Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA CHANGE AND CONTINUITY FROM 8000 BCE- PRESENT."— Presentation transcript:


2 8000 BCE- 600 CE

3 Political Economic 8000 BCE- 600 CE
Mostly lived in clan based villages ruled over by head chiefs Bantu speaking people move southward and westward Population pressure might be the cause of migrations Iron helped them gain an advantage over those whom they were competing for land and natural resources Economic Agriculture is the most important part of their economy Cultivated Yams, oil palms and grains Traded with hunter and gathers, and forest dwellers 8000 BCE- 600 CE

4 Religion Social - Chiefs led their clan in religious rituals
- Some people in societies like the Sudani and Niger-Congo were monotheistic. They believed in the Divine force - As they came in contact with more cultures their beliefs were changed as they adapted new customs. Social Bantu people all speak the Bantu languages. As they migrated and interacted with other people the language was broken up to 500 different variations People split into groups called sects based on their ages in order to complete tasks Men were farmers an in military - Women had domestic chores but also traded in markets 8000 BCE- 600 CE

5 Interaction Art 8000 BCE- 600 CE
During migrations spread language and culture Traded and fought with forest dwellers Bantu spread agriculture throughout Africa Introduced sheep pigs and cattle to rest of Africa Art Learned to use canoes and their development led to quick transportation along the rivers 8000 BCE- 600 CE


7 Political Economic 600-1450 - Kingship legitimized by Islam
-Bantu (stateless societies) -Ghana Empire → declined due to Islamic forces -Mali Empire → Mansa Musa -Songhai → Sonni Ali Economic Trade with Islam as unifying factor → Islamic traders wanted gold and Africans wanted salt; eventually led to explosion of trade in Africa Mali empire and trade → - Controlled and taxed almost all trade passing through D west Africa - Enormous caravans linked Mali to north Africa

8 Religion -Islam → spread by the traders; led to the decline of Ghana - Muslims in North Africa explored the potential of trade across the Sahara - Improved relations with Muslim merchants from north Africa and Muslim nomads from the desert - Influenced Mansa Musa – built mosques in trading centers, sent students to study with Islamic scholars, and established Muslim schools Social Merchants valued Patriarchal society Islamic law Class centered around age group Islam did little to curtail women's opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa

9 Interaction - The emergence and growth of states that became highly influential in the cross-cultural interactions of this period - The states of Ghana and Malibecame trade and religious centers whose fortunes were clearly tied into those of Eurasia - Trade with Muslims → led to political, social, and economic changes → cultural diffusion Art Benin Culture → famous for their bronze sculptures and pottery making Oral literature → passed down traditions and stories from generation to generation


11 Political -Songhai Empire( )- took place of Mali Empire in west Africa -Leader Sunni Ali expanded the empire, and built an elaborate administrative system -Askia Mohommed- most famous ruler of Songhai -Kongo- West Central African kingdom- traded in gold -Ashanti- grew powerful from the slave trade -Ndongo(Angola)-despite efforts of Queen Nzinga, became the 1st European colony in sub-Saharan Africa -Great Zimbabwe- stone-fortified city -Slave trade encouraged African states to participate in conflicts that may not have otherwise occurred

12 Economic -Trans-Saharan trade was used to exchange foreign materials for gold, ivory and spices -Manioc from the Americas became a major staple crop -Atlantic slave trade- capture and forced deportation of 12 million African -Triangular trade Guns traded for slaves Religion -Many states were Islamic because this helped in relations with Muslim traders -However, some still practiced their native animism -Still some states (Kongo) converted to Christianity as a way to better relations with Portuguese merchants -The Antonian Movement(Dona Beatriz) -Ancestor worship

13 Social -Some states were matrilineal (Queen Nzinga) -Upper class women wore veils; lower class women worked outside the home -Columbian exchange enriched diets -Demography -States fought each other for slaves to sell to Europeans -Slave trade distorted sex ratios- exported mostly men -African Diaspora- hybrid cultural traditions (religion, music, language, etc) -Slave revolts (most successful was Haiti)

14 Interaction -Atlantic slave trade -Boers harsh treatment of South Africans -Indian Ocean Trade network in East Africa -European colonization of African coast-> spread of European culture Art -Epic of Askia Mohommed- fictionalized account of his reign -Oral tradition -Askia sponsored art -Sculpture -Textile arts -Woven basketry -Human adornment(masks, beads, etc) -Art and technology suffered due to the slave trade


16 Political - The Berlin Conference led by Otto von Bismarck was designed to set the rules among the European powers on colonizing Africa - All European powers like Britain France Germany Italy Spain Portugal and Belgium raced to get land in Africa - All nations besides Britain imposed direct rule over their colonies (They had European leaders had authority in Africa) - The British colonies allowed Africans to rule themselves more directly and to continue following native customs - Europeans ignored pre-existing tribal boundaries and set up their own boarders, so tribes were split in half or enemy tribes were combined Economic Africa was rich with natural resources like gold salt and diamonds that Europeans wanted as many colonies as possible. The more colonies the richer and more powerful the country became Slave trade is abolished and slavery becomes illegal Africans not allowed to keep any of the resources they worked to produce

17 Religion - Christian Missionaries were brought to the African colonies. - This hurt their culture as it was being replaced by European ways Social The African customs were being replaced as Christianity and European schools were set up The boundaries between tribes were changed As European officials were brought into Africa they brought with them their own culture did not tolerate the traditional ways. Brought the English language Africans were treated cruelly even though the slave trade ended in this time frame. The Africans were still regarded as inferior and had to work in dangerous mines and could not keep what the produced.

18 Interaction Art/Technology
-As the Europeans went to colonize Africa the African people were unhappy. Their lifestyle was being replaced - When the slave trade ended Europeans turned toward the continent of Africa itself and they became like slaves on their own homeland - African traditions disregarded completely except in British colonies - Ethiopia and Liberia were the only African states to remain free from foreign rule Art/Technology Europeans helped Africa advance somewhat by building railroads dams and roads

19 1914-Present

20 Political -In World War 1, Europeans invaded German colonies in Africa- military soldiers fought directly - During World War1, as European attention was on the war, the Africans mounted bold challenges to European control - After the Cold War, America looks to another goal, the introduction of democracy -struggle to create successful independent states -African National Congress and Zulu Confederation- freedom movement -Nelson Mandela- leader of ANC - Many states became dictatorships - Corruption was widespread, dictatorship or not -Ghana independence- nonviolent- inspired others -Democratic Republic of Congo(Mobutu Sese Seko- corrupt, “vampire elite”) 1914-Present

21 Economic -Suffered during the Great Depression -Europeans opened up Africa to its 1st modern infrastructure after WW1 by force (roads, railways, telegraph lines, etc) -Rich in resources, raw materials and agricultural products -Forced 1 of the world’s richest sources of gold and diamonds -Became the wealthiest, most modern and most industrialized on the continent (1960’s-1990’s) -Failure to industrialize and modernize economies -Continue to come closer into the global economy -African Union works towards economic unity 1914-Present

22 Social Interaction 1914-Present
-Clash between the white and black citizens of the newly free country -Apartheid- extreme racial segregation -Antiapartheid movements (Desmond Tutu) -Most boundaries drawn left a lack of linguistic or cultural unity -Women have achieved a certain degree of equality -Population growth -Food shortages -HIV/AIDS pandemic Interaction -Decolonization of British and French colonies went smoothly -Worst transition was that of Portuguese and Belgians -Advantage of Cold War: received subsidies from each side Disadvantage- dictators were supported 1914-Present

23 Change and Continuity

24 Changes Native Animism→ Spread of Christianity and Islam
Trans-Saharan Trade promoted cultural diffusion among African nations Slave Trade took 12 million slaves from their homes to Western World→ Disrupted Society, Politics and Culture European Colonization Columbian Exchange brought new crops and better diet New medical advances→ Prevention of diseases such as malaria Transition from European colonies to independent states Extreme racial segregation HIV/AIDS pandemic causes huge population decrease

25 Continuities Agriculture supports economy
Europeans always view Africans as inferior Religions (Animism, Ancestor worship) Interaction (Trans-Saharan Trade, Indian Ocean Trade) Fight against oppression (Boer Wars, African National Congress) Source of gold, ivory, and spices


Similar presentations

Ads by Google