Presentation on theme: "Applying Situational Ethics and Utilitarianism to Sexual Ethics"— Presentation transcript:
1Applying Situational Ethics and Utilitarianism to Sexual Ethics
2Adultery – the most loving thing Adultery – the most loving thing? Greatest happiness for greatest number?A German mother was committed to a Russian concentration camp. Pregnant women were considered a liability and were released. This mother found a friendly guard who sympathized with her situation and willingly impregnated her. She was released and returned to her home and raised the child as part of her reunited family.Sacrificial adultery
3Situation EthicsHer adultery was justified since it served to reunite her with her children and family who needed herRelative values like ‘love’ and ‘happiness’ are difficult to apply. People will disagree about their meaning.Most loving action.Critics argue that it allows terrible things to happen in an attempt to do the right thing.We act out of love for others, trying to do the best to serve their interests.Christians feel that certain actions simply are wrong, and that our priority should be doing God's will not just making people happy.Pragmatism: For a course of action to be right, it has to be practical. It must work. In this case it did.Pragmatism: there were no guarantees that this act of adultery would result in pregnancyIf an action causes harm, it is wrong. If good comes of it, it is right.Personalism: Puts people first, more important than rules “Do not commit adultery” . “Man was not made for the Sabbath”.
4The greatest happiness for the greatest number Certainty – how likely it is to result. She already has children so is able to conceive.UtilitarianismDuration – how long will this last? The child was raised in a happy family and mother reunited with existing children. Long lastingBut, only a short period when ovulating. Don’t know if guard is fertile.The pain of betrayal was relatively short in comparison. Emotional pain long lastingRichness – to what extent it will lead to other pleasuresIt will lead to pleasure for years to come as mother reunited with children.Extent – how many people it affects. Existing children and father happy.Only the woman during the act was unhappyRemoteness – how near it is.3-4 months until signs that she is pregnant and is releasedPurity – how free from pain it is.Intensity – how powerful it isPowerful in that the power of happiness will be strongPhysical pain not great, but emotional pain is.
5????????????Obviously it's very difficult to decide which decision would cause the most pleasure and least pain, but in an exam you get marks for pointing things like that out! Don't feel you have to resolve the issue as long as you've done what you've been asked to do. It's a problem with the theory, not with you.
6CriticismsUnpredictable - You can't know the future, and things rarely turn out as we think they will. It cannot be right to judge an action right or wrong based on outcomes that are down to chance.Incalculable - Even if you knew exactly what would happen, it is impossible to add up all of the pain and pleasure resulting from a course of action. There's simply too much to calculateImmeasurable - A more fundamental flaw. Even with the simplest event - choosing whether to buy a toy or a magazine for a child - it is impossible to decide on a value to give for happiness. Is the joy of reading a magazine more intense than the joy of playing with a toy? Pleasure cannot be measured, so the idea of adding it all up doesn't work.
7Strengths of Relativism It allows people to find happiness and fulfilment in relationships, without being bound by duties.It is more in tune with the modern world than absolutism.It can appeal to religious and non-religious people alike.It is realistic in its assessment of religious rules, which can be contradictory and confusing.
8Weaknesses of Relativism Some sexual acts are inherently selfish and wrong (adultery, rape); there have to be at least some fixed moral rules.Relative values like ‘love’ and ‘happiness’ are difficult to apply. People will disagree about their meaning.We are naturally inclined to regard sex as ‘special’; it is wrong to reduce it to merely a pleasure-causing activity.