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By, and. 8000 BC – 600CE The Mayans and the Olmecs Prior to 8000 BC nomads travel over Bering Land Bridge and begin to migrate into South America. Basically.

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Presentation on theme: "By, and. 8000 BC – 600CE The Mayans and the Olmecs Prior to 8000 BC nomads travel over Bering Land Bridge and begin to migrate into South America. Basically."— Presentation transcript:

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2 8000 BC – 600CE The Mayans and the Olmecs Prior to 8000 BC nomads travel over Bering Land Bridge and begin to migrate into South America. Basically hunting and gathering societies. Prior to 8000 BC nomads travel over Bering Land Bridge and begin to migrate into South America. Basically hunting and gathering societies. Agriculture emerged and nomadic peoples were able to settle. Maize is the “big” crop of the time for them. Also eventually they developed irrigation skills. Agriculture emerged and nomadic peoples were able to settle. Maize is the “big” crop of the time for them. Also eventually they developed irrigation skills. In about 2000 BC Huastecas and other proto-Maya cultures begin to develop in Mexico. The Olmecs come around in around BC and the Mayans also came around this time. In about 2000 BC Huastecas and other proto-Maya cultures begin to develop in Mexico. The Olmecs come around in around BC and the Mayans also came around this time. Olmecs and Mayans had predefined gender roles, life revolved around their polytheistic religions and the worship of their deities. The famous Mayan calendar was also a huge part of their religion. The Dec. 21 st, 2012 prophecy is from them. Olmecs and Mayans had predefined gender roles, life revolved around their polytheistic religions and the worship of their deities. The famous Mayan calendar was also a huge part of their religion. The Dec. 21 st, 2012 prophecy is from them. Priests had huge political control over society since their lifestyle was based off of religion. Strong warriors and hunters were also rewarded with high spots in the society. Women were able to be priestesses. Priests had huge political control over society since their lifestyle was based off of religion. Strong warriors and hunters were also rewarded with high spots in the society. Women were able to be priestesses. Pyramids were the center of city life. This is where their human sacrifices of mostly infants and young children took place. Many other religious practices of these cultures took place here such as dancing, ball games, group prayer and dramatic performances were done here or very close to the temples. Pyramids were the center of city life. This is where their human sacrifices of mostly infants and young children took place. Many other religious practices of these cultures took place here such as dancing, ball games, group prayer and dramatic performances were done here or very close to the temples. The practice of bloodletting started with the Olmecs and Mayans. This was when someone would put themselves through self torture to please the gods. Both captives and high officials practiced this. The higher one’s position in a society was the more blood was expected from you was. This was because the Mayan aristocracy were suppose to be mediators of the gods and their people. Blood was drawn by jabbing spines through the ear or through other sensitive body parts, or by drawing a thorn-studded cord through the tongue; it was then spattered on paper or otherwise collected as an offering to the gods. The practice of bloodletting started with the Olmecs and Mayans. This was when someone would put themselves through self torture to please the gods. Both captives and high officials practiced this. The higher one’s position in a society was the more blood was expected from you was. This was because the Mayan aristocracy were suppose to be mediators of the gods and their people. Blood was drawn by jabbing spines through the ear or through other sensitive body parts, or by drawing a thorn-studded cord through the tongue; it was then spattered on paper or otherwise collected as an offering to the gods. Some art they produced includes huge stone faces of important people, usually high priests etc. Also their developed writing comparable to Egyptian hieroglyphics made up of many different glyphs. Some art they produced includes huge stone faces of important people, usually high priests etc. Also their developed writing comparable to Egyptian hieroglyphics made up of many different glyphs.

3 600 CE – 1450 CE Incans Resided on West Coast of South America primarily. Came about in the year 1200 and stood until Spanish conquistadors wiped out their empire. Resided on West Coast of South America primarily. Came about in the year 1200 and stood until Spanish conquistadors wiped out their empire. Split into two main factions the Hanan and the Hurin due to conflicts over bloodlines etc. (Between two brothers) The Spanish took advantage of this feud to help their conquering of them. Divide and Conquer.. Split into two main factions the Hanan and the Hurin due to conflicts over bloodlines etc. (Between two brothers) The Spanish took advantage of this feud to help their conquering of them. Divide and Conquer.. Used advanced irrigation techniques for the time to farm mainly maize. They were the first civilization to farm the potato. They were also the first to preserve crops with the freeze-dry technique. Used advanced irrigation techniques for the time to farm mainly maize. They were the first civilization to farm the potato. They were also the first to preserve crops with the freeze-dry technique. They had a vast system of roads to trade with neighboring lands such as the Aztecs and also other less known civilizations of South America. They had a vast system of roads to trade with neighboring lands such as the Aztecs and also other less known civilizations of South America. Incans never developed steel however they developed bronze which was vastly superior to the metals the Aztecs and other opposing Mesoamerican peoples used. Incans never developed steel however they developed bronze which was vastly superior to the metals the Aztecs and other opposing Mesoamerican peoples used. Incans used quipu, a knotted string method of keeping count of stuff. The exact way this method works is still unknown to us today. Incans used quipu, a knotted string method of keeping count of stuff. The exact way this method works is still unknown to us today. Inti was their primary deity (the sun God) and they developed a “holy drink” that they would drink during festivals to him. It was basically beer made of maize. There was no bloodletting in this culture or human sacrifice. Inti was their primary deity (the sun God) and they developed a “holy drink” that they would drink during festivals to him. It was basically beer made of maize. There was no bloodletting in this culture or human sacrifice. Incans used much gold and silver in their architecture of main cities due to their vast supply. Much of this gold and silver was melted down by Europeans. Incans used much gold and silver in their architecture of main cities due to their vast supply. Much of this gold and silver was melted down by Europeans. The society of the Incans is considered to some to be an ancient socialist empire due to how the wealth was spread throughout the majority of the population exceptions being high priests and high ranking military officers. Both men and women had predefined gender roles. The women usually had little to no rights and were able to become acolytes which were religious helpers comparable to nuns nowadays. The society of the Incans is considered to some to be an ancient socialist empire due to how the wealth was spread throughout the majority of the population exceptions being high priests and high ranking military officers. Both men and women had predefined gender roles. The women usually had little to no rights and were able to become acolytes which were religious helpers comparable to nuns nowadays.

4 600 – 1450 CE The Aztecs Located in central and southern Mexico Located in central and southern Mexico Empire was split up into many different City-States. The Aztecs were actually a triple alliance of people living in the area. Empire was split up into many different City-States. The Aztecs were actually a triple alliance of people living in the area. Each city state had their own King (based on bloodlines and were usually priests) and paid tribute to more powerful city-states. Each city state had their own King (based on bloodlines and were usually priests) and paid tribute to more powerful city-states. The Aztecs were always expanding seeking more and more tribute from neighboring lands. The fate of the captives could be a number of things, sometimes they would be sacrificed and taken in as slaves or if they were a stronger people may have been adopted as a city-states and forced to pay tribute to the other city-states. The Aztecs were always expanding seeking more and more tribute from neighboring lands. The fate of the captives could be a number of things, sometimes they would be sacrificed and taken in as slaves or if they were a stronger people may have been adopted as a city-states and forced to pay tribute to the other city-states. Slavery and serfdom was present in this culture and formed the backbone of the economy on farms. The main produce of the Aztecs was maize. Tenochtitlan was the main trade city of the empire where many different city-states would organize “big business” of the time. Slavery and serfdom was present in this culture and formed the backbone of the economy on farms. The main produce of the Aztecs was maize. Tenochtitlan was the main trade city of the empire where many different city-states would organize “big business” of the time. Bloodletting and Human sacrifice were a very common practice in the Aztec culture. They were almost identical to the Mayan rituals in the way they were practiced. Women were also able to have religious power as in Mayan culture. Bloodletting and Human sacrifice were a very common practice in the Aztec culture. They were almost identical to the Mayan rituals in the way they were practiced. Women were also able to have religious power as in Mayan culture. The three main social classes of the Aztecs were the pīpiltin or nobility, the mācehualtin or the middle class and the tlacotin (the slaves). The pipiltin comprised of many land owners who had access to a good education. Usually you had to be a pilli to become a pilli but it was not impossible to go from middle class to a higher class until later in the empire when this social class became hereditary. The middle class comprised of warriors, artisans, traveling merchants and farmers. The lowest class were captives and slaves. The three main social classes of the Aztecs were the pīpiltin or nobility, the mācehualtin or the middle class and the tlacotin (the slaves). The pipiltin comprised of many land owners who had access to a good education. Usually you had to be a pilli to become a pilli but it was not impossible to go from middle class to a higher class until later in the empire when this social class became hereditary. The middle class comprised of warriors, artisans, traveling merchants and farmers. The lowest class were captives and slaves. The Aztecs used advanced irrigation systems as well most likely learned from the Incans. The Aztecs used advanced irrigation systems as well most likely learned from the Incans.

5 CE Europeans Come and Colonize! The ancient world of the Aztecs and Incans becomes the “New World” to the Europeans. Natives defined as Indians since the Europeans thought they had landed in the Indies at the time. Mostly the Portuguese and Spanish colonize Mesoamerica. The ancient world of the Aztecs and Incans becomes the “New World” to the Europeans. Natives defined as Indians since the Europeans thought they had landed in the Indies at the time. Mostly the Portuguese and Spanish colonize Mesoamerica. Disease from Europe spreads throughout the empires and kills off a huge %age of the mesoamerican people. Spanish divide and conquer the Incans due to their factional disputed and the Aztecs don’t stand a chance to them due to their very primitive weapon technologies. Conquistadors wipe out most of the mesoamerican people. Disease from Europe spreads throughout the empires and kills off a huge %age of the mesoamerican people. Spanish divide and conquer the Incans due to their factional disputed and the Aztecs don’t stand a chance to them due to their very primitive weapon technologies. Conquistadors wipe out most of the mesoamerican people. Spanish and Portuguese melt down most of the gold and silver from the Aztecs and Mayans. Spanish and Portuguese melt down most of the gold and silver from the Aztecs and Mayans. Catholic Missionaries attempt to spread their religion to Mesoamericans. Christianity becomes primary religion of South America overall. Catholic Missionaries attempt to spread their religion to Mesoamericans. Christianity becomes primary religion of South America overall. Spanish establish the encomienda system in their colonies to force slavery upon the natives. This was used on plantations and quarries. Spanish establish the encomienda system in their colonies to force slavery upon the natives. This was used on plantations and quarries. Rigid social classes present in Latin America at the time. At the top were Peninsulars who were pure blooded Spanish people directly from Spain. Next were the creoles who were of Spanish descent but were born in Latin America. Other combinations of lower positions than the creoles were: Rigid social classes present in Latin America at the time. At the top were Peninsulars who were pure blooded Spanish people directly from Spain. Next were the creoles who were of Spanish descent but were born in Latin America. Other combinations of lower positions than the creoles were: Spanish + Native American= Mestizo Any European + African= Mulatto Native American + African= Zombos White supremacy ideas brought about by the above social classes. White supremacy ideas brought about by the above social classes. Colonies pay tribute to motherland country. Colonies pay tribute to motherland country. Immigrants from Europe who cannot pay for the trip are taken in as indentured servants to pay off the cost of the travel. Immigrants from Europe who cannot pay for the trip are taken in as indentured servants to pay off the cost of the travel.

6 CE American Revolution inspires many colonies to break away from their mother country. American Revolution inspires many colonies to break away from their mother country. Haitian Revolution was the first Latin American colony to break away from Europe. Francais Toussaint L’Ouverature leads the revolt. This is unique due to how the lowest class was the one revolting and was successful. Haitian Revolution was the first Latin American colony to break away from Europe. Francais Toussaint L’Ouverature leads the revolt. This is unique due to how the lowest class was the one revolting and was successful. Creoles become mad at Peninsulares who have much less knowledge about the colony and having high government positions when they just come there straight from Europe and automatically become higher class than them. Creoles want positions in government. This leads to widespread revolts against European Mother Countries in Latin America. Creoles become mad at Peninsulares who have much less knowledge about the colony and having high government positions when they just come there straight from Europe and automatically become higher class than them. Creoles want positions in government. This leads to widespread revolts against European Mother Countries in Latin America. Many colonies gain their independence due to havoc in Europe as Napoleon tramples over Europe. Europe has bigger worries than their colonies so freedom is granted easier than usual. Many colonies gain their independence due to havoc in Europe as Napoleon tramples over Europe. Europe has bigger worries than their colonies so freedom is granted easier than usual. Brazil is granted “freedom” by Portugal and Portugal places a prince of Portugal as king of the new “free” Brazil. Brazil is granted “freedom” by Portugal and Portugal places a prince of Portugal as king of the new “free” Brazil. New independent nations experiment with what political system to use. An example of this is how Brazil went from a Kingdom  Empire  Republic all within 90 years New independent nations experiment with what political system to use. An example of this is how Brazil went from a Kingdom  Empire  Republic all within 90 years Many Creoles become corrupted and Caudillos (military leaders) take the opportunity to seize power in some Latin America nations such as Mexico (La Reforma etc.) Many Creoles become corrupted and Caudillos (military leaders) take the opportunity to seize power in some Latin America nations such as Mexico (La Reforma etc.) Huge migrations of Europeans and Asians to Latin America. Huge migrations of Europeans and Asians to Latin America. Latin American identity is established, Gauchos (cowboys) become associated with Latin America. Becomes a symbol and idea of Latin America as Gauchos are regarded as people who only need themselves to survive helps feed Latin American nationalism since they don’t have to depend on Europe anymore. Latin American identity is established, Gauchos (cowboys) become associated with Latin America. Becomes a symbol and idea of Latin America as Gauchos are regarded as people who only need themselves to survive helps feed Latin American nationalism since they don’t have to depend on Europe anymore.

7 1914-Present Great Depression effects everyone including Latin America. Latin America depends on the U.S. to buy a lot of its products and U.S. economy begins to decline thus the Latin American economy also declines. Great Depression effects everyone including Latin America. Latin America depends on the U.S. to buy a lot of its products and U.S. economy begins to decline thus the Latin American economy also declines. Latin America becomes one of the biggest fruit producers and vegetable producers in the world. Latin America becomes one of the biggest fruit producers and vegetable producers in the world. Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba. Support from Russia as he is a communist. Support from disgruntled lower class and how they hate how U.S. controls such a large portion of their economy. Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba. Support from Russia as he is a communist. Support from disgruntled lower class and how they hate how U.S. controls such a large portion of their economy. Radical artists in Latin America in general spread radical ideas of a new and improved government throughout Latin America via their art. An example is Diego Rivera’s art in Mexico. Radical artists in Latin America in general spread radical ideas of a new and improved government throughout Latin America via their art. An example is Diego Rivera’s art in Mexico. U.S. established “good neighbor” treaty which gives them financial control of many places in Latin America. U.S. marines help train police of many different states of South America to preserve law and order. This tones down the radical rebellions that were happening. U.S. established “good neighbor” treaty which gives them financial control of many places in Latin America. U.S. marines help train police of many different states of South America to preserve law and order. This tones down the radical rebellions that were happening. Panama Canal is built Panama Canal is built Cold War begins and many countries take sides splitting the area in half. Big tensions in Latin America. Cold War begins and many countries take sides splitting the area in half. Big tensions in Latin America. Women’s rights in Latin America grows and eventually many countries establish women’s rights. Women’s rights in Latin America grows and eventually many countries establish women’s rights. Tourism in Latin America also becomes a very profitable field. Tourism in Latin America also becomes a very profitable field. Gangs and other organized crime becomes very big problem in South America. Emerge from oppressed social classes and minorities. Drug Trafficking is one of the major problems of South America nowadays. Gangs and other organized crime becomes very big problem in South America. Emerge from oppressed social classes and minorities. Drug Trafficking is one of the major problems of South America nowadays.

8 Continuity!!!!!!!!! Maize was a major crop in Latin America. It was a major export in all time periods. Maize was a major crop in Latin America. It was a major export in all time periods. Prescribed gender roles for women until the 1930’s. Prescribed gender roles for women until the 1930’s. Slavery with encomiendas to African slavery. Slavery with encomiendas to African slavery. European colonization from 600 C.E. to 1750 C.E. European colonization from 600 C.E. to 1750 C.E. South America’s economy has always revolved around produce and gold. South America’s economy has always revolved around produce and gold.

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