Presentation on theme: "Aim: How do pathogens infect plants and animals? 5.2b Viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites may infect plants and animals and interfere with normal."— Presentation transcript:
Aim: How do pathogens infect plants and animals? 5.2b Viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites may infect plants and animals and interfere with normal life functions. HW#20 Text read pages 473,477 to 481 read pages 482 – 487 Answer ques. 1 – 16 page 491
Bacteria are found everywhere… Microbiologists broadly classify bacteria according to their shape: spherical, rod-shaped, and spiral-shaped. Cocci Bacilli Spirilla
Beneficial bacteria are found in living things..
Beneficial Intestinal Bacteria Some benefits of PROBIOTICS augments the immune system alleviates anxiety prevents arterial disease, lowering cholesterol prevents and controls diarrhea inhibits food pathogens and enhances food preservation inhibits tumors and carcinogenesis fights fungal/yeast/candida infections promotes/aids liver function and detoxification produces natural antibiotic-like agents that fight and prevent bacterial infections prevents osteoporosis and promotes longevity
Beneficial bacteria are used to make food. Yogurt Cheese Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus
Tooth decay Lyme disease Tetanus Tuberculosis Salmonella food poisoning Pneumonia Cholera Streptococcus mutans Borrelia burgdorferi Clostridium tetani Mycobacterium tuberculosis Salmonella enteritidis Streptococcus pneumoniae Vibrio cholerae Regular dental hygiene Protection from tick bites Current tetanus vaccination Vaccination Proper food-handling Maintaining good health Clean water supplies DiseasePathogenPrevention Section 19-2 Common Diseases Caused by Bacteria Go to Section: Disease causing Bacteria
Bacteria can be controlled by antibiotics Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. After their discovery in the 1940's they transformed medical care and dramatically reduced illness and death from infectious diseases. However, over the decades the bacteria that antibiotics control have developed resistance to these drugs. Today, virtually all important bacterial infections in the United States and throughout the world are becoming resistant. For this reason, antibiotic resistance is among CDC's top concerns.
Differences between viruses and bacteria Virus 0.01 to 0.3 micron envelope called a protein coat and a core of genetic material, either DNA or RNA invade other cells and hijack their cellular machinery to reproduce Bacteria 0.3 to 2.0 micron rigid cell wall and a thin, rubbery cell membrane surrounding the fluid, or cytoplasm (organelles) reproduce themselves
What is a virus and are they living or non- living? Ebola VirusChicken Pox Virus
T4 Bacteriophage Tobacco Mosaic Virus Influenza Virus Head Tail sheath DNA Tail fiber RNA Capsid Surface proteins Membrane envelope RNA Capsid proteins Section 19-3 Figure 19-13 Virus Structures Go to Section: Viruses come in a variety of sizes and shapes. It is composed of a core of DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat.
Bacteriophage enzyme lyses the bacterium’s cell wall, releasing new bacteriophage particles that can attack other cells. Bacteriophage proteins and nucleic acids assemble into complete bacteriophage particles Bacteriophage takes over bacterium’s metabolism, causing synthesis of new bacteriophage proteins and nucleic acids Bacteriophage injects DNA into bacterium Bacteriophage attaches to bacterium’s cell wall Bacteriophage DNA protein Bacteriophage protein coat Bacteriophage DNA Bacterial chromosome Lytic Cycle of a Virus Section 19-3 Figure 19-14 The Lytic Cycle Go to Section: