2Key Quotes: FDR’s Inauguration Speech This Nation asks for action, and action now. Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. I shall ask congress for broad executive power to wage was against the emergency.
3The New Deal: Alphabet Agencies The Alphabet Agencies were set up to help reverse the ‘Spiral of Depression.’The main aim was to pump money back into the economy by giving the unemployed jobs.Not everyone within the Democratic Party agreed exactly how this should be done.
4Causes of the Depression People losetheir jobs.Demanddrops.Fewer goodsare sold.The SpiralOfDepressionEven more peopleLose their confidenceAnd spend less moneyIn order tostay in businesscompanies cutwagesGood place to point out that the spiral of depression is the opposite to the cycle of prosperity. Even discuss in relation to Henry Ford and the impact on the other industries that produced his standardised goods.Companies areforced to cut costsby laying people offPeople lose theirconfidence &start saving theirmoneyDemanddrops evenfurther.
5Reversing the Spiral of Depression GovernmentSpending $More Pay = More TaxesAlphabet AgenciesMore JobsCycleofProsperity!Democrats calledthis Process‘Pump Priming’More JobsMore goods have to be producedMore SpendingDemand for goods increasesWhy not print this presentation out using the print handout command and select 3 slides per page. The students can then make notes as they go along!Demand for goods increasesMore SpendingMore goods have to be producedMore people withJobs = more pay $
6How do you put the USA back to work? Harry HopkinsHarold IckesV
7Criticised for wasting taxpayers money on ‘boondoggles.’ Harry HopkinsWork Relief preserves a man’s morale. It saves his skill. It gives him a chance to do something socially usefulSet up two key Alphabet Agencies: CWA & WPA which aimed to help the unskilled unemployed.Boondoggles were plaits of leather strips that cowboys made to pass the time when they had no work to do.Criticised for wasting taxpayers money on ‘boondoggles.’
8CWA = Civil Works Administration Built 800,000 km of roads.Built 40,000 schoolsBuilt 500 airports & rebuilt 500 more.Built 150,000 public toilets.Paid people to sweep up leaves in the parks.Paid unemployed actors to give free shows.Hired 100 people to scare pigeons away with balloons from public buildings in Washington DC.Boondoggling
9Harold Ickes‘My PWA will give work to the unemployed by creating things of lasting use to the nation.’Set up the PWA which gave jobs to the skilled unemployed.Was very careful how he spent taxpayer’s money.
10PWA = Public Works Administration Built 70% of USA Schools.Built 35% of USA Hospitals.Built for river dams.Electrified the New York Washington railway.Built 50 military airports.Built two aircraft carriers.Built four cruisers & destroyers for the US Navy.Built a new sewage system in Chicago.PWA only provided jobs for the skilled unemployed!
11What about the unskilled unemployed? In response to being accused of ‘boondoggling’, when he gave unemployed librarians jobs cataloguing historical documents, Hopkins replied:‘Hell, they’ve got to eat just like other people.’In 1934, the CWA was shut down because it was wasting money
12What about the unskilled unemployed? In 1935, after a terrible winter FDR decided to help the unskilled unemployed by setting up WPA with Harry Hopkins in charge.The PWA continued working until 1939.
13WPA = Works Progress Administration Built 11,000 schools.Built 70,000 km of roads.La Guardia airport in New York.Employed photographers to make a record of the Depression.Employed 12,000 Actors to put on plays and concerts to cheer people up!Employed artists and painters to make paintings for display in schools and public buildings.Gave work to 2 million people a year.‘Boondoggles?’
14Recap: Reversing the Spiral of Depression GovernmentSpending $More Pay = More TaxesAlphabet AgenciesMore JobsDemocrats calledthis Process‘Pump Priming’CycleofProsperity!More JobsMore goods have to be producedMore SpendingDemand for goods increasesWhy not print this presentation out using the print handout command and select 3 slides per page. The students can then make notes as they go along!Demand for goods increasesMore SpendingMore goods have to be producedMore people withJobs = more pay $
15SummaryKey WordsIn order to get a a grade ‘C’ upwards in exams, you must learn and use the key words & facts.These concepts will be awarded as key ‘knowledge.’Spiral of DepressionPump PrimingUnskilled & Skilled workers‘Boondoggling’CWA, WPA & PWAAlphabet AgenciesAQA students only need to know about the WPA
16Exam Question 1How useful is this source for explaining how the New Deal put America back to work?
17Mark Scheme Level Grade Description 1 E Simple undeveloped answer. 2 D Uses or combines information from the sources.3C/BUses sources & own relevant knowledge / concepts.4A/A*Balanced answer covering both parts of the question
18Level 4 = an answer which includes one from each column. ForAgainstPWA = Public Works Administration.‘Alphabet Agency’ designed to reverse the ‘Spiral of Depression’ and kick start demandJobs created for skilled construction workers: E.g. Builders & Plumbers deducted from posterNo mention of WPA which was set up to create jobs for the unskilled workers such as actors & photographers.Photograph taken by a WPA photographer.Level 4 = an answer which includes one from each column.
19Exam Question 2How successful was the New deal at putting USA back to work? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer.
20Mark Scheme Level Grade Description 1 E Simple undeveloped answer. 2 D Uses or combines information from the sources.3C/BUses sources & own relevant knowledge / concepts.4A/A*Balanced answer covering both parts of the question
21Level 4 = an answer which includes one from each column. ForAgainstFDR = Roosevelt taking ‘Action’ to end the Depression.FDR is Pouring tax payers money to reverse the ‘Spiral of Depression.’ = ‘Pump Priming.’New Deal wasting money 16 billion spent on ‘boondoggles’ jobs created by alphabet agencies such as CWA & WPA.E.G. Scaring pigeons with balloonsLevel 4 = an answer which includes one from each column.