Presentation on theme: "Symptoms of sz Positive, negative and secondary symptoms."— Presentation transcript:
Symptoms of sz Positive, negative and secondary symptoms
Positive symptoms (Type I) The positive symptoms refer to those symptoms that are present in people with sz but absent in individuals without sz, for example hallucinations and delusions.
Negative symptoms Type II The negative symptoms however are those behaviours that are not present in people with sz Which are present in people without sz. For Example deficits is cognitive and social Functioning.
Secondary symptoms Symptoms that result from having sz, for example depression, drug/alcohol abuse, unemployment and social isolation. The higher level of support the individual receives the less severe the secondary symptoms
See handout for symptoms Work through handout and sketch pictures along the right hand column and a tool for revision. Then answer exam questions on sheet
Question Distinguish between the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia (4 marks) [AO1 – 2, A02 – 2] (3 marks) List three Type I symptoms a sufferer of sz may experience. (3 marks) List three Type II symptoms a sufferer of sz may experience. (3 marks)
Next see handout for diagnosis Read and decide what exam questions could be asked this Jan module PSYB3? DIAGNOSING SZ THEN ACCURATELY IS DIFFICULT AND WITH RELIABILITY IS NOT STRAIGHTFORWARD. The Criteria for diagnosis do not give precise sets of symptoms, but indicate that some from each category need to be present. This lack of precision means that mis diagnosis may happen. Empirical research has indicated that certain ethnic groups may be diagnosed with sz more often than others and this has been shown in the study by Goater et al (1999).
Key words symptoms absent Normal individuals hallucinations Not present Poverty of speech Thought disorders Blunted and flat effect Disturbances of volition delusions Individuals with sz
Example Answers… The positive symptoms refer to those symptoms that are absent in normal individuals but present in people with sz. For example, delusions, hallucinations and thought disorders. The negative symptoms however are those behaviours that are present in normal people but absent in people with sz. For example poverty of speech, disturbance of volition and blunted and flat effect.
Answer The problem with schizophrenia is that no two people with sz may have the same symptoms which can make it difficult to diagnose effectively. Sometime the positive symptoms are similar to the side effects of recreational drugs such as amphetamines and so they will not be treated appropriately. This can lead to their psychotic symptoms worsening. Today however, Classification systems (such as DSM IV) specify that the following criteria should be met before the patient can be diagnosed. There are a number of variables which must be met to allow correct diagnosis. With the right support and therapy/drug treatment the individual should remain in the residual stages of sz