2Aim: How do enzymes work? Enzymes are a particular kind of protein that have the ability to catalyze reactions in living organisms.Proteins are very long chain molecules made up of amino acid building blocks.The protein chain is folded in a complex three dimensional shape known as its tertiarystructure.Work with your group and write everything you know about amino acids.There are 20 amino acids. They differ by what is on the central carbon. All amino acids contain a N atom in the chemical formula. Amino acids come into our body as food that we eat. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Twenty amino acids arrange.
3What do you know about amino acids? Group work - 1 minuteHow many proteins can you make with 20 amino acids?Activity: Let students use numbers to represent amino acids. Let students make a chain of numbers in any arrangement, any length so they get the idea that there can be thousands of different chemical proteins.
4They differ by what is on the central carbon. There are 20 amino acids.They differ by what is on the central carbon.All amino acids contain a N atom in the chemical formula.Amino acids come into our body as food that we eat.Proteins are made up of amino acids. Twenty amino acids arranged in an endless array yields an infinite number of proteins.Digestive enzymes are proteins
5The Digestive Enzymes Mouth Stomach Small intestine (from pancreas) Section 38-2SiteMouthStomachSmall intestine (from pancreas)Small intestineEnzymeRole in DigestionSalivary amylasePepsinAmylaseTrypsinLipaseMaltase, sucrase, lactasePeptidaseBreaks down starches into disaccharidesBreaks down proteins into large peptidesContinues the breakdown of starchContinues the breakdown of proteinBreaks down fatBreaks down remaining disaccharides into monosaccharidesBreaks down dipeptides into amino acids.Discuss conditions of pH and temperature
6ENZYMESThere are more than 3,000 known enzymes in the human body. The body’s ability to function and repair itself is directly related to the strength and number of enzymes that are present. Every second, they are changing and renewing, sometimes at unbelievable rates.The function of enzymes – promote chemical reaction by breaking bonds or putting bonds in place.
7The enzyme shape fits the shape of the substance it will break down. Because enzymes are proteins and there made up of many (100’s) of amino acids they chain can fold on itself to form a particular shape.The enzyme lipase catalyses the breakdown of fatty acids.Proteins have a three dimensional shape.
8Enzymes work in specific ways Substrate is what will be digested (broken down) by the specific enzymeActivity: students will make an enzyme. Make parts so that they fit. Each groups enzymes will not fit another groups substrate.Example: enzyme is lipase, substrate is fat
9Enzyme actionThe enzyme and substrate come together at the active site.The shape of the enzyme fits the shape of the substrate
10Digestive enzymes..break down larger molecules into smaller ones
11Products are … ..different from what we started with Go to internet site
12Real life application of enzymes Many biological washing powders contain enzymes to help with the removal of stains. The enzyme may be a protease to break down protein stains or a lipase to break down fat and oil (lipids) stains.
13Digestion of starchStarch is a much larger molecule. Digestion breaks the bonds between the units.
14Salivary AmylaseThis enzyme breaks the bonds that hold the polymer together