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The Allies Turn the Tide

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1 The Allies Turn the Tide
World War II The Allies Turn the Tide

2 Axis Powers Plan for Victory
Hitler sought to dominate Europe and eliminate “inferior” peoples Mussolini wanted an empire in Africa and Italy

3 Allied Powers Plan for Victory
The Allies were more unified All saw Germany as threat #1 This was the “Europe first” strategy, Japan second

4 The Battle at Sea (in Europe)
Hitler continued to use his “wolf packs” of U-boats Sunk 3,500 merchant ships The convoy system used by the Allies would once again deter the German Kriegsmarine Aided by the radar Depth charges

5 The Battle for Stalingrad
Hitler invaded Russia in 1941, breaking the non-aggression pact Stalin stopped him with a harsh winter and fierce fighting at Stalingrad.

6 The Battle for Stalingrad
Hitler turned to southern Russia in search of oil fields The city of Stalingrad stood in his way This would be a turning point of the war, infamous for some of the fiercest fighting of WWII

7 The Battle for Stalingrad
Fighting occurred in the city On the brink of defeat, the Soviets launched a counteroffensive Eventually, the Nazis army surrendered This ended Hitler’s hope of dominating Europe and the USSR began pushing Germany westward


9 The African Theatre Goal of Axis: Goal of Allies:
To create an empire in this region take control of the Suez Canal Link up with Japan Goal of Allies: To open up a 2nd front to relieve the USSR Paves way for invading Italy

10 The African Theatre US invades at Morocco
Led by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Gen. Patton (“Blood and Guts”) led tank divisions They push east while GB pushes west Feb, 1943: Naziz is defeated in Tunisia Allies have taken Africa


12 Allied Invasion of Italy
The Allies meet in Casablanca Decide to increase bombing of German cities Vow to only accept unconditional surrender Invasion of Italy

13 Allied Invasion of Italy
The Germans escaped defeat, but Italy would surrender by September of 1943

14 Bombing Germany An invasion of Germany was not yet possible in Instead, the Allies practiced saturation bombing Purpose: inflict max damage Coincided with strategic bombing

15 Bombing Germany The Tuskegee Airmen played a vital role in this campaign African American soldiers to honorably and effectively perform in combat during WWII Their crew escorted these bombers during 1,500 missions Under their watch, no bombers were lost

16 Turning the Tide In the Pacific
The turning point for the Americans against the Japanese was at Midway Japan sought to destroy this naval base and control the Pacific

17 Turning the Tide In the Pacific
US Navy in Pacific was led by Adm. Chester Nimitz He had decoded Jap. Messages and knew of these plans At Midway, the most important naval battle took place

18 Turning the Tide In the Pacific
Midway US would have a decisive victory 4 Japanese aircraft carriers destroyed Hundreds of aircraft and pilots were eliminated from Japan’s Naval forces The Japanese was stopped and reversed for good

19 Turning the Tide In the Pacific
The US would begin a strategy of “island hopping” to Japan This involved taking islands from Japanese control and converting them into US bases Slowly, the US would reach the Japanese mainland

20 WWII The Home Front

21 New Economic Opportunities
Women found jobs in industry even if they were married.

22 New Economic Opportunities
Rosie the Riveter was a symbol of these new roles for women


24 New Economic Opportunities
African Americans still faced discrimination Leaders call for a “Double V” Victory at home and Victory abroad Led by A. Philip Randolph

25 New Economic Opportunities
A. Philip Randolph He presented FDR with a list of demands to end discrimination in federal programs He threatened a protest in Washington FDR gives in, not wanting disunity Executive Order 8802 ensured fair hiring practices in federal jobs

26 New Economic Opportunities
NAACP and CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) continue to fight for African Americans CORE would protest against segregation and use non-violence to do so

27 Workers On the Move People were moving around in search of jobs
Bracero Program Brought Mexican workers to work on farms Vital to war effort

28 Workers On the Move Migration also led to racial violence
In Detroit, riot broke out between blacks and whites Whites were upset that black were moving into neighborhoods near them 34 die, federal troops have to stop the rioting

29 The US Government Mistreats Minorities
German, Italian, and Japanese immigrants all faced restrictions during WWII Some held in camps curfew & travel restrictions All removed from the West Coast in 1942

30 The US Government Mistreats Minorities
FDR issued Exec Order 9066 against Japanese Americans It required Japanese-Americans to move into internment camps along the West coast.

31 The US Government Mistreats Minorities
These Japanese were then placed into internment camps Stayed here for course of war Food supply, education, and health care were all lacking in these camps Korematsu v. US, the Supreme Court stated that this was all legal during war


33 Supporting the War Effort
The war was expensive, raising the debt by over 200 billion dollars Americans paid taxes and bought bonds to help

34 Supporting the War Effort
Americans were also asked to ration Extra resources were sent to the war effort Americans willingness to sacrifice contributed to Allied victory in WWII



37 Victory In Europe and the Pacific
WWII Victory In Europe and the Pacific

38 Planning Germany’s Defeat
At the Tehran Conference, the Allied leaders all agreed to open a new Western front in France. They wanted to divide Hitler’s troops. This would be known as Operation Overlord (aka D-DAY)

39 D-Day Invasion of Normandy
Gen. Eisenhower and Gen. Omar Bradley would plan and command this offensive US, British, Canadian, and Polish soldiers would 5 beaches Americans landed on the two toughest beaches: Omaha and Utah


41 D-Day Invasion of Normandy
This day is known as the “Day of Days”, or, D-Day 11,000 planes were used To bomb German fortifications along Festung Europa To drop paratroopers behind enemy lines to flank the Germans Bad weather caused this to fail

42 D-Day Invasion of Normandy
The Navy launched waves of soldiers onto the beach in an amphibious attack Bad weather caused chaos Americans would land at the most heavily defended beaches Fired upon immediately, some drowned


44 D-Day Invasion of Normandy
The US experienced large casualties By the end of the day, the Allies were able to establish a beach-head Over the next month, over 1 million troops would enter from here and push towards Germany

45 D-Day Clip

46 The Liberation of Europe
With the successful invasion of France, Germany now faced a two front war in Europe The Soviets had the Nazis on the run Allies would also advance eastward towards Berlin

47 The Liberation of Europe
By August, the Allies had liberated Paris Germans began to doubt their Fuhrer Operation ValKyrie was an attempt to assassinate Hitler that failed Added to Hitler’s feeling of invincibility Had German leaders killed


49 The Liberation of Europe
Hitler made a desperate attempt to break through Allied lines This is known as the Battle of the Bulge Hitler Lost Weather once again played a role Once weather improved, Allied air assault began

50 The Liberation of Europe
The Allies would make their push towards Berlin

51 The Liberation of Europe
By January of ’45, the Soviets stood right outside of Berlin, the US had overrun Italy, and the US had also crossed over the Rhine Mussolini tried to flee Italy but was captured He was killed and displayed to the public where he was beaten

52 Liberation of Europe Hitler, who had gone mad, had nowhere to run
He would commit suicide in his bunker May 7, 1945: Germany surrenders Known as V-E Day Victory in Europe Day

53 Advancing In the Pacific
The US had been “island hopping” in the Pacific Japanese soldiers fought until the end, killing themselves before surrendering Used Kamikaze pilots to destroy US ships Fiercest fighting occurred in the Pacific

54 Advancing In the Pacific
Fiercest fighting focused on Iwo Jima and Okinawa Islands Iwo Jima: 36 days 23,000 US deaths Famous flag-raising took place here


56 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
The Manhattan Project was responsible for developing the world’s first atomic bomb Led by Robert Oppenheimer in Los Alamos, New Mexico A “top secret” project that was America’s best kept secret

57 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
July 16, 1945: The atom bomb was successfully tested for the first time in Alamogordo, NM Views on the bomb were mixed…

58 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
FOR dropping the bomb: It saves US soldiers for having to invade Japan It shows the world that we have an atom bomb (deterrent) No need for Soviet aid It would end the war quickly “The war’s over. 1 or 2 of those things and Japan will be finished” AGAINT dropping the bomb: Massive loss of civilian lives in Japan An invasion was possible It opens a whole new era of nuclear science “Now I am become death, the destroyer of worlds”

59 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
The decision was Pres. Truman’s to make He opted to save Americans lives August 6, 1945, the Enola Gay dropped the bomb over Hiroshima

60 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
Hiroshima: 60,000+ immediate deaths Many deaths followed 3 days later and after a warning, the next bomb was dropped on Nagasaki Killed 35,000 + residents Aug 15, Emperor Hirohito surrendered to the Allies Known as V-J Day




64 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
Total cost of life in WWII was 60 million people Most of these were civilians

65 WWII The Holocaust

66 Roots of the Holocaust Holocaust: The Nazi attempt to exterminate all Jews from European society Hitler called this his “Final Solution” to the “Jewish Question” The worst case of anti-Semitism the world has seen

67 Roots of the Holocaust Starts with the Nuremberg Laws
Hitler passed these laws which stripped all Jews of their citizenship Stripped Jews of their jobs, civil rights, banned mixing with non-Jews, and segregated Jews

68 Roots of the Holocaust Kristallnacht, or the “Night of Shattered Glass” A Nazi attack on Jewish citizens 1,500 synagogues destroyed 7,500 Jewish-owned business looted or vandalized 200 Jews killed 600 Jews injured Jews forced to pay $ for damages

69 Roots of the Holocaust Jews that tried to flee were often turned away
The Depression prevented countries from allowing refugees in 900 denied in the US, of which 600 would later die in the Holocaust

70 The Nazi “Final Solution”
The Nazis would commit genocide on European Jews The annihilation of peoples due to political, racial, or cultural reasons Used concentration camps A labor prison where Jews were starved and murdered Dachau, Bucenwald, etc


72 The Nazi “Final Solution”
Jews were not the only ones targeted “Undesirables”, political opponents, journalists, actors, etc… Starvation, disease, and torture were all causes of death Horrific medical experiments conducted

73 The Nazi “Final Solution”
In Poland, death camps were constructed Led by Reinhard Heydrich Aushchwitz, Treblinka, etc were all camps where prisoners were systematically murdered Transported by train Gassed, burned, shot, etc

74 The Nazi “Final Solution”
Human fat made into soap, hair woven into products, gold fillings stolen from bodies 6 million Jews murdered by 1945 5 million other Holocaust victims

75 The Allied Response to the Holocaust
Allied response was weak at first Reasons were: Disbelief in Hitler’s plans Soviets didn’t care Focus on winning the war 1st Fear that allowing Jews in would cause more unemployment

76 The Allied Response to the Holocaust
The truth to Hitler’s “Final Solution” was revealed when Allies liberated camps Demands for an independent Jewish state were answered when Israel was created in 1948

77 WWII Effects of the War

78 Allied Postwar Goals Yalta Conference (1945):
Big 3 meet to discuss post-war Germany, and Eastern Europe An agreement was made that Eastern Europe would have free elections to determine the new governments An agreement was made to divide Germany into four occupation zones

79 Allied Postwar Goals Potsdam (1945): Stalin, Truman, and Atlee attend
Discussed Stalin’s refusal to allow free elections in East. Europe Also, officially proclaimed the occupants and specific zones of Germany

80 A New World Forms Germany was divided into 2 nations
East Germany (& E.Berlin)= Communist West Germany (& W.Berlin)=Democratic In fact, E.Europe had mostly become communist/Soviet controlled

81 A New World Forms In China, a civil war broke out
Chiang Kai Shek: nationalist and friend of US Mao Ze Dong: Communist and friend of USSR Mao will take over, adding another big communist nation to the world

82 A New World Forms In Japan, General Douglas MacArthur led the occupation He helped write their new constitution Women’s suffrage Jap.Military only to be used for defensive purposes Democratic reforms Provided for full economic recovery

83 A New World Forms Colonies broke free from their imperialist rulers
Two new superpowers had emerged by wars end: US=Industry boomed, mil.superiority, and victory gave them much clout USSR=Control E.Europe

84 International Cooperation
The US became a world leader focused on reviving the war-torn Europe and the global economy Established a world bank and other institutions to increase financial stability GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Increased world trade by reducing tariffs

85 International Cooperation
Formation of the United Nations worked to resolve disputes before the outbreak of war 5 permanent members w/ veto power US, GB, USSR, China, France Issued a Universal Declaration of Human Rights Condemns slavery, torture, and upholds freedom of press and toleration

86 International Cooperation
The Allies sought to punish war criminals Geneva Convention declared that all soldiers be treated humanely upon capture Japanese, Germans were tried for violating this Included Tojo and those involved in Bataan Death March

87 International Cooperation
Nuremberg War Trials placed Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity The defense claimed they were just following orders Many were executed or imprisoned, some fled before prosecution


89 A New American Identity
The war had ingrained in us a new American identity We stood for democracy, toleration, peace, etc We were the keepers and protectors of these ideals

90 A New American Identity
Attention was called to African American lack of civil rights Their service and the US fight against bigotry refocused this movement

91 A New American Identity
WWII had ended the Great Depression in the US Wealth was redistributed and certain regions drew business and customers Government continued to play a large role in our lives

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