic PlanetExam 14th June 2010AM
2Exam structure The exam will last for 1 hour You need to answer ALL questions in Section AThe River Processes question in Section BThe Oceans on the Edge question in Section CDO NOT ANSWER QUESTIONS ON COASTAL CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT OR EXTREME CLIMATES.
3Section A: Introduction to the Dynamic Planet 1. Restless Earth What you need to know:Earth’s interiorPlates and plate marginsVolcanic and earthquake hazardsHazard management
4Theory 1. How and Why do the Earth’s tectonic plates move? You need to be able to label the sections of the Earth. Try labelling this diagram and defining the key terms.What are convection currents? How do they work? Sketch an example and label it.This is a map of the plate boundaries. Below name the 4 different boundaries:220.127.116.11.In the boxes below draw each of the 4 boundaries and explain how they work. Do they create volcanoes or cause earthquakes?
5Theory2. What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards?Hazards pose a threat to us, but not all hazardous events are disasters. This depends on:1. The type of hazards2. The place’s vulnerability to hazards (LEDC, location, distance from volcano)3. The ability or capacity to cope and recover from a hazardous eventPrimary Impacts= that place at the time of the event itself and are directly caused by itSecondary Impacts= that follow the event, and are indirectly caused by itCapacity refers to the ability of a community to absorb, and ultimately recover from, the effects of a natural hazard.Hazard Measurement:Earthquakes are measured by the RICHTER SCALE and the MERCALLI SCALEVolcanoes can be measured using the VEI (VOLCANIC EXPLOSIVITY INDEX)Management:Remember there are two ways to manage earthquakes this is being prepared (being ready for the event) and being able to reduce the impact (mitigation).We can also manage the impact of hazards by the following:Building design (cross bracing, earthquake proof housing etc)Warning systems (especially in Tsunami prone areas and for areas with an erupting volcano)Preparation days (such as in Japan)Having a disaster management cycle incorporating RESPONSE and RECOVERY techniques.
6Case StudiesHere you can make notes on the case studies you have studied. Make sure you use the Purple text book for extra examples and to fill out your notes. You must be able to say where the case study is LOCATED, IMPACTS, RESPONSE, WHY IT HAPPENED, EFFECTS.Mauna Loa, Hawaii, a Shield VolcanoMount Pinatubo, Philippines, a Composite Volcano
7Case StudiesHere you could make case study notes on the studies you have done in class.
82. Climate and Change What you need to know: Past ‘natural’ change The impacts of past changePresent and future changeThe future challenge
9Theory 1. How and why has climate changed in the past? you need to be able to describe how climate has changed over time both warm and cold periods have existed on Earth over the last 100 million years. The last Ice Age was approximately 1.8million years a go- this is called the Pleistocene era. The warm period we are in now is called the Holocene and this started 10,000 years ago. Read pg 28 to find out more.Natural causes of climate change: make sure you know how these cause changes in our climate.Orbital changes- long-termSolar Output- medium-termVolcanic activity – short-termTHE LITTLE ICE AGE pg 30-31:What was the little ice age?How do we know the little ice age happened?What were the effects of the little ice age?EXTINCTION OF MEGAFAUNA:Megafauna are large animals that became extinct at the end of the last ice age (Pleistocene). These animals lived in North America and Europe (Including the UK). These animals included wolly mammoths, sabre-toothed tiger, large wolves and large beavers. As many as 135 species became extinct.Read page 33 to find out why and make notes below:
10Theory 2. What challenges might our future climate present us with? What are greenhouse gases? Imagine the world to be surrounded by a greenhouse. The glass is a mix of the gases: Chlorofluorocarbons, Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Carbon dioxide. The gases provide a shelter, letting heat in, but preventing most heat from escapingTASK: make 2 spider diagrams that show the human and natural causes of greenhouse gases. Use Pg to help. How have the levels of greenhouse gases changed over time?The map on page 36 shows countries based on co2 emissions. China and the USA are the biggest countries on the map and its not because of population. Why are they so big? Why are Africa, Australia and New Zealand so small?The UK has a small population compared to some European countries- why is it so big on this map?HINT: think about the countries population, industry, development and then link to the amount of co2 they produce.In 2008, world carbon dioxide concentrations passed 380 ppm (parts per million). In 1800, it was just 280 ppm. This figure grows by 2ppm every year. This is despite efforts made by people and governments world wide.Increased wealth in Asia has seen an increaseIn the amount of methane produced.This is because there is an increasingDemand for meat and dairy in diets.The IPCC (intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change) believes that greenhouseGases need to be below 550ppm. Pg 37.
11Case Studies Climate Change in the UK Climate Change and sea-level rise in LEDC’’s.
123. Battle for the Biosphere What you need to know:Location of biomesBiomes as a ‘life support’ThreatsManagement
13Theory 1. What is the value of the biosphere? You need to be able to describe a minimum of 4 different Biomes: You could revise the following but do revise more:DesertsRainforestsSavannahDeciduousYou should be able to LOCATE them geographically, using BOTH longitude and latitude, give examples of countries in which they are located and describe the CLIMATE and CHARACTERISTICS.There are a number of different factors that influence where we find different Biomes these are….LatitudeContinentallyAltitudeTemperaturePrecipitationGeology, Relief and Drainage.Identify which are local and which are globalWhy do we need to protect the biosphere? Pg 46
14LOCAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMES: Read page 43- make notes about How local factors affect biomes: The biosphere acts as a life support system for the planet- it regulates the composition of the atmosphere, maintaining soil health and regulating the hydrological cycle. The biosphere provides humans with goods and services; complete the spider diagram below. Use page to help.FoodmaterialsRawMedicine
15Theory2. How have humans affected the biosphere and how might it be conserved?Few places on earth remain free from human interference. On the next page is an in-depth case study of Amazonia. You need to complete these parts as part of this question in the specification.Pollution and climate change bring stress and change:This includes the deliberate removal of forest to create space for agriculture is an example of direct human actions damaging the biosphere. How else can humans cause this? Pg 50.How has the UK changed? You need to be able to discuss temperature raises and how the biosphere in the UK has changed over time. Think about how the wildlife in the UK has also been affected e.g. Bird species decline.CONSERVATION AT A GLOBAL SCALE: nearly 200 countries in the world are needing to sign agreements for conservation at a global-scale.TASK: make a table the shows all the conservation schemes globally that says what they aim to do and why. Pg 52.Why is it important to conserve wetlands and what is the role of the Ramsar convention 1971? Answer this in your own words using pg 53 to help.CONSERVATION AT A LOCAL SCALE: BIOSPHERE MANAGEMENT:It is important to sustainably manage all the biomes in the local areas as well as globally. This is because if you THINK LOCAL YOU CAN ACT GLOBAL. Everything has a knock-on effect. This is where you need to discuss a local case study- an example in the Caledonian Forest in Scotland.
16Case Studies AMAZON RAINFOREST: location: destruction: Soya craze: people pressure:Windsor Forest (page 47):An example of deciduous forest over-use in MEDC
17Case Studies Use this page to make notes on any other case studies you have done in class time:
184. Water World What you need to know: Hydrological cycle Human interferenceThreatsManaging water resources
19Theory 1. Why is water important to the health of the planet? It is important that you know all the parts of the hydrological cycle and about water stores. Go through the key words list that you have in your book and make your own hydrological cycle diagram and label as you draw.The hydrosphere is made up of all water stores including oceans, rivers, lakes and streams. These interact and link together the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Without one you cant have the others- WHY?UNRELIABLE WATER: COMPULSORY CASE STUDY= AUSTRALIAFlows within the hydrological cycle vary over different time scales these are; seasonal variations, longer natural cycles and climate change. Pg 58.TASK: make a spider diagram that compares both the Sahel region in Africa and Australia as places with unreliable water. Use different colours to help compare.CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLIES:Climate change could make places DRIER and experience droughts OR it could make places WETTER where more evaporation has taken place... Remember what goes up must come down!! Use pg to say how climate change is affecting water in Asia and America.AMERICA:ASIA:
20Theory 2.How can water resources be sustainably managed? How can water be polluted? Humans put enormous pressure on rivers- they are used for transport, industry, drinking and sewerage disposal. The three most damaging types of pollution are on pg 62.Water supplies can also be disrupted by human actions:Changing flows deforestation may lead to over-supply of water to rivers. This can lead to flooding. Drainpipes in urban areas also can lead to accelerated supply to rivers.Changing stores these are naturally recharged when it rains. They are essential for human existence. If water is taken from these stores too quickly they will not have a chance to re-charge and they will dry up. This is called over abstraction.Coca-cola and the Plachimada aquifer an example of over abstraction in an LEDC by a trans-national corporation. Pg 63.Water can be managed on two scales; large and small scale. You need to know an example of each scale. The text books has examples of the Colorado River in America and a hand-pump in Tanzania. You may have also looked at the Three Gorges Dam in China and researched a Northamptonshire example of small-scale water management.You must think about SUSTAINABILITY when you are answering any question about management. Does it consider the SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC and POLITICAL aspects?INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY this is a management strategy that can be used in poorer countries. It allows them to install appropriate, small-scale practical solutions that local people can apply and maintain themselves. This includes: hand pumps, lined wells and rain barrels or pumpkin tanks.
21Case Studies AUSTRALIA’S UNRELIABLE WATER Where is the desert in Australia located?Why are there water shortages here?What are the impacts of this water shortage?What are the solutions?
22Case Studies Colorado River large-scale water management Location of Colorado and dam:Background information:ProblemCostBenefitCreate reservoirsTrap sedimentRegulate river flowAfridev handpump in Tanzania small-scale water managementLocation:Background information:
23Case Studies Here you need to add in any other case study notes from lessons:
24Case Studies Use this space to add notes on any other case studies you have done in class.
25River Processes and Pressures What you need to know:Key drainage basin termsHow a river and it’s valley change from source to mouthProcesses of erosion, transport and depositionCauses of floodingEffects of flooding on people and environmentHow floods can be reduced
26Theory:Change in characteristics from source to mouth:Width: The distance from one bank to the other. Increase downstream.Depth: Distance from the surface of the water to the bed –Increase downstream.Velocity: How fast the water is moving – Increases downstreamDischarge: The volume of water moving through a river channel in a given time –increase downstreamGradient: The steepness of the river bed –decreases downstream.The Long Profile is a cross section of the river from source to mouth
27Upper course features of a river: Steep gradientVertical erosionInterlocking spursWeathering on valley sidesV Shaped valleyUneven river bed
28Middle Course features: Lateral (sideways) erosionMeanders: large bends in a riverFlood plain: Flat area of land either side of a river
29Lower Course features: Ox bow lakes: The neck of a meander gets narrower and eventually cuts off the meander.Levees: Natural embankments of sediment along the banks of the river.
30The impact of weathering, mass movement and geology on river valley shape and sediment load Weathering: the breakdown of rocks and minerals by physical and chemical processes. This acts on the valley sides making them less steep over time as material moves down the slope.Weathering processes:Freeze ThawRain action –chemical weatheringBiological weatheringMass movement processes:Soil Creep:SlumpingGeology: Main influences:When a river flows over resistant rock = valley sides are steep and sediment load is smallWhen a river flows over softer rock =valley sides are gentle and sediment load is high
31River FloodingWhat causes flooding?a)Intense rainfall: when rain falls too fast to fully infiltrate into the soilb) Snowmelt: When temperatures rise in the spring winter snow suddenly meltsImpermeable rock: Rocks like granite do not allow water to enter –rainwater runs over surfaceDeforestation: If less vegetation water runs across surface into riverUrbanisation: In towns and cities rainwater will not infiltrate concrete so it runs across the surface.Climate change: Can cause melting of ice caps, increased rainfall and storms.Hydrographs:
32Flooding case study: ___________________ What caused the flood?What were the effects of the flood on:PeopleThe environment
33Dealing with the flood hazard PREDICTION AND PREVENTION:Improve flood forecasting: The Environment Agency monitors rivers liable to flood and if necessary, issues warnings, evacuates houses. They also produce flood risk maps which show different levels of risk.Building design: Things you can do to your home to make it easier to clean up after a flood eg ceramic floor tiles not carpet. In LEDCs –build homes on stilts.Planning: Local Authorities may ban new buildings on flood plainsEducation: Leaflets, posters, TV adverts. Telephone helplines, can all be used to offer advice to residents on what to do if there is a flood eg store drinking water in baths, keep a store of emergency tinned food.HARD ENGINEERING SOLUTIONSInvolves building structures to stop river flooding. Popular in past –tend to ignore impacts on rest of river system. Examples:A) Embankments (levees)B) ChannelisationC) DamsD) Flood relief channels
34SOFT ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS A more modern approach, also called INTEGRATED RIVER MANAGEMENT looks at all aspects of the river and attempts to find SUSTAINABLE solutions to problem of flooding –ie does not damage the environment.Washlands: Areas of flood plain that are allowed to floodAfforestation: Trees are planted in the drainage basinLand use zoning: Governments allocate areas of land to different uses according to their level of flood risk.Flood Warning Systems: Monitor river levels and give places downstream warning if flood likely.RIVER RESTORATION:This is a very recent approach to river flooding. It involves restoring rivers that have been straigtened to a natural meandering state. The River SKERNE is a good case study here.What was it like before restoration?How has it been restored?What are the benefits of this? (people? Environment?)
35Section C: Large-Scale Dynamic Planet Oceans on the Edge What you need to know:Threats to the oceanEcosystem changeIncreasing exploitationSustainable management
36Theory 1. How and why are some ecosystems threatened with destruction? The term ecosystem describes a grouping of plants and animals that is linked with its local physical environment. The oceans, covering two-thirds of our planet, are home to marine ecosystem communities composed of fish, aquatic plants and sea birds- as well as tiny but very important organisms such as krill and plankton.HINT: make sure you are able to name some values of the Oceans e.g. its uses and value to human and animal life.TASK: make notes and research further the importance and value of CORAL REEFSThe way we use Oceans is becoming UNSUSTAINABLE this means we aren't treating/using it in a way that will preserve it for future generations. Within the oceans here is a natural balance between all life- these relationships form the FOOD WEB. Use page 104 to make a copy of the Oceanic food web. It is also important to consider the NUTRIENT CYCLE which is the movement and re-use of important substances e.g., nitrogen.DISRUPTION’S TO FOOD WEBS the main three disruptions you need to understand are:Over fishingEutrophicationSiltationClimate change also disrupts the oceans. Use page 106 to make notes below to explain how and why:Warmer waterMore acidic water and bleachingHigher sea levels
37Theory 2. How should ecosystems be managed sustainably? There are two ways that marine ecosystems can be managed and that is again, as with the other units, at a LOCAL and GLOBAL SCALE.Case study on Firth of Clyde, Scotland (see next page to complete this activity). This is an example of where humans are putting pressure on the marine wildlife and there are plans to make the area more sustainable.SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A LOCAL SCALEManaging coral reefs reefs are made of living animals, each piece contains polyp. They are part of a large colony of marine life. The polyp are skeletal creatures that form coral in clear, warm and sunlight seas.Coral reefs are home to ¼ of the world’s fish species. It also acts as natural barriers that protect the coastline from erosion. They are also great for tourism. However there are sustainability issues that come with this. Complete the case study6 on Coral Triangle on the case study section.SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A GLOBAL SCALEGlobal actions are needed to tackle pollution and to save threatened species from overfishing and extinction. International Organisations play a large role in ensuring that the oceans are protected.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisations regulates the management of deep sea fisheries.Individuals around the world can also ‘do their bit’ by changing their shopping habits to ensure that we only buy sustainably sources fish and buy ‘dolphin friendly’ tuna.TASK: use page to find out how else we are protecting our oceans. Make sure you know which Organisations are helping too!
38Case Studies Pressures in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland page 109-111 The Firth of Clyde is a 60km stretch of water along Scotland’s West coast. It is home to 40,000 animal and microbe species. You can often see seals, harbour porpoises and basking sharks in this area. Leather back Turtles and Killer Whales are sometimes seen as well. So it is obviously an extremely important ecosystem. Make notes on the 4 main pressures that humans put on this area. Which is the most severe and why?1. Fishing2. Tourism and leisure3. Sewerage disposal4. Military testingWhat is the impact of scallop fishing in Lamlash Bay?Locals views- what do the people think?Future Plans?
39Case Studies Sustainable Management of the St Lucia Coral Reef (SMMA) Shetland Islands Aquaculture
40Case studies use this space to add notes on any other case studies you have done in lessons.
41Practice Questions Restless Earth Using examples, describe some of the hazards of living on a destructive plate margin (4) FoundationUsing an example, outline the impact of a major earthquake on people and property in the developing world (4) HigherDescribe 2 ways in which buildings in developing countries can be made more resistant to earthquakes (2)Explain how preparation and mitigation could reduce tectonic hazards (4)Explain why some areas are more vulnerable than others (4)Explain the role magma plays in shaping shield volcanoes (2)How do tectonic plates move? (2)Climate and changeDescribe two human activities which are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (4) FoundationDescribe two challenges the UK might face in the future due to global warming (4) higherExplain one possible good and bad effect of global warming (4)What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? (3)Describe one natural cause of climate change in the past (2)What is megafauna? (2)
42Battle for the biosphere Describe some of the goods and services the biosphere provides humans with (4) FoundationDescribe two services the biosphere provides and explain why they are important (4) HigherDescribe 2 ways the forests are important to human life (4)Explain how one biome is being threatened by human interference (4)Explain the value of one biome you have studied (4)Using examples, explain some ways of conserving threatened species (4)Explain how one biome is being threatened by human interference (2)Water worldDescribe how deforestation could affect water-cycle processes (4) FoundationExplain how human activity could change the amount of infiltration (3) HigherName the two largest water stores on earth (2)Explain why Australia’s water is considered unreliable (4)Describe two ways in which climate change could impact on water supplies (4)Explain why the biosphere and lithosphere are important to the hydrological cycle (4)Using a named example, describe how water schemes in LEDC’s improve quality of life. (4)Describe the causes of river pollution and explain how people dealt with it (5)
43Describe the type of area a mangrove swamp might be found (2) Oceans on the edgeUsing examples, describe the threats facing marine ecosystems (6) FoundationUsing named examples, explain the short and long-term threats facing marine ecosystems (6) HigherDescribe the type of area a mangrove swamp might be found (2)How can an undisturbed mangrove swamp support human activities? (2)How could an increase in demand for one type of fish impact on the food chain? (6)Explain how the change in ocean s=currents could impact marine ecosystems? (6)Explain why the worlds oceans are under threat (4)With reference to an example, explain the problems and successes of sustainable fishing (4),,,,,,,,