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Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 1

2 Native Language (NL) One, two or three of the parents’ languages acquired natively at a young age. Community Language (CL) ‏ The language spoken in the wider community and neighbourhood where the trilingual families lived. Home Languages (HLs) ‏ The native languages (NLs) spoken by the parents. It can also include the community language (CL). Education Language (EL) The main language used in school/nursery inside and outside the classroom. Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 3

3 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 4 To investigate the impact of the extended family, particularly grandparents, on trilingual families’ language practices with their children.

4 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 5 Researchers (Lambert, 1977; Cummins, 2000; Braun, 2010) have referred to the distinctive sociolinguistic context in which bilingual experience occurs when the home languages in a family are in a competitive or complementary relationship with the society in which they live. Cahiers (2009) compared language shift from Quechua to Spanish among Andean migrants to Lima. It was found that “most in-migrant parents did not use their mother tongue with their children despite a number of frequently cited factors” presumed to favour maintenance: both parents being L1 speakers, speaking grandparents; frequent trips to the home area. Skutnabb-Kangas and Dunbar (2010) A Global View Journal of Indigenous Peoples Rights No. 1/2010. Inuktitut an Inuit languages spoken in Northern Canada is dying. The researchers note that ‘teenagers cannot converse fluently with their grandparents’

5 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 5 Baumgartner (2010) in her guide book „Gelebte Zweisprachigkeit. Wie erziehe ich mein Kind zweisprachlich?”: “Kinder die im Ausland aufwachsen, müssen die Muttersprache der Eltern sprechen wegen den Grosseltern und Cousinen die im Heimatland der Eltern leben“. Sie spielen die wichtigste Rolle im zweiprachigen/zweikulturellen Leben von Kindern die im Ausland aufwachsen. (translated by A.Braun) Baker (2003) argues that Disapproval of bilingualism may be found among monolingual grandparents and monolingual extended family members.

6 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 6

7 In Semi-structured Interviews both Parents were interviewed together when available (some children) Parents spoke at least two NLs in addition to the CL. Children were aged no older than 15 years. In Forum/Email usually one parents explained their language practices 32 countries with about 28 different languages. Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 7

8 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 8 TypeDescriptionENGGERTotal I The parents each speak one different NL. (NL  CL) 131124 II One or both parents speak two NLs. (NL can be CL) 131831 III One or both parents speak three NLs. (NL can be CL) + “Others” 9615 Total35 70 Abbr CL – Community Language / NL – Native Language (Tab.1) Published Typology by Braun, A. & Cline T. (2010) International Journal of Multilingualism

9 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 9 Parental Background Cultural Linguistic Language Competence / Preference Grandparents Parents Parental Strategies Schooling Status of English/NL Parents’ use of NLs + CL with their Children OPOL Contextual Factors Future Plans Time spent in Host Country Other Relatives Sequence of Siblings Social Children Children’s Age TV/Radio/ Internet Home land visits

10 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 10 Number: Type 1: Eng: 13 / Ger:11 - Type 2: Eng:13 / Ger: 18

11 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 10 Simple %, No Confidential Interval (CI), Standard Deviation or P-Value Number: Eng: 13 / Ger: 11

12 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 11

13 Mother: “We both of us, my husband and me, wanted that our children can discuss with their other relatives as well. When we go to visit my parents or my husband's parents, grandparents...”[Fin mother 35y, Ger father 37y, 2 Kids 3 & 1y]. Father: “Yes he (son) speaks Italian with my parents…Well, I don’t know if they (grandparents) would have complained but it would have been difficult for them so it’s not just an issue for us. Mother: Yes, for my grandparents” [Iranian mother 37y, Italian father 46y, 1 Kid 10y]. Mother: “They (grandparents) were trying to convince us to speak to her (daughter) in Italian, so she (daughter) would learn it. So, they (grandparents) can speak to her (daughter) as well” [Italia mother 34y, Algerian father 42y, 1 Kid 3y]

14 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 11 Father: “For both of us the same reason. None of our parents speak a foreign language and we want our children to be able to communicate with their grandparents [G3:101-104]. Mother: Our parents like it (trilingualism) as they want to communicate with them (grandchildren)” [Portuguese mother 31y, Irish father 34y, 2 kids 3 & 1y]. Mother: “When you learn the language and the culture and your learn to respect the culture of the grandparents of the husband and the rest of the extended family” [Finnish mother 40y, Dutch father 40y, 2 kids 13 & 15y]. Mother: “First the grandparents are there whereas our place of living can change. We don’t know if we live in 5 years in Romania, Belgian, Spain or Finland, so it’s best to use our mother tongues. And our parents can look after her (child) as my mother speaks only Finnish and so J (child) can stay there without us” [Finnish mother 35y, Rumanian father 33y, 1 kid 2y].

15 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 12 Simple %, No Confidential Interval (CI), Standard Deviation or P-Value Number: Eng:13 / Ger: 18

16 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 11

17 Mother: “When they (children) were born we thought that three languages is too much…and I wanted them to have a strong English…We decided that he (father) was going to speak Greek initially and I was going to speak English to please his (Greek/British) parents mainly and his parents obviously weren’t supposed (to speak) English to my children because they should speak Greek to my children… But it turns out they speak English to them (children) mainly…So this is really annoying and it annoys my husband as well because he really did it for his parents you know initially and they (grandparents) don’t even speak Greek” [Finnish mother 34y, Greek/British father 37y, 2 kids 10 & 7y].

18 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 11 Vater: „Meine Mutter spricht ah sie kann sich nicht entscheiden. Ich glaube Kroatisch aber she spricht auch Deutsch...Ah ich würde es bevorzugen wenn meine Mutter mehr Kroatisch sprechen würde and garkein Deutsch. Ich habe einige Ideen, dass meine Mutter Kroatisch mit ihr (Enkelkind) spricht und ich kontentriere mich auf Deutsch aber ich weiss noch nicht – ich muss es testen“ (Bulgarische Mutter 27J, Kroatisch-Deutscher Vater 30J, 1 Kind 1J) Translation Father: “My mother speaks now – yes she can’t decide I feel Croatian but she also uses German...Ah, I would prefer if my mother spoke more Croatian and not German at all. I have some ideas that my mother can speak with her Croatian and I concentrate on German but I don’t know yet - I need to test it.”

19 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 11 DescriptionType IType II ENGGERENGGER In each set of GPs at least one GP spoke the CL fluently 221014 There was no fluent speaker of the CL in either set of GPs 10923 Unclear1011 Total13111318

20 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 11

21 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 14

22 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 18  Sampling method incl. internet forum, university colleagues, snowballing, which attracted participants with a similar high socio-economic background.  Content of forum and email was sometimes vague and ambiguous.  The description on NL is becoming more difficult because many participants in this study described English as one of their “OWN LANGUAGES”.  The influence of grandparents on trilingual families’ language practices is only one factor.

23 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 19 Most Type 1 families in England and Germany raised their children trilingually, which was partly related to the grandparents, who were mostly monolingual. In England, 11 out of 13 Type I families and in Germany 9 out of 11 referred to their grandparents and other relatives when explaining their NL use with their children. The parents partly used their NLs with their children to provide a means of communication between the children and their relatives, particularly their grandparents, who generally did not speak the current CL of the parents, English or German. In contrast, most Type 2 families raised their children bilingually partly because one set of grandparents was bilingual as well and/or they spoke the CL Eng/Ger or even lived close by (Immigration background / Gastarbeiterfamilien). In England, 11 out of 13 grandparent couples and in Germany 16 out of 18 could communicate with their grandchildren in one of the NLs that the parents used. Therefore, there was no need to use both of the parents’ NLs. This seems to be a major factor for parents to drop one language. Follow up study planned to lead up on these findings

24 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 20 Baumgartner, B. (2010) „Gelebte Zweisprachigkeit. Wie erziehe ich mein Kind zweisprachlich?", Rabenstück Verlag 2010 Baker, C. (2003) A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism by Colin Baker (Second Edition, 2003), pp 11-13. Braun, A. & Cline, T. (2010). Trilingual families in monolingual societies: working towards a typology. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7 (2) p.110-127. Braun, A. (2006). The effect of sociocultural and linguistic factors on the language use of parents in trilingual families in England and Germany. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bedfordshire, UK. Cahiers 15.2 2009 [paru en 2011] Towards a shifters’ view of language shift. A comparative study of Lima and Lille http://www.afls.net/cahiers/15.2/PooleyMarr.pdfhttp://www.afls.net/cahiers/15.2/PooleyMarr.pdf Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Dunbar (2010) A 1998 report (Kitikmeot struggles to prevent death of Inuktitut) notes that ‘teenagers cannot converse fluently with their grandparents’ (quoted in I. Martin 2000a: 31). http://www.cepn- fnec.com/file/publication/docetudelegaux/En/Journal%20of%20Indigenous%20People s%20Rights%20no.%201-2010.pdfhttp://www.cepn- fnec.com/file/publication/docetudelegaux/En/Journal%20of%20Indigenous%20People s%20Rights%20no.%201-2010.pdf

25 Dr. A. Braun Sponsored by the Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research 21 Address: Dr. Andreas Braun Research Fellow University of Hertfordshire Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research Health Research Building College Lane Hatfield, Herts. AL10 9AB UK Webpage: www.Trilingualism.orgwww.Trilingualism.org Email: andreas.braun@trilingualism.organdreas.braun@trilingualism.org


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