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Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-1 Homeostasis a state of equilibrium within the body maintained through the adaptation of body systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-1 Homeostasis a state of equilibrium within the body maintained through the adaptation of body systems."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-1 Homeostasis a state of equilibrium within the body maintained through the adaptation of body systems to changes in either the internal or external environment

3 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-2 Vital Signs assessments of pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and temperature; body functions essential to life

4 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-3 Pulse a vital sign; a quantitative measurement of the heartbeat using the fingers to palpate an artery or a stethoscope to listen to the heartbeat

5 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-4 Pulse Rates for Adults Normal 60 to 100 beats per minute (70 to 80 bpm on average) Tachycardia more than 100 bpm Bradycardia less than 60 bpm

6 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-5 The Well Trained Athlete Lance Armstrong has a resting heart rate of beats per minute.

7 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-6 Notation Rate: Number of beats per minute Rhythm: Spacing between the beats – either normal or abnormal Quality: weak, faint, thready, strong

8 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-7 Pulse Sites

9 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-8 Radial Pulse

10 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual 12-9 Carotid Arteries

11 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Factors influencing Increase: exercise, stimulants, excitement, fever, shock, nervous tension Decrease: sleep, depressants, heart disease, coma, physical training

12 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Terminolgy Bradycardia: rate below 60 Tachycardia: rate above 100

13 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Respiration breathing; the process of bringing oxygen into the body and expelling carbon dioxide from the body

14 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Normal Rates of Respiration 15 years and Older 15 to 20 breaths per minute A Well-Trained Athlete 6 to 8 breaths per minute

15 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual How to take Repiration is under partial voluntary control. Therefore, you should not let the athlete know that you are taking their respiration. Place your hand on them to feel the respiration Act like you are taking their pulse and count their respirations.

16 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Normal Vs. Obstructed Respiration Under normal circumstances breathing (respiration) is quiet and effortless. Noisy respirations indicate an obstruction in the air passages.

17 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Special Notation Rate: breaths per minute Character: deep, shallow, labored, difficult Rhythm: spacing between breaths –regular or irregular

18 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Terminololgy Dyspnea: labored and painful breathing Apnea: absence of breath Tachypnea: rate above 25 Bradypnea: rate below 10

19 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Factors influencing Increase: exercise, stimulants, excitement, stress, shock Decrease: physical training, depressants, cold exposure

20 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Blood Pressure the pressure exerted by the circulating blood against the walls of the arteries

21 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Systolic & Diastolic Pressures The systolic pressure is the top number in a blood pressure reading. It reflects the blood pressure when the heart contracts. The diastolic pressure reflects the blood pressure when the heart is at rest and is recorded as the bottom number of a blood pressure measurement.

22 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Positive Test Results for Blood Pressure Readings outside of these ranges indicate a potential problem: normal systolic range 100 mm Hg to 140 mm Hg normal diastolic range 65 mm Hg to 90 mm Hg

23 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Factors Influencing Increase: excitement, stimulants, exercise, eating, smoking Decrease: rest, sleep, depressants, shock, excessive loss of blood, fasting, physical training Factors that may alter reading: postural position

24 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual At Valley Community College the beginning of soccer season signals the need for every player to have a physical exam. It typically takes the entire athletic training staff all morning to perform the necessary physicals and this year promised to be no different. On the date set for the physicals Ms. Morgan, the head athletic trainer, set up a different station for each vital sign. She then assigned a student trainer to each station. Steve was assigned to take blood pressures. He was doing a good job of taking blood pressures. Ms. Morgan was getting the same pressures as he was nine out of ten times. One of Steve’s friends, Rudy, was in line to have his blood pressure taken. To Steve’s surprise, Rudy’s blood pressure was 170 over 92. Steve did not know how to tell a friend that his blood pressure would jeopardize his chance to play soccer. So, Ms. Morgan and Steve sat down with Rudy to discuss his unusually high blood pressure. Rudy assured them that he had a condition called “White Coat Syndrome” in which he gets nervous when someone takes his blood pressure. He promised to have his family physician check him out and forward the results to the school’s athletic department. Why is it important for an athletic trainer to check the student athletic trainer's work periodically? How elevated is Rudy’s blood pressure when compared to the normal range? Is it acceptable to have a family physician perform the physical and forward the results instead of having it performed by the athletic training staff?

25 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Normal Body Temperature Normal body temperature is 98.6 o F or 37 o C

26 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Locations Oral – most common Rectal – most accurate Axillary – arm pit Tympannic – ear Temporal – temoral artery

27 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Normal readings Oral : minutes Rectal: 99 6 (R) –3-5 minutes Axillary: 97 6 (Ax) – 10minutes Tympanic: 98 6 (T) instant

28 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Factors influencing Increase: hyperthermia, illness, infection, excitement, high emvironmental temp. Decrease: starvation or fasting, sleep, decreased muscle activity, hypothermia, certain diseases

29 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Factors influencing Individuals have different normal temperatures: normal range is Time of day: temp will be higher in pm than in am Do not allow person to take anything by mouth before taking oral temperature

30 Copyright © 2002 Career Publishing, Inc. Visual Consequences of Excess Weight increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to additional stress on the heart, and heightened risk of hypertension and atherosclerosis decreased life expectancy impeded circulation in the legs increased risk of diabetes increased stress on muscles and joints supporting the extra weight Excess weight or fat can contribute to a variety of health risks:


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