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Atmosphere and Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere and Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere and Environment
By Marina Kanakos, Leart Ulaj, Anumita Das, Patrick Blancero, and Eric Lu Period 5

2 East Asia American crops such as maize, sweet potatoes, and peanuts permitted Chinese farmers to take advantage of soils that had previously gone uncultivated in China. The introduction of new crops increased the food supply and supported further population growth. Entrepreneurial Chinese merchants ventured into lands throughout Southeast Asia—the Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra, Malaya, Thailand, and elsewhere—in search of exotic tropical products for Chinese consumers.

3 East Asia New food crops led to population growth
Changes Continuities New food crops led to population growth Japan was divided in to warring feudal estates Trade restrictions were applied due to fear of change in society with the addition of foreign ideas East Asia retained policies of isolation.

4 Western Europe Spain and Portugal lacked resources and desired direct trade routes with East Asia. Columbus linked the eastern and western hemispheres. Ferdinand Magellan traveled the first circumnavigation. The people of Western Europe became involved in trans-oceanic trade. New technologies allowed the people to travel across the Mediterranean and Atlantic Oceans. Dom Henrique conquered Ceuta and the West African Coast, and established trading posts in West Africa. Vasco de Gama reached India and brought back a huge profit. He also set up a trading post in Calicut. Captain James Cook helped determine the first accurate geographical understanding of the world. He also charted Australia. The Dutch occupied South East Asia by uprooting spice plants.

5 Eastern Europe Introduction of American food crops aided in increasing the European population dramatically, raising it from 81 million at the starts of the 16th century to 180 million in the start of the 19th century. In the 16th century, the potential of a vast Holy Roman Empire prompted the French government, in alliance with the Ottoman Empire, to guard against the expansion of the Holy Roman Empire much past the bounds of eastern Europe. Hungary was added to the Ottoman Empire in 1526.  After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Geneva, Zurich, and part of the Italian states got removed from the Holy Roman Empire.

6 Europe Changes Continuities
Stretched beyond land borders across the Atlantic Ocean and claimed foreign lands for their own use. Europeans employed slaves as a cheaper method of working lands abroad, which allowed them to control more territory. Europeans took control of the Atlantic Slave Trade by offering rulers of tribes in Africa weapons if they gave slaves away. Advanced weaponry help to control native populations Christianity continued to be a driving force in finding new lands, especially after the Protestant Reformation. Europeans continued to look for alternate trade routes so they could eliminate the middleman and avoid high fees

7 Islamic Society Osman Bey seized Bursa.
Mehmed captured Constantinople, attacked Italy, and expanded the borders of the Ottoman Empire into Greece, Serbia, and Albania. Suleyman expanded into South West Asia, central Europe, and occupied Egypt and Serbia. Babur expanded the Mughal Empire into almost all of India. Akbar expanded into Bengal, Gujarat, and southern India. Aurangzeb expanded the borders into almost all of India. For each society, the capital was placed in the center of the land for protection, although it hindered its easily accessible communication with distant lands.

8 Islamic Society Changes Continuities
The introduction of American crops led to a slight population increase Expanded into European lands as a result of strong military and effective gunpowder Engaged in long-distance trade Continued trade with Asia and Europe Islam served as motivation for expansion

9 The Americas In Latin America, due to a smaller number of domesticated animals and agricultural techniques, people were not as dependent on crops and did not have mass produce crops like the Europeans. The smaller amount of crops caused the Europeans to start mining in order to gain a profit. In North America, cash crops such as tobacco were more easily made and animals were killed in order to be used for the fur trade.

10 The Americas Changes Continuities
The Americas were isolated from the rest of the world and completely unknown until the late 1400’s. Upon their discovery, the Portuguese and Spanish made settlements in Latin America, often for sugar plantations. The Americas entered the global trade network. Some of the native peoples of the Americas retained their beliefs and traditions Resistance continued against Europeans so they wouldn’t take away all of the natives’ lands and property

11 Oceania Due to Oceania's isolation from the rest of the world, it lacked interaction with other societies. Because of this, the Aborigines never advanced nearly as far as the Europeans or the Native Americans. They never made complex societies, and were still in nomadic hunter-gatherer civilizations when the British arrived on Australia. This caused the British to look down upon them.

12 Oceania Changes Continuities
Oceania was previously isolated and had increased interaction with other societies after being discovered by the British. The peoples of Oceania had never acquired immunities to European diseases, so their populations plunged. European mariners established permanent settlements in Guam and the Mariana Islands. The Aborigines never made complex societies and continued their nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Because they considered them savage, the Europeans made no attempt to convert the Aborigines to Christianity.

13 Sub-Saharan Africa The most important American crop introduced to Africa was manioc because of its high yield and because it thrived in tropical soils found in Africa. The triangular pattern of the Atlantic trade routes between Europe, Africa, and the Americas caused most slaves to be taken from west/central Africa. Several African slaves were brought to the Caribbean and South America because they could withstand tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.

14 Sub-Saharan Africa Changes Continuities
Many Africans were enslaved, especially on the west coast Triangular trade routes led to enriched diets, which in turn led to population growths When the Americas were discovered, the need for slaves from Africa increased. Some African societies prospered due to the slave trade. The slave trade already existed within Africa; this then expanded into Islamic slave trade and then into the Atlantic slave trade.

15 Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa
Similarities Differences Population increase in both regions due to increased food supply from the Americas Both participated in in the triangular trade routes – slaves from Africa were transported to Americas and manufactured goods were sent to Africa Africans and Europeans both traveled to the Americas in mass numbers Many Europeans who went to the Americas were either merchants or missionaries Africans who went to the Americas were slaves. Europeans grew immunity to smallpox and other diseases while Africans were wiped out. Europeans had advanced knowledge of the seas and technology while Africa did not.

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