Presentation on theme: "Intermediate Course (8) Operating Practice Karl Davies East Kent Radio Society EKRS."— Presentation transcript:
Intermediate Course (8) Operating Practice Karl Davies East Kent Radio Society EKRS
Q-Codes Q-Codes are a form of abbreviation used during a CW contact. However some have come into use for normal voice contacts. A question mark after a Q-Code means a question. For international and amateur means see table in Book/Handout. Recall the meaning and the reason for use of the Q codes: QRL, QRM, QRN, QRP, QRT, QRZ, QSB, QSL, QSO, QSY, QTH.
Abbreviations CQGENERAL CALL TO ALL STATIONS DEFROM (THIS IS) DXLONG DISTANCE * RRECEIVED RSTREADABILTY, SIGNAL STRENGTH, TONE SIGSIGNAL URYOUR WXWEATHER * Very subjective - assume any place outside of my continent
RST Signal Reporting RST:- Readability Strength Tone R EADABILITY 1Unreadable 2Barely Readable, occasional word distinguishable 3Readable with Considerable difficulty 4Readable with practically no difficulty 5Perfectly Readable
Signal Reporting-2 S IGNAL 1Faint, Signals barely perceptible 2Very Weak Signals 3Weak Signals 4Fair Signals 5Fairly Good Signals 6Good Signals 7Moderately Strong Signals 8Strong Signals 9Extremely Strong Signals
Signal Reporting-3 T ONE 1Extremely Rough Hissing Noise 2Very Rough Note. No Trace of Musicality 3Rough, low-pitched note. Slightly Musical 4Rather Rough note. Moderately Musical 5Musically modulated note 6Modulated note. Slight trace of whistle 7Near Good Note. Smooth ripple 8Good Note. Just a trace of ripple 9Purest Note
Operational Advantages of Transmission Modes CW (Continuous Wave) [usually Morse]. CW mode has a narrow bandwidth and greater range for a given transmitter power. CW will in 99% of cases make a contact in poor conditions when other modes fail. SSB (Single Side Band) Good for voice transmission over long distance. Ensure that on the receiver that the bandwidth is set for SSB reception - 2.0kHz or 2.4kHz filter. FM. (Frequency Modulation). Has the shortest range and maximum (Wide) bandwidth. For shorter range transmissions it offers high quality speech.
Set-ups for Other Modes FROM SOUND CARD INTERFACE PTT Rx Audio Tx Audio TRANSCEIVER FROM I/O PORT MODEM TRANSCEIVER PTT Rx Audio Tx Audio
Other Operating Modes PSK31 is a narrow band transmission mode suitable for either data or text on HF; similar modes are PACTOR, AMTOR, and RTTY. Look for these modes around.070 to.100 on the 14 or 21 MHz bands. SSTV Slow Scan Television is like facsimile and can transmit pictures over a HF or VHF voice channel, with a 2.4kHz bandwidth. The pictures are generated either by computer or video camera. Look for these around.230. FSTV Fast Scan TV needs a wide bandwidth and is therefore only suitable for VHF or UHF - mainly on 23cms now.
QTH & QSL Information The starting point for UK stations is the RSGB Callbook which lists most UK calls. Country prefixes can be found in the Callbook or the useful prefix guide published by the RSGB. Overseas callsign information can be found either on QRZ.com, or Buckmaster, which are USA Internet sites. There is a very good CD “The Flying Horse Callbook” which is available from the RSGB.
QSL Cards Sending and Receiving QSL cards:- QSL cards are known as the final courtesy of a QSO. Most stations like to send and receive cards. If you become interested in awards then you are required to be in possession of the cards confirming the contacts. NOTE: e-QSLs are not accepted for most awards. Two routes are available to exchange cards - via a QSL Bureau, OR Direct to the station.
QSL Card Bureau VOLUNTEER RSGB Sub-Managers UK Amateur Community who have lodged Stamped Addressed Envelopes with relevant Sub-Manager RSGB MEMBER’S CARDS OVERSEAS BUREAUS RSGB HQ PO BOX 1773
Common Country Prefixes Country prefixes were allocated by international conference in There may be more than one prefix per country. Remember:- EIEire - Irish Republic FFrance IItaly JAJapan PANetherlands VECanada VKAustralia W or KUSA ZLNew Zealand
Contests and Awards Love them or loathe them Contests are here to stay. – HINT: Use contests to help with awards. Awards; DXCC is the top award followed by IOTA – DXCC basic is 100 countries confirmed by receipt of QSL card. IOTA (Islands On The Air) award administered by the RSGB. – IOTA was created over 30 years ago IOTA is an amateur radio award programme requiring contacts with island stations world-wide. About 18 separate awards are available, which also require cards.
Amateur Satellites Most Amateur Satellites orbit the earth in a short timespan. ie. less than 24 hours. Thus each satellite will complete several orbits per day. Depending upon the relative position of the satellite to earth each appearance above the horizon will be of a short duration Some satellites have elliptical orbits to maximise time above the horizon. To communicate with the satellite each station shall have a clear line of sight path. Satellites have limited power, derived from solar panels. Excessive Uplink Powers can result in wasteful and unfair use of the satellites limited power MINIMUM 150 kms Orbit
Satellite Operating Uplink and downlink frequencies are often in different amateur bands. For example: uplink on 70cms, and downlink on 2m. Transmitting Stations need to receive both up and downlink frequencies. Movement of the satellite in relation to earth will cause the Receive frequency to change. This is called Doppler Shift, and needs to be allowed for. TRANSMITTTER UPLINK DOWNLINK RECEIVER ONE WAY PATH