2 INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO Installed capacity MW *(as on )Thermal MWHydro MWNuclear MWRenewable MW*Source – Central Electricity Authority of IndiaThe 15th annual power survey of Central Electricity Authority (CEA) projects a power demand of 2,40,000 MW by the end of 11th five-year plan ( ).
3 INDIAN POWER SECTOR SCENARIO – INSTALLED CAPACITY IN MW
6 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ConventionalPetroleumNatural GasCoalNuclearUnconventional (examples)Oil ShaleNatural gas hydrates in marine sedimentNon-renewable energy sources include fossil fuels and nuclear sources that are essentially finite in the earth’s crust. These represent the energy resource endowment for current and future generations.These resources can be classified further as conventional and unconventional. Unconventional resources are not currently exploited at significant levels generally because they can not be economically extracted and/or refined.Oil shale is source rock that has not yet released its oil. In the 1970’s it was thought to be the answer to US energy self-sufficiency. Oil shale is pulverized and heated to C (pyrolyzed, but the oil requires further upgrading before a refinery can use it as a feedstock.Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment are a mixture of methane and H2O frozen into solid crystalline state at water depths of approximately 500m. It is derived from the decay of organic matter trapped in the sediment. It has been estimated that this resource is as large as 2x all known fossil fuels.
7 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Solar photovoltaicSolar thermal powerPassive solar air and water heatingWindHydropowerBiomassOcean energyGeothermalWaste to Energy
8 Primary sources of energy Three independent primary sources providing energy to the earth are :The SunGeothermal forcesPlanetary motion in the solar system
10 NEED FOR ALTERNATIVESFossil fuel reserves (Coal, Oil & Natural Gas), the dominant source of energy, are limitedIndia - 17% of World population, 4% of primary energyPresent pattern – predominantly fossil basedIndia imports 110 million tonnes crude annually90% (112 million tonnes) of the total available oil is consumed by transportation sector in India52% of households unelectrifiedLinkage between energy services
11 CHARACTERISTICS OF RENEWABLES Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted by earth 1.8*1011 MWClean Source of EnergyDilute Source - Even in best regions 1kW/m2 and the total daily flux available is 7 kWh/m2Large Collection Areas, high costsAvailability varies with timeNeed for Storage, Additional Cost
12 BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY EnvironmentReducing emissions of CO2 and other pollutants (acid rain, etc.)Local and regional developmentEconomic and social cohesionLocal job creationSecurity of supplyReducing Imports
13 POWER GENERATION OPTIONS Centralised Grid ConnectedDecentralised Distributed Generation IsolatedCogeneration/TrigenerationDemand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar)
14 Potential and Installation of Renewable Energy Systems (As on 31. 03 Renewable Energy SourcesApprox.potential(MW)PotentialHarnessed1Wind Power45195102422Small Hydro Up to (25 MW)1500024303Cogeneration (Bagasse)500010494Gasifiers160002435Waste to energy (Urban & industrial)2700596S.P.V.50 MW/sq km2.12 MW7Solar Thermal140 m.sq. m.2.5 m. sq.m.TOTAL83895 MW14023 MW
16 WIND POWER GENERATION - STATUS India ranks fifth in the world after Germany, the USA, Denmark and the UK.The wind energy potential in India has been estimated at 45,000 MW, of which MW installedStates with high wind power potential are TN, Gujarat, AP, Karnataka, Kerala, MP and MaharashtraSingle machine upto 4.5 MWAverage capacity factor - 14%Capital cost Rs 4-5crores/MW, Rs 2-3/kWh(cost effective if site CF>20%)
17 WIND ENERGY - PRINCIPLES Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy.At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and less turbulent wind.Turbines catch the wind's energy with their propeller-like blades.Usually, two or three blades are mounted on a shaft to form a rotor.Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power.
18 RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPLEMENTATION –MAJOR STATES INDIA MAPJammu & KashmirHimachal PradeshUttaranchalRajasthanArunachal PradeshGujaratMaharashtraActive Wind SectorAndhra PradeshActive Wind & Hydro SectorKarnatakaHuge Small Hydro PotentialTamil NaduRENEWABLE ENERGY IMPLEMENTATION –MAJOR STATES
23 COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Anemometer: Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the controller.Blades: Most turbines have either two or three blades. Wind blowing over the blades causes the blades to "lift" and rotate.Brake: A disc brake, which can be applied mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically to stop the rotor in emergencies.Controller: The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above about 55 mph because they might be damaged by the high winds.
24 COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Gear box: Gears connect the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1000 to 1800 rpmGenerator: Usually an off-the-shelf induction generator that produces 50-cycle AC electricity.High-speed shaft: Drives the generator.Low-speed shaft: The rotor turns the low-speed shaft at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute.
25 COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Pitch: Blades are turned, or pitched, out of the wind to control the rotor speed and keep the rotor from turning in winds that are too high or too low to produce electricity.Rotor: The blades and the hub together are called the rotor.Tower: Towers are made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, or steel lattice. Because wind speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity.
26 COMPONENTS OF WIND TURBINE Wind vane: Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the turbine properly with respect to the wind.Yaw drive: Upwind turbines face into the wind; the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as the wind direction changes. Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive, the wind blows the rotor downwind.Yaw motor: Powers the yaw drive.
27 ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY Clean fuel sourceInexhaustibleOne of the lowest-priced renewable energy technologiesBenefiting the economy in rural areas
28 DISADVANTAGES Higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators. Wind is intermittent; Wind energy cannot be storedGood wind sites are often located in remote locations, far from cities where the electricity is needed.May compete with other uses for the land
30 WHAT IS SMALL HYDROPOWER (SHP) Water is fed from stream/canal to the turbine by a closed pipe (penstock) through diversion works. The turbine in turn rotates the generator for electricity generation.Power (kW) = 9.81 x Discharge (cum/s) x Head (m) x Efficiency
31 ADVANTAGES OF SMALL HYDRO Non-consumptive use of waterDoes not require large capital investmentShort gestation period ranging from 6 to 24 months.Low operation costsUnmanned power stations are possibleCan be connected with electricity gridCan act as a catalyst in promoting socio-economic changes in remote areas.More environment friendly than conventional hydroSmall hydro is significant for off-grid, rural, in far flung isolated communities having no chances of grid extension for years to come.
32 CLASSIFICATION OF SHP IN INDIA Station CapacityMicroUpto 100 kWMini101 kW to 2000 kWSmall2001 kW to kW
33 TYPE OF SCHEMES RUN OF RIVER No storage. The output is subject to instantaneous flow.Reliability of discharge and geological conditions should be ensured.CANAL BASEDUtilizes the fall and flow in the canals.May be planned in main canal or in bye-pass canal.Nearby drops should be clubbed in existing canals.In canals under planning concentrated drops should be considered.DAM BASEDDam toe schemes are most common in India.Water stored during monsoon is utilized for power generation.
34 Cost Aspects of SHP Scheme Parameters affecting cost arePhysical sizes of Civil Works and E&M EquipmentsConstruction AspectsOperating costsUnit cost of hydro schemes is inversely proportional to the headPer kW cost may be ranging from Rs 40,000/- to Rs.90,000/-depending upon the layout and capacity of the scheme.Costs may very + 20% depending upon the location of the project and the topographical terrain.
35 Small hydro vis-à-vis other renewables It is the highest-density renewable energy source against widely spread and thinly distributed solar energy, biomass, wind resource, etc.Its cost of generation is cheapest amongst renewables. (Re 1.00 to 1.50 /kWhr)Small hydro efficiencies are highest amongst renewables (85 to 90%)
36 Identified Sites up to 25 MW MNES’ Database of Small Hydro Potential Sites Identified in India up to 25 MW CapacitySl. No.Name of StateIdentified Sites up to 25 MWTotal Capacity(in MW)1Himachal Pradesh3231,624.782Jammu & Kashmir2011,207.273Uttar Pradesh211267.064Uttaranchal3541,478.235Gujarat290156.836Maharashtra234599.477Andhra Pradesh286254.638Karnataka230652.619Kerala198466.8510Tamil Nadu147338.9211Orissa161156.7612Sikkim145182.6213Arunachal Pradesh4921,059.03Total3,2728,445.06Average PLF’s vary from 30% to 60% depending on location.
37 INCREASE OF HYDRO SHARE In India there is huge potential for hydropower projects, and very less has been harnessed so far.Coal requirement for power generation may not last for more than 150 years. In addition, higher transportation cost is incurred on transportation of coal over longer distances.Power generation from hydro sources is almost free of running cost and is completely pollution free.
39 Why Solar Energy ?Solar energy is the most readily available source of energy.It is free.It is also the most important of the non-conventional sources of energy because it is non-polluting.Earth surface receives 1.2x1017 W of power from sun. India receives solar energy equivalent to 5000 trillion kWhr per year
40 SOLAR ENERGY - CLASSIFICATION Solar Energy can be classified as two types1. Passive solar and2. Active solar
41 Passive Solar EnergyPassive solar energy is making direct and indirect use of thermal energies from the sunA southern exposure of a building guarantees the maximum exposure of the sun’s raysSpecial metal leaf covering over windows and roofs can block out the sun during the summer months
42 Active Solar EnergyActive Solar Energy is the use of the sun’s Electromagnetic radiation in generating Electrical EnergyIt can be further divided into two forms –Solar Thermal (Heating Application)Solar Photovoltaic (Electricity Generation).
43 Solar ThermalEmployed for collecting & converting the sun energy to heat energy for application such as water & air heating, cooking & drying, steam generation, distillation, etc.Basically a solar thermal device consists of a solar energy collector - “the absorber”, a heating or heat transferring medium and a heat storage or heat tank.Solar thermal technology employs an elaborate use of a black body, good heat conducting materials, insulation and reflectors.Solar geyser, solar concentrators, solar cookers, solar still are some example of devices based on solar thermal technology.
44 Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) Solar Photovoltaic Technology is employed for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy by the using “Solar Silicon Cell”.Solar PV has found wide application in rural areas for various important activities besides rural home lighting.Remote villages deprived of grid power can be easily powered using the Solar Photovoltaic technology. The economics of rural electrification can be attractive considering the high cost of power transmission and erratic power supply in the rural areas.
45 How electricity is generated through Solar Energy Solar photo voltaic (SPV). Can be used to generate electricity form the sun.Silicon solar cells play an important role in generation of electricity.
46 Solar cells Characteristics. Isc-short circuit current.Voc-open circuit voltage.Peak power.IscVoc
48 From Cells to ModulesThe open circuit voltage of a single solar solar cell is approx 0.5V.Much higher voltage voltage is required for practical application.Solar cells are connected in series to increase its open circuit voltage.
51 BIO MASSBiomass is the most important source for energy productions supplied by agricultureThis energy is also available in the form of biodegradable waste, which is the rejected component of available biomassOrganic matter in which the energy of sunlight is stored in chemical bondsWhen the bonds between carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecules are broken by digestion, combustion (or) decomposition these substances release stored energy
52 BIO MASS - CLASSIFICATION Biomass Grown (plantation)Agricultural Waste (straw, husk)Animal waste (dung)Industrial waste (bagasse, dry waste)Municipal waste (garbage, nightsoil)
53 BIO MASS Biomass is currently the world’s fourth largest energy source India produces 540 million tonnes of crop and plantation residues every yearHigher Capacity factors than other renewablesFuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wasteAtmospheric gasification with dual fuel engine500 kW gasifier – largest installation
54 Biogas 45-70% CH4(Methane) rest CO2 Calorific value 16-25MJ/m3 Digestor- well containing animal wasteDome - floats on slurry- acts as gas holderSpent Slurry -sludge- fertiliserAnaerobic Digestion- bacterial actionFamily size plants 2m3/dayCommunity Size plants m3/dayRs for a 2m3 unitCooking, Electricity, running engine
55 Commissioned till March 31, 2005 Potential for Bagasse-based Cogeneration in Major Sugar Producing States in IndiaStatePotential (in MW)Commissioned till March 31, 2005(in MW)Maharashtra1,25032.50Uttar Pradesh46.50Tamil Nadu500114.00Karnataka109.38Andhra Pradesh300160.05BiharGujarat2500.50Punjab15022.00Others15.00Total5,000483.93
57 BIO FUELS What are biofuels Renewable fuels from biosources. Include 1. Ethanol2. Biodiesel3. BiogasWhy BiofuelsPollution threatReduction of green house gas emissionRegional developmentSocial structure & AgricultureSecurity of supply.
58 Importance of Biodiesel Environment friendlyClean burningRenewable fuelNo engine modificationIncrease in Engine lifeBiodegradable & non toxicEasy to handle and store.
59 Biodiesel program in India In India most of the trials were done using bio diesel from Jatropha Pongamia.Other than Jatropha & Pongamia, the raw material used for bio-diesel production are sunflower, soyabean, rapeseed and palm oilIn December 31, 2002: - Indian Railway Conducted a successful trial run of an ExpressPassenger train on the Delhi-Amritsar rout using 5% of biodiesel as fuel.Indian Oil Corporation began in January 2004 field trials of running buses on diesel doped with 5% biodiesel.
60 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energy—the heat from the earth. This heat can be drawn from several sources:hot water or steam reservoirs deep in the earth that are accessed by drilling;geothermal reservoirs located near the earth's surface;the shallow ground near the Earth's surface that maintains a relatively constant temperature of 50°-60° F.
65 TIDAL ENERGYTidal energy traditionally involves erecting a dam across the opening to a tidal basin.The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow the tide to flow into the basin; the sluice is then closed, and as the sea level drops, traditional hydropower technologies can be used to generate electricity from the elevated water in the basin.Tidal range may vary over a wide range ( m) from site to site. A tidal range of at least 7 m is required for economical operation and for sufficient head of water for the turbines
66 TIDAL ENERGYTidal energy schemes are characterised by low capacity factors, usually in the range of 20-35%.There is a high capital cost for a tidal energy project, with possibly a 10-year construction period.Tidal power generation may change the sedimentation and erosion patterns in the estuary. Pollutants discharged into the rivers upstream from the barrages may accumulate in the estuary.
67 Emerging Developments in Renewables Ocean EnergyOcean energy draws on the energy of ocean waves, tides, or on the thermal energy (heat) stored in the ocean.The ocean contains two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves.Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface, making them the world's largest solar collectors. The sun warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this temperature difference stores thermal energy. Thermal energy is used for many applications, including electricity generation.
68 Emerging Developments in Renewables – Contd. Ocean mechanical energy : A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbinesFor wave energy conversion, there are three basic systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs, float systems that drive hydraulic pumps, and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air within a container.
69 WAVE ENERGYThe total power of waves breaking on the world's coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts. Three approaches to capturing wave energy are:Floats or Pitching Devices These devices generate electricity from the bobbing or pitching action of a floating object.Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) These devices generate electricity from the wave-driven rise and fall of water in a cylindrical shaft. The rising and falling water column drives air into and out of the top of the shaft, powering an air-driven turbine.Wave Surge Or Focusing Devices These shoreline devices, also called "tapered channel" or "tapchan" systems, rely on a shore-mounted structure to channel and concentrate the waves, driving them into an elevated reservoir. Water flow out of this reservoir is used to generate electricity, using standard hydropower technologies
70 Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave WorldCost EstimatesGeothermalCommercial8240 MW4c/kWh$2000/kWNo Indian experience50 MW plant J & K plannedTidalPrototype240 MWFRANCELF 20% No Indian experienceOTEC50 kW210 kWNELHAIndia 1MW gross plant under constructionWave Energy< 1MWGrid ConnectedIndia 150 kW plantThiruvananthpuram
72 ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SectorCapital Cost(Rs Crore/MW)Cost of Generation(Rs/kWh)Natural Gas CC2.5 – 3.5Coal5 – 6.52 – 2.75Nuclear6 - 10Wind4 - 10Biomass7.5 – 12.52 – 4.5Small Hydro4 - 6Solar thermal electric6 - 9Solar PV
73 CONCLUSIONIndia has competitive strengths in wind energy, solar energy, and biofuels. It has advantage in terms of human capital and scientific and engineering capabilities.India also has an advantage because it has urgent needs. Need generates urgency, which generates demand, which, in turn, generates innovation.These factors create conditions for India to move ahead.