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GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 AM

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1 GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 AM
Year 10 Revision Booklet GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 AM

2 Exam structure The exam will last for 1 hour
You need to answer ALL questions in Section A The River Processes question in Section B The Oceans on the Edge question in Section C DO NOT ANSWER QUESTIONS ON COASTAL CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT OR EXTREME CLIMATES.

3 Section A: Introduction to the Dynamic Planet 1. Restless Earth
What you need to know: Earth’s interior Plates and plate margins Volcanic and earthquake hazards Hazard management

4 Theory 1. How and Why do the Earth’s tectonic plates move?
You need to be able to label the sections of the Earth. Try labelling this diagram and defining the key terms. What are convection currents? How do they work? Sketch an example and label it. This is a map of the plate boundaries. Below name the 4 different boundaries: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the boxes below draw each of the 4 boundaries and explain how they work. Do they create volcanoes or cause earthquakes?

5 Theory 2. What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards? Hazards pose a threat to us, but not all hazardous events are disasters. This depends on: 1. The type of hazards 2. The place’s vulnerability to hazards (LEDC, location, distance from volcano) 3. The ability or capacity to cope and recover from a hazardous event Primary Impacts= that place at the time of the event itself and are directly caused by it Secondary Impacts= that follow the event, and are indirectly caused by it Capacity refers to the ability of a community to absorb, and ultimately recover from, the effects of a natural hazard. Hazard Measurement: Earthquakes are measured by the RICHTER SCALE and the MERCALLI SCALE Volcanoes can be measured using the VEI (VOLCANIC EXPLOSIVITY INDEX) Management: Remember there are two ways to manage earthquakes this is being prepared (being ready for the event) and being able to reduce the impact (mitigation). We can also manage the impact of hazards by the following: Building design (cross bracing, earthquake proof housing etc) Warning systems (especially in Tsunami prone areas and for areas with an erupting volcano) Preparation days (such as in Japan) Having a disaster management cycle incorporating RESPONSE and RECOVERY techniques.

6 Case Studies Here you can make notes on the case studies you have studied. Make sure you use the Purple text book for extra examples and to fill out your notes. You must be able to say where the case study is LOCATED, IMPACTS, RESPONSE, WHY IT HAPPENED, EFFECTS. Mauna Loa, Hawaii, a Shield Volcano Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, a Composite Volcano

7 Case Studies Here you could make case study notes on the studies you have done in class.

8 2. Climate and Change What you need to know: Past ‘natural’ change
The impacts of past change Present and future change The future challenge

9 Theory 1. How and why has climate changed in the past?
you need to be able to describe how climate has changed over time both warm and cold periods have existed on Earth over the last 100 million years. The last Ice Age was approximately 1.8million years a go- this is called the Pleistocene era. The warm period we are in now is called the Holocene and this started 10,000 years ago. Read pg 28 to find out more. Natural causes of climate change: make sure you know how these cause changes in our climate. Orbital changes- long-term Solar Output- medium-term Volcanic activity – short-term THE LITTLE ICE AGE pg 30-31: What was the little ice age? How do we know the little ice age happened? What were the effects of the little ice age? EXTINCTION OF MEGAFAUNA: Megafauna are large animals that became extinct at the end of the last ice age (Pleistocene). These animals lived in North America and Europe (Including the UK). These animals included wolly mammoths, sabre-toothed tiger, large wolves and large beavers. As many as 135 species became extinct. Read page 33 to find out why and make notes below:

10 Theory 2. What challenges might our future climate present us with?
What are greenhouse gases? Imagine the world to be surrounded by a greenhouse. The glass is a mix of the gases: Chlorofluorocarbons, Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Carbon dioxide. The gases provide a shelter, letting heat in, but preventing most heat from escaping TASK: make 2 spider diagrams that show the human and natural causes of greenhouse gases. Use Pg to help. How have the levels of greenhouse gases changed over time? The map on page 36 shows countries based on co2 emissions. China and the USA are the biggest countries on the map and its not because of population. Why are they so big? Why are Africa, Australia and New Zealand so small? The UK has a small population compared to some European countries- why is it so big on this map? HINT: think about the countries population, industry, development and then link to the amount of co2 they produce. In 2008, world carbon dioxide concentrations passed 380 ppm (parts per million). In 1800, it was just 280 ppm. This figure grows by 2ppm every year. This is despite efforts made by people and governments world wide. Increased wealth in Asia has seen an increase In the amount of methane produced. This is because there is an increasing Demand for meat and dairy in diets. The IPCC (intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) believes that greenhouse Gases need to be below 550ppm. Pg 37.

11 Case Studies Climate Change in the UK
Climate Change and sea-level rise in LEDC’’s.

12 3. Battle for the Biosphere
What you need to know: Location of biomes Biomes as a ‘life support’ Threats Management

13 Theory 1. What is the value of the biosphere?
You need to be able to describe a minimum of 4 different Biomes: You could revise the following but do revise more: Deserts Rainforests Savannah Deciduous You should be able to LOCATE them geographically, using BOTH longitude and latitude, give examples of countries in which they are located and describe the CLIMATE and CHARACTERISTICS. There are a number of different factors that influence where we find different Biomes these are…. Latitude Continentally Altitude Temperature Precipitation Geology, Relief and Drainage. Identify which are local and which are global Why do we need to protect the biosphere? Pg 46

14 LOCAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMES: Read page 43- make notes about How local factors affect biomes: The biosphere acts as a life support system for the planet- it regulates the composition of the atmosphere, maintaining soil health and regulating the hydrological cycle. The biosphere provides humans with goods and services; complete the spider diagram below. Use page to help. Food materials Raw Medicine

15 Theory 2. How have humans affected the biosphere and how might it be conserved? Few places on earth remain free from human interference. On the next page is an in-depth case study of Amazonia. You need to complete these parts as part of this question in the specification. Pollution and climate change bring stress and change: This includes the deliberate removal of forest to create space for agriculture is an example of direct human actions damaging the biosphere. How else can humans cause this? Pg 50. How has the UK changed? You need to be able to discuss temperature raises and how the biosphere in the UK has changed over time. Think about how the wildlife in the UK has also been affected e.g. Bird species decline. CONSERVATION AT A GLOBAL SCALE: nearly 200 countries in the world are needing to sign agreements for conservation at a global-scale. TASK: make a table the shows all the conservation schemes globally that says what they aim to do and why. Pg 52. Why is it important to conserve wetlands and what is the role of the Ramsar convention 1971? Answer this in your own words using pg 53 to help. CONSERVATION AT A LOCAL SCALE: BIOSPHERE MANAGEMENT: It is important to sustainably manage all the biomes in the local areas as well as globally. This is because if you THINK LOCAL YOU CAN ACT GLOBAL. Everything has a knock-on effect. This is where you need to discuss a local case study- an example in the Caledonian Forest in Scotland.

16 Case Studies AMAZON RAINFOREST: location: destruction: Soya craze:
people pressure: Windsor Forest (page 47): An example of deciduous forest over-use in MEDC

17 Case Studies Use this page to make notes on any other case studies you have done in class time:

18 4. Water World What you need to know: Hydrological cycle
Human interference Threats Managing water resources

19 Theory 1. Why is water important to the health of the planet?
It is important that you know all the parts of the hydrological cycle and about water stores. Go through the key words list that you have in your book and make your own hydrological cycle diagram and label as you draw. The hydrosphere is made up of all water stores including oceans, rivers, lakes and streams. These interact and link together the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Without one you cant have the others- WHY? UNRELIABLE WATER: COMPULSORY CASE STUDY= AUSTRALIA Flows within the hydrological cycle vary over different time scales these are; seasonal variations, longer natural cycles and climate change. Pg 58. TASK: make a spider diagram that compares both the Sahel region in Africa and Australia as places with unreliable water. Use different colours to help compare. CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLIES: Climate change could make places DRIER and experience droughts OR it could make places WETTER where more evaporation has taken place... Remember what goes up must come down!! Use pg to say how climate change is affecting water in Asia and America. AMERICA: ASIA:

20 Theory 2.How can water resources be sustainably managed?
How can water be polluted? Humans put enormous pressure on rivers- they are used for transport, industry, drinking and sewerage disposal. The three most damaging types of pollution are on pg 62. Water supplies can also be disrupted by human actions: Changing flows deforestation may lead to over-supply of water to rivers. This can lead to flooding. Drainpipes in urban areas also can lead to accelerated supply to rivers. Changing stores these are naturally recharged when it rains. They are essential for human existence. If water is taken from these stores too quickly they will not have a chance to re-charge and they will dry up. This is called over abstraction. Coca-cola and the Plachimada aquifer an example of over abstraction in an LEDC by a trans-national corporation. Pg 63. Water can be managed on two scales; large and small scale. You need to know an example of each scale. The text books has examples of the Colorado River in America and a hand-pump in Tanzania. You may have also looked at the Three Gorges Dam in China and researched a Northamptonshire example of small-scale water management. You must think about SUSTAINABILITY when you are answering any question about management. Does it consider the SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC and POLITICAL aspects? INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY this is a management strategy that can be used in poorer countries. It allows them to install appropriate, small-scale practical solutions that local people can apply and maintain themselves. This includes: hand pumps, lined wells and rain barrels or pumpkin tanks.

Where is the desert in Australia located? Why are there water shortages here? What are the impacts of this water shortage? What are the solutions?

22 Case Studies Colorado River large-scale water management
Location of Colorado and dam: Background information: Problem Cost Benefit Create reservoirs Trap sediment Regulate river flow Afridev handpump in Tanzania small-scale water management Location: Background information:

23 Case Studies Here you need to add in any other case study notes from lessons:

24 Case Studies Use this space to add notes on any other case studies you have done in class.

25 River Processes and Pressures
What you need to know: Key drainage basin terms How a river and it’s valley change from source to mouth Processes of erosion, transport and deposition Causes of flooding Effects of flooding on people and environment How floods can be reduced

26 Theory: Change in characteristics from source to mouth: Width: The distance from one bank to the other. Increase downstream. Depth: Distance from the surface of the water to the bed –Increase downstream. Velocity: How fast the water is moving – Increases downstream Discharge: The volume of water moving through a river channel in a given time –increase downstream Gradient: The steepness of the river bed –decreases downstream. The Long Profile is a cross section of the river from source to mouth

27 Upper course features of a river:
Steep gradient Vertical erosion Interlocking spurs Weathering on valley sides V Shaped valley Uneven river bed

28 Middle Course features:
Lateral (sideways) erosion Meanders: large bends in a river Flood plain: Flat area of land either side of a river

29 Lower Course features:
Ox bow lakes: The neck of a meander gets narrower and eventually cuts off the meander. Levees: Natural embankments of sediment along the banks of the river.

30 The impact of weathering, mass movement and geology on river valley shape and sediment load
Weathering: the breakdown of rocks and minerals by physical and chemical processes. This acts on the valley sides making them less steep over time as material moves down the slope. Weathering processes: Freeze Thaw Rain action –chemical weathering Biological weathering Mass movement processes: Soil Creep: Slumping Geology: Main influences: When a river flows over resistant rock = valley sides are steep and sediment load is small When a river flows over softer rock =valley sides are gentle and sediment load is high

31 River Flooding What causes flooding? a)Intense rainfall: when rain falls too fast to fully infiltrate into the soil b) Snowmelt: When temperatures rise in the spring winter snow suddenly melts Impermeable rock: Rocks like granite do not allow water to enter –rainwater runs over surface Deforestation: If less vegetation water runs across surface into river Urbanisation: In towns and cities rainwater will not infiltrate concrete so it runs across the surface. Climate change: Can cause melting of ice caps, increased rainfall and storms. Hydrographs:

32 Flooding case study: ___________________
What caused the flood? What were the effects of the flood on: People The environment

33 Dealing with the flood hazard
PREDICTION AND PREVENTION: Improve flood forecasting: The Environment Agency monitors rivers liable to flood and if necessary, issues warnings, evacuates houses. They also produce flood risk maps which show different levels of risk. Building design: Things you can do to your home to make it easier to clean up after a flood eg ceramic floor tiles not carpet. In LEDCs –build homes on stilts. Planning: Local Authorities may ban new buildings on flood plains Education: Leaflets, posters, TV adverts. Telephone helplines, can all be used to offer advice to residents on what to do if there is a flood eg store drinking water in baths, keep a store of emergency tinned food. HARD ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS Involves building structures to stop river flooding. Popular in past –tend to ignore impacts on rest of river system. Examples: A) Embankments (levees) B) Channelisation C) Dams D) Flood relief channels

A more modern approach, also called INTEGRATED RIVER MANAGEMENT looks at all aspects of the river and attempts to find SUSTAINABLE solutions to problem of flooding –ie does not damage the environment. Washlands: Areas of flood plain that are allowed to flood Afforestation: Trees are planted in the drainage basin Land use zoning: Governments allocate areas of land to different uses according to their level of flood risk. Flood Warning Systems: Monitor river levels and give places downstream warning if flood likely. RIVER RESTORATION: This is a very recent approach to river flooding. It involves restoring rivers that have been straigtened to a natural meandering state. The River SKERNE is a good case study here. What was it like before restoration? How has it been restored? What are the benefits of this? (people? Environment?)

35 Section C: Large-Scale Dynamic Planet Oceans on the Edge
What you need to know: Threats to the ocean Ecosystem change Increasing exploitation Sustainable management

36 Theory 1. How and why are some ecosystems threatened with destruction?
The term ecosystem describes a grouping of plants and animals that is linked with its local physical environment. The oceans, covering two-thirds of our planet, are home to marine ecosystem communities composed of fish, aquatic plants and sea birds- as well as tiny but very important organisms such as krill and plankton. HINT: make sure you are able to name some values of the Oceans e.g. its uses and value to human and animal life. TASK: make notes and research further the importance and value of CORAL REEFS The way we use Oceans is becoming UNSUSTAINABLE this means we aren't treating/using it in a way that will preserve it for future generations. Within the oceans here is a natural balance between all life- these relationships form the FOOD WEB. Use page 104 to make a copy of the Oceanic food web. It is also important to consider the NUTRIENT CYCLE which is the movement and re-use of important substances e.g., nitrogen. DISRUPTION’S TO FOOD WEBS the main three disruptions you need to understand are: Over fishing Eutrophication Siltation Climate change also disrupts the oceans. Use page 106 to make notes below to explain how and why: Warmer water More acidic water and bleaching Higher sea levels

37 Theory 2. How should ecosystems be managed sustainably?
There are two ways that marine ecosystems can be managed and that is again, as with the other units, at a LOCAL and GLOBAL SCALE. Case study on Firth of Clyde, Scotland (see next page to complete this activity). This is an example of where humans are putting pressure on the marine wildlife and there are plans to make the area more sustainable. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A LOCAL SCALE Managing coral reefs reefs are made of living animals, each piece contains polyp. They are part of a large colony of marine life. The polyp are skeletal creatures that form coral in clear, warm and sunlight seas. Coral reefs are home to ¼ of the world’s fish species. It also acts as natural barriers that protect the coastline from erosion. They are also great for tourism. However there are sustainability issues that come with this. Complete the case study6 on Coral Triangle on the case study section. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A GLOBAL SCALE Global actions are needed to tackle pollution and to save threatened species from overfishing and extinction. International Organisations play a large role in ensuring that the oceans are protected. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisations regulates the management of deep sea fisheries. Individuals around the world can also ‘do their bit’ by changing their shopping habits to ensure that we only buy sustainably sources fish and buy ‘dolphin friendly’ tuna. TASK: use page to find out how else we are protecting our oceans. Make sure you know which Organisations are helping too!

38 Case Studies Pressures in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland page 109-111
The Firth of Clyde is a 60km stretch of water along Scotland’s West coast. It is home to 40,000 animal and microbe species. You can often see seals, harbour porpoises and basking sharks in this area. Leather back Turtles and Killer Whales are sometimes seen as well. So it is obviously an extremely important ecosystem. Make notes on the 4 main pressures that humans put on this area. Which is the most severe and why? 1. Fishing 2. Tourism and leisure 3. Sewerage disposal 4. Military testing What is the impact of scallop fishing in Lamlash Bay? Locals views- what do the people think? Future Plans?

39 Case Studies Sustainable Management of the St Lucia Coral Reef (SMMA)
Shetland Islands Aquaculture

40 Case studies use this space to add notes on any other case studies you have done in lessons.

41 Practice Questions Restless Earth
Using examples, describe some of the hazards of living on a destructive plate margin (4) Foundation Using an example, outline the impact of a major earthquake on people and property in the developing world (4) Higher Describe 2 ways in which buildings in developing countries can be made more resistant to earthquakes (2) Explain how preparation and mitigation could reduce tectonic hazards (4) Explain why some areas are more vulnerable than others (4) Explain the role magma plays in shaping shield volcanoes (2) How do tectonic plates move? (2) Climate and change Describe two human activities which are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (4) Foundation Describe two challenges the UK might face in the future due to global warming (4) higher Explain one possible good and bad effect of global warming (4) What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? (3) Describe one natural cause of climate change in the past (2) What is megafauna? (2)

42 Battle for the biosphere
Describe some of the goods and services the biosphere provides humans with (4) Foundation Describe two services the biosphere provides and explain why they are important (4) Higher Describe 2 ways the forests are important to human life (4) Explain how one biome is being threatened by human interference (4) Explain the value of one biome you have studied (4) Using examples, explain some ways of conserving threatened species (4) Explain how one biome is being threatened by human interference (2) Water world Describe how deforestation could affect water-cycle processes (4) Foundation Explain how human activity could change the amount of infiltration (3) Higher Name the two largest water stores on earth (2) Explain why Australia’s water is considered unreliable (4) Describe two ways in which climate change could impact on water supplies (4) Explain why the biosphere and lithosphere are important to the hydrological cycle (4) Using a named example, describe how water schemes in LEDC’s improve quality of life. (4) Describe the causes of river pollution and explain how people dealt with it (5)

43 Describe the type of area a mangrove swamp might be found (2)
Oceans on the edge Using examples, describe the threats facing marine ecosystems (6) Foundation Using named examples, explain the short and long-term threats facing marine ecosystems (6) Higher Describe the type of area a mangrove swamp might be found (2) How can an undisturbed mangrove swamp support human activities? (2) How could an increase in demand for one type of fish impact on the food chain? (6) Explain how the change in ocean s=currents could impact marine ecosystems? (6) Explain why the worlds oceans are under threat (4) With reference to an example, explain the problems and successes of sustainable fishing (4) ,,,,,,,,

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