Presentation on theme: "Aim: How do enzymes work?. Enzymes are a particular kind of protein that have the ability to catalyze reactions in living organisms. Proteins are very."— Presentation transcript:
Aim: How do enzymes work?
Enzymes are a particular kind of protein that have the ability to catalyze reactions in living organisms. Proteins are very long chain molecules made up of amino acid building blocks. The protein chain is folded in a complex three dimensional shape known as its tertiary structure. Aim: How do enzymes work?
What do you know about amino acids? Group work-1 minute
There are 20 amino acids. They differ by what is on the central carbon. All amino acids contain a N atom in the chemical formula. Amino acids come into our body as food that we eat. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Twenty amino acids arranged in an endless array yields an infinite number of proteins. Digestive enzymes are proteins
The Digestive Enzymes Site Mouth Stomach Small intestine (from pancreas) Small intestine Site Mouth Stomach Small intestine (from pancreas) Small intestine Enzyme Role in Digestion Section 38-2 Salivary amylase Pepsin Amylase Trypsin Lipase Maltase, sucrase, lactase Peptidase Breaks down starches into disaccharides Breaks down proteins into large peptides Continues the breakdown of starch Continues the breakdown of protein Breaks down fat Breaks down remaining disaccharides into monosaccharides Breaks down dipeptides into amino acids.
There are more than 3,000 known enzymes in the human body. The body’s ability to function and repair itself is directly related to the strength and number of enzymes that are present. Every second, they are changing and renewing, sometimes at unbelievable rates.
The enzyme shape fits the shape of the substance it will break down.
Enzymes work in specific ways Substrate is what will be digested (broken down) by the specific enzyme
Enzyme action The enzyme and substrate come together at the active site. The shape of the enzyme fits the shape of the substrate
Digestive enzymes..break down larger molecules into smaller ones
Products are …..different from what we started with
Real life application of enzymes Many biological washing powders contain enzymes to help with the removal of stains. The enzyme may be a protease to break down protein stains or a lipase to break down fat and oil (lipids) stains.
Digestion of starch
Salivary Amylase This enzyme breaks the bonds that hold the polymer together
Digestion of starch produces simple sugars
Enzymes are proteins Enzymes are needed for synthesis also.
Protease digests proteins All enzymes have a particular shape that fits the molecules they act on.