Presentation on theme: "RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES. INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO Installed capacity 152148 MW * (as on 31.08.09) Thermal- 97869 MW Hydro- 36917 MW Nuclear- 4120."— Presentation transcript:
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO Installed capacity 152148 MW * (as on 31.08.09) Thermal- 97869 MW Hydro- 36917 MW Nuclear- 4120 MW Renewable- 13242 MW *Source – Central Electricity Authority of India The 15th annual power survey of Central Electricity Authority (CEA) projects a power demand of 2,40,000 MW by the end of 11th five-year plan (2012-13).
INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO – INSTALLED CAPACITY IN MW
NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Conventional Petroleum Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Unconventional (examples) Oil Shale Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Solar photovoltaic Solar thermal power Passive solar air and water heating Wind Hydropower Biomass Ocean energy Geothermal Waste to Energy
Primary sources of energy Three independent primary sources providing energy to the earth are : The Sun Geothermal forces Planetary motion in the solar system
NEED FOR ALTERNATIVES Fossil fuel reserves (Coal, Oil & Natural Gas), the dominant source of energy, are limited India - 17% of World population, 4% of primary energy Present pattern – predominantly fossil based India imports 110 million tonnes crude annually 90% (112 million tonnes) of the total available oil is consumed by transportation sector in India 52% of households unelectrified Linkage between energy services
CHARACTERISTICS OF RENEWABLES Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted by earth 1.8*1011 MW Clean Source of Energy Dilute Source - Even in best regions 1kW/m2 and the total daily flux available is 7 kWh/m2 Large Collection Areas, high costs Availability varies with time Need for Storage, Additional Cost
BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Environment Reducing emissions of CO2 and other pollutants (acid rain, etc.) Local and regional development Economic and social cohesion Local job creation Security of supply Reducing Imports
POWER GENERATION OPTIONS Power Generation Centralised Grid Connected Decentralised Distributed Generation Isolated Cogeneration/Trigeneration Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar)
Potential and Installation of Renewable Energy Systems (As on 31.03.2009) S. No Renewable Energy SourcesApprox. potential (MW) Potential Harnessed (MW) 1Wind Power4519510242 2Small Hydro Up to (25 MW)150002430 3Cogeneration (Bagasse)50001049 4Gasifiers16000243 5Waste to energy (Urban & industrial)270059 6S.P.V.50 MW/sq km2.12 MW 7Solar Thermal140 m.sq. m.2.5 m. sq.m. TOTAL83895 MW14023 MW
WIND POWER GENERATION - STATUS India ranks fifth in the world after Germany, the USA, Denmark and the UK. The wind energy potential in India has been estimated at 45,000 MW, of which 10000 MW installed States with high wind power potential are TN, Gujarat, AP, Karnataka, Kerala, MP and Maharashtra Single machine upto 4.5 MW Average capacity factor - 14% Capital cost Rs 4-5crores/MW, Rs 2-3/kWh (cost effective if site CF>20%)
WIND ENERGY - PRINCIPLES Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and less turbulent wind. Turbines catch the wind's energy with their propeller-like blades. Usually, two or three blades are mounted on a shaft to form a rotor. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power.
INDIA MAP Active Wind Sector Active Wind & Hydro Sector Huge Small Hydro Potential Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Uttaranchal Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Gujarat Maharashtra Rajasthan RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPLEMENTATION –MAJOR STATES Tamil Nadu
Wind Resources Map of India
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Anemometer: Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the controller. Blades: Most turbines have either two or three blades. Wind blowing over the blades causes the blades to "lift" and rotate. Brake: A disc brake, which can be applied mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically to stop the rotor in emergencies. Controller: The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above about 55 mph because they might be damaged by the high winds.
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Gear box: Gears connect the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1000 to 1800 rpm Generator: Usually an off-the-shelf induction generator that produces 50-cycle AC electricity. High-speed shaft: Drives the generator. Low-speed shaft: The rotor turns the low-speed shaft at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute.
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Pitch: Blades are turned, or pitched, out of the wind to control the rotor speed and keep the rotor from turning in winds that are too high or too low to produce electricity. Rotor: The blades and the hub together are called the rotor. Tower: Towers are made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, or steel lattice. Because wind speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity.
COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Wind vane: Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the turbine properly with respect to the wind. Yaw drive: Upwind turbines face into the wind; the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as the wind direction changes. Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive, the wind blows the rotor downwind. Yaw motor: Powers the yaw drive.
ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY Clean fuel source Inexhaustible One of the lowest-priced renewable energy technologies Benefiting the economy in rural areas
DISADVANTAGES Higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators. Wind is intermittent; Wind energy cannot be stored Good wind sites are often located in remote locations, far from cities where the electricity is needed. May compete with other uses for the land
SMALL HYDRO POWER
WHAT IS SMALL HYDROPOWER (SHP) Water is fed from stream/canal to the turbine by a closed pipe (penstock) through diversion works. The turbine in turn rotates the generator for electricity generation. Power (kW) = 9.81 x Discharge (cum/s) x Head (m) x Efficiency
ADVANTAGES OF SMALL HYDRO Non-consumptive use of water Does not require large capital investment Short gestation period ranging from 6 to 24 months. Low operation costs Unmanned power stations are possible Can be connected with electricity grid Can act as a catalyst in promoting socio-economic changes in remote areas. More environment friendly than conventional hydro Small hydro is significant for off-grid, rural, in far flung isolated communities having no chances of grid extension for years to come.
CLASSIFICATION OF SHP IN INDIA ClassStation Capacity MicroUpto 100 kW Mini101 kW to 2000 kW Small2001 kW to 25000 kW
TYPE OF SCHEMES RUN OF RIVER No storage. The output is subject to instantaneous flow. Reliability of discharge and geological conditions should be ensured. CANAL BASED Utilizes the fall and flow in the canals. May be planned in main canal or in bye-pass canal. Nearby drops should be clubbed in existing canals. In canals under planning concentrated drops should be considered. DAM BASED Dam toe schemes are most common in India. Water stored during monsoon is utilized for power generation.
Cost Aspects of SHP Scheme Parameters affecting cost are Physical sizes of Civil Works and E&M Equipments Construction Aspects Operating costs Unit cost of hydro schemes is inversely proportional to the head Per kW cost may be ranging from Rs 40,000/- to Rs.90,000/- depending upon the layout and capacity of the scheme. Costs may very + 20% depending upon the location of the project and the topographical terrain.
Small hydro vis-à-vis other renewables It is the highest-density renewable energy source against widely spread and thinly distributed solar energy, biomass, wind resource, etc. Its cost of generation is cheapest amongst renewables. (Re 1.00 to 1.50 /kWhr) Small hydro efficiencies are highest amongst renewables (85 to 90%)
MNES Database of Small Hydro Potential Sites Identified in India up to 25 MW Capacity Sl. No. Name of StateIdentified Sites up to 25 MW Total Capacity (in MW) 1Himachal Pradesh3231,624.78 2Jammu & Kashmir2011,207.27 3Uttar Pradesh211267.06 4Uttaranchal3541,478.23 5Gujarat290156.83 6Maharashtra234599.47 7Andhra Pradesh286254.63 8Karnataka230652.61 9Kerala198466.85 10Tamil Nadu147338.92 11Orissa161156.76 12Sikkim145182.62 13Arunachal Pradesh4921,059.03 Total3,2728,445.06 Average PLFs vary from 30% to 60% depending on location.
INCREASE OF HYDRO SHARE In India there is huge potential for hydropower projects, and very less has been harnessed so far. Coal requirement for power generation may not last for more than 150 years. In addition, higher transportation cost is incurred on transportation of coal over longer distances. Power generation from hydro sources is almost free of running cost and is completely pollution free.
Why Solar Energy ? Solar energy is the most readily available source of energy. It is free. It is also the most important of the non- conventional sources of energy because it is non-polluting. Earth surface receives 1.2x10 17 W of power from sun. India receives solar energy equivalent to 5000 trillion kWhr per year
SOLAR ENERGY - CLASSIFICATION Solar Energy can be classified as two types 1. Passive solar and 2. Active solar
Passive Solar Energy Passive solar energy is making direct and indirect use of thermal energies from the sun A southern exposure of a building guarantees the maximum exposure of the suns rays Special metal leaf covering over windows and roofs can block out the sun during the summer months
Active Solar Energy Active Solar Energy is the use of the suns Electromagnetic radiation in generating Electrical Energy It can be further divided into two forms – Solar Thermal (Heating Application) Solar Photovoltaic (Electricity Generation).
Solar Thermal Employed for collecting & converting the sun energy to heat energy for application such as water & air heating, cooking & drying, steam generation, distillation, etc. Basically a solar thermal device consists of a solar energy collector - the absorber, a heating or heat transferring medium and a heat storage or heat tank. Solar thermal technology employs an elaborate use of a black body, good heat conducting materials, insulation and reflectors. Solar geyser, solar concentrators, solar cookers, solar still are some example of devices based on solar thermal technology.
Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) Solar Photovoltaic Technology is employed for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy by the using Solar Silicon Cell. Solar PV has found wide application in rural areas for various important activities besides rural home lighting. Remote villages deprived of grid power can be easily powered using the Solar Photovoltaic technology. The economics of rural electrification can be attractive considering the high cost of power transmission and erratic power supply in the rural areas.
How electricity is generated through Solar Energy Solar photo voltaic (SPV). Can be used to generate electricity form the sun. Silicon solar cells play an important role in generation of electricity.
From Cells to Modules The open circuit voltage of a single solar solar cell is approx 0.5V. Much higher voltage voltage is required for practical application. Solar cells are connected in series to increase its open circuit voltage.
Solar Power projects Map
BIO MASS Biomass is the most important source for energy productions supplied by agriculture This energy is also available in the form of biodegradable waste, which is the rejected component of available biomass Organic matter in which the energy of sunlight is stored in chemical bonds When the bonds between carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecules are broken by digestion, combustion (or) decomposition these substances release stored energy
BIO MASS - CLASSIFICATION Biomass Grown (plantation) Agricultural Waste (straw, husk) Animal waste (dung) Industrial waste (bagasse, dry waste) Municipal waste (garbage, nightsoil)
BIO MASS Biomass is currently the worlds fourth largest energy source India produces 540 million tonnes of crop and plantation residues every year Higher Capacity factors than other renewables Fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal waste Atmospheric gasification with dual fuel engine 500 kW gasifier – largest installation
Biogas 45-70% CH4(Methane) rest CO2 Calorific value 16-25MJ/m3 Digestor- well containing animal waste Dome - floats on slurry- acts as gas holder Spent Slurry -sludge- fertiliser Anaerobic Digestion- bacterial action Family size plants 2m3/day Community Size plants 12- 150 m3/day Rs 12-14000 for a 2m3 unit Cooking, Electricity, running engine
Potential for Bagasse-based Cogeneration in Major Sugar Producing States in India StatePotential (in MW) Commissioned till March 31, 2005 (in MW) Maharashtra1,25032.50 Uttar Pradesh1,25046.50 Tamil Nadu500114.00 Karnataka500109.38 Andhra Pradesh300160.05 Bihar3000 Gujarat2500.50 Punjab15022.00 Others50015.00 Total5,000483.93
BIO FUELS What are biofuels Renewable fuels from biosources. Include 1. Ethanol 2. Biodiesel 3. Biogas Why Biofuels Pollution threat Reduction of green house gas emission Regional development Social structure & Agriculture Security of supply.
Importance of Biodiesel Environment friendly Clean burning Renewable fuel No engine modification Increase in Engine life Biodegradable & non toxic Easy to handle and store.
Biodiesel program in India In India most of the trials were done using bio diesel from Jatropha Pongamia. Other than Jatropha & Pongamia, the raw material used for bio-diesel production are sunflower, soyabean, rapeseed and palm oil In December 31, 2002: - Indian Railway Conducted a successful trial run of an Express Passenger train on the Delhi-Amritsar rout using 5% of biodiesel as fuel. Indian Oil Corporation began in January 2004 field trials of running buses on diesel doped with 5% biodiesel.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energythe heat from the earth. This heat can be drawn from several sources: hot water or steam reservoirs deep in the earth that are accessed by drilling; geothermal reservoirs located near the earth's surface; the shallow ground near the Earth's surface that maintains a relatively constant temperature of 50°- 60° F.
Map showing Geothermal Provinces of India
How a Geothermal Power Plant Works
TIDAL ENERGY Tidal energy traditionally involves erecting a dam across the opening to a tidal basin. The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow the tide to flow into the basin; the sluice is then closed, and as the sea level drops, traditional hydropower technologies can be used to generate electricity from the elevated water in the basin. Tidal range may vary over a wide range (4.5-12.4 m) from site to site. A tidal range of at least 7 m is required for economical operation and for sufficient head of water for the turbines
TIDAL ENERGY Tidal energy schemes are characterised by low capacity factors, usually in the range of 20-35%. There is a high capital cost for a tidal energy project, with possibly a 10-year construction period. Tidal power generation may change the sedimentation and erosion patterns in the estuary. Pollutants discharged into the rivers upstream from the barrages may accumulate in the estuary.
Emerging Developments in Renewables Ocean Energy Ocean energy draws on the energy of ocean waves, tides, or on the thermal energy (heat) stored in the ocean. The ocean contains two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves. Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface, making them the world's largest solar collectors. The sun warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this temperature difference stores thermal energy. Thermal energy is used for many applications, including electricity generation.
Emerging Developments in Renewables – Contd. Ocean mechanical energy : A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines For wave energy conversion, there are three basic systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs, float systems that drive hydraulic pumps, and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air within a container.
WAVE ENERGY The total power of waves breaking on the world's coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts. Three approaches to capturing wave energy are: Floats or Pitching Devices These devices generate electricity from the bobbing or pitching action of a floating object. Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) These devices generate electricity from the wave-driven rise and fall of water in a cylindrical shaft. The rising and falling water column drives air into and out of the top of the shaft, powering an air-driven turbine. Wave Surge Or Focusing Devices These shoreline devices, also called "tapered channel" or "tapchan" systems, rely on a shore-mounted structure to channel and concentrate the waves, driving them into an elevated reservoir. Water flow out of this reservoir is used to generate electricity, using standard hydropower technologies
Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave WorldCost Estimates GeothermalCommercial8240 MW4c/kWh $2000/kW No Indian experience 50 MW plant J & K planned TidalPrototype240 MW FRANCE LF 20% No Indian experience OTECPrototype50 kW 210 kW NELHA India 1MW gross plant under construction Wave Energy Prototype< 1MW Grid Connected India 150 kW plant Thiruvananthpuram
ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SectorCapital Cost (Rs Crore/MW) Cost of Generation (Rs/kWh) Natural Gas CC2.5 – 3.51.5 - 2 Coal5 – 6.52 – 2.75 Nuclear6 - 101.65 - 4 Wind4 - 101.5 - 4 Biomass7.5 – 12.52 – 4.5 Small Hydro4 - 62.5 - 5 Solar thermal electric 20 - 306 - 9 Solar PV30 - 4015 - 20
CONCLUSION India has competitive strengths in wind energy, solar energy, and biofuels. It has advantage in terms of human capital and scientific and engineering capabilities. India also has an advantage because it has urgent needs. Need generates urgency, which generates demand, which, in turn, generates innovation. These factors create conditions for India to move ahead.