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20.3 Electric Circuits Ms. Kammerer

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Circuit Diagrams An electric circuit is a complete path through which charge can flow. Symbols are used to represent parts of a circuit Source of electrical energy Devices that are run by the electrical energy

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**Open Circuits Switches are places where the circuit can be opened.**

If the switch is open, the circuit is not a complete loop, current stops When the switch is closed, the circuit will resume flow Direction of current is the direction in which positive charges flow

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**Series Circuit Charge has only one path it can flow.**

If one element stops functioning in a series circuit, none of the elements can operate. What are sources of resistance?

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Parallel Circuits An electrical circuit with two or more paths through which charges can flow

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**Power and Energy Power is the rate of doing work**

Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy Unit is watt (W) Electric Power P(watts) = I (amps) x V (volts)

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Practice Problems 1. A clothes dryer uses about 27 amps of current from a 240-volt line. How much power does it use? P = I x V = (240V)(27A) = 6500 W A camcorder has a power rating of 2.3 watts. If the output voltage from its battery is 7.2 volts, what current does it use? I = P/V = (2.3W)/(7.2V) = 0.32A A power tool uses about 12 amps of current and has a power rating of 1440 watts. What voltage does the tool require? V = P/I = (1440 W)/(12 A) = 120 V

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Electrical Energy E = P x t

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Electrical Safety Correct wiring, fuses, circuit breakers, insulation, and grounded plugs help make electrical energy safe to use. All wires must be able to carry max expected current “Blowing a fuse”- a wire will melt if too much current passes through it

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**A circuit breaker is a switch that will open when current is too high**

Grounding – the transfer of excess charge through a conductor to Earth

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Chapter 17.3 – Circuits electric circuit – a set of electrical components connected such that they provide one or more complete paths for the movement.

Chapter 17.3 – Circuits electric circuit – a set of electrical components connected such that they provide one or more complete paths for the movement.

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