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CHANGE AND CONTINUITY FROM 8000 BCE- PRESENT. Political -Mostly lived in clan based villages ruled over by head chiefs - Bantu speaking people move.

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Presentation on theme: "CHANGE AND CONTINUITY FROM 8000 BCE- PRESENT. Political -Mostly lived in clan based villages ruled over by head chiefs - Bantu speaking people move."— Presentation transcript:



3 Political -Mostly lived in clan based villages ruled over by head chiefs - Bantu speaking people move southward and westward - Population pressure might be the cause of migrations -Iron helped them gain an advantage over those whom they were competing for land and natural resources 8000 BCE- 600 CE Economic -Agriculture is the most important part of their economy -Cultivated Yams, oil palms and grains -Traded with hunter and gathers, and forest dwellers

4 Religion - Chiefs led their clan in religious rituals - Some people in societies like the Sudani and Niger-Congo were monotheistic. They believed in the Divine force - As they came in contact with more cultures their beliefs were changed as they adapted new customs. Social -Bantu people all speak the Bantu languages. As they migrated and interacted with other people the language was broken up to 500 different variations - People split into groups called sects based on their ages in order to complete tasks - Men were farmers an in military - Women had domestic chores but also traded in markets 8000 BCE- 600 CE

5 Interaction -During migrations spread language and culture - Traded and fought with forest dwellers - Bantu spread agriculture throughout Africa - Introduced sheep pigs and cattle to rest of Africa Art - Learned to use canoes and their development led to quick transportation along the rivers 8000 BCE- 600 CE


7 Political - Kingship legitimized by Islam -Bantu (stateless societies) -Ghana Empire → declined due to Islamic forces -Mali Empire → Mansa Musa -Songhai → Sonni Ali Economic -Trade with Islam as unifying factor → Islamic traders wanted gold and Africans wanted salt; eventually led to explosion of trade in Africa -Mali empire and trade → -- Controlled and taxed almost all trade passing through D west Africa -- Enormous caravans linked Mali to north Africa 600-1450

8 Religion -Islam → spread by the traders; led to the decline of Ghana - Muslims in North Africa explored the potential of trade across the Sahara - Improved relations with Muslim merchants from north Africa and Muslim nomads from the desert - Influenced Mansa Musa – built mosques in trading centers, sent students to study with Islamic scholars, and established Muslim schools Social - Merchants valued -Patriarchal society -Islamic law -Class centered around age group -Islam did little to curtail women's opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa 600-1450

9 Interaction - The emergence and growth of states that became highly influential in the cross- cultural interactions of this period - The states of Ghana and Malibecame trade and religious centers whose fortunes were clearly tied into those of Eurasia - Trade with Muslims → led to political, social, and economic changes → cultural diffusion Art - Benin Culture → famous for their bronze sculptures and pottery making -Oral literature → passed down traditions and stories from generation to generation 600-1450


11 Political - Songhai Empire(1464-1493)- took place of Mali Empire in west Africa -Leader Sunni Ali expanded the empire, and built an elaborate administrative system -Askia Mohommed- most famous ruler of Songhai -Kongo- West Central African kingdom- traded in gold -Ashanti- grew powerful from the slave trade -Ndongo(Angola)-despite efforts of Queen Nzinga, became the 1st European colony in sub-Saharan Africa -Great Zimbabwe- stone-fortified city -Slave trade encouraged African states to participate in conflicts that may not have otherwise occurred 1450-1750

12 Economic -Trans-Saharan trade was used to exchange foreign materials for gold, ivory and spices -Manioc from the Americas became a major staple crop -Atlantic slave trade- capture and forced deportation of 12 million African -Triangular trade -Guns traded for slaves Religion -Many states were Islamic because this helped in relations with Muslim traders -However, some still practiced their native animism -Still some states (Kongo) converted to Christianity as a way to better relations with Portuguese merchants -The Antonian Movement(Dona Beatriz) -Ancestor worship 1450-1750

13 Social - Some states were matrilineal (Queen Nzinga) -Upper class women wore veils; lower class women worked outside the home -Columbian exchange enriched diets -Demography -States fought each other for slaves to sell to Europeans -Slave trade distorted sex ratios- exported mostly men -African Diaspora- hybrid cultural traditions (religion, music, language, etc) -Slave revolts (most successful was Haiti) 1450-1750

14 Interaction -Atlantic slave trade -Boers harsh treatment of South Africans -Indian Ocean Trade network in East Africa -European colonization of African coast-> spread of European culture Art - Epic of Askia Mohommed- fictionalized account of his reign -Oral tradition -Askia sponsored art -Sculpture -Textile arts -Woven basketry -Human adornment(masks, beads, etc) -Art and technology suffered due to the slave trade 1450-1750


16 Political - The Berlin Conference led by Otto von Bismarck was designed to set the rules among the European powers on colonizing Africa - All European powers like Britain France Germany Italy Spain Portugal and Belgium raced to get land in Africa - All nations besides Britain imposed direct rule over their colonies (They had European leaders had authority in Africa) - The British colonies allowed Africans to rule themselves more directly and to continue following native customs - Europeans ignored pre-existing tribal boundaries and set up their own boarders, so tribes were split in half or enemy tribes were combined Economic - Africa was rich with natural resources like gold salt and diamonds that Europeans wanted as many colonies as possible. - The more colonies the richer and more powerful the country became - Slave trade is abolished and slavery becomes illegal - Africans not allowed to keep any of the resources they worked to produce 1750-1914

17 Religion - Christian Missionaries were brought to the African colonies. - This hurt their culture as it was being replaced by European ways Social - The African customs were being replaced as Christianity and European schools were set up - The boundaries between tribes were changed - As European officials were brought into Africa they brought with them their own culture did not tolerate the traditional ways. - Brought the English language - Africans were treated cruelly even though the slave trade ended in this time frame. -The Africans were still regarded as inferior and had to work in dangerous mines and could not keep what the produced. 1750-1914

18 Interaction -As the Europeans went to colonize Africa the African people were unhappy. Their lifestyle was being replaced - When the slave trade ended Europeans turned toward the continent of Africa itself and they became like slaves on their own homeland - African traditions disregarded completely except in British colonies - Ethiopia and Liberia were the only African states to remain free from foreign rule Art/Technology - Europeans helped Africa advance somewhat by building railroads dams and roads 1750-1914


20 Political -In World War 1, Europeans invaded German colonies in Africa- military soldiers fought directly - During World War1, as European attention was on the war, the Africans mounted bold challenges to European control - After the Cold War, America looks to another goal, the introduction of democracy -struggle to create successful independent states -African National Congress and Zulu Confederation- freedom movement -Nelson Mandela- leader of ANC - Many states became dictatorships - Corruption was widespread, dictatorship or not -Ghana independence- nonviolent- inspired others -Democratic Republic of Congo(Mobutu Sese Seko- corrupt, “vampire elite”) 1914-Present

21 Economic -Suffered during the Great Depression -Europeans opened up Africa to its 1st modern infrastructure after WW1 by force (roads, railways, telegraph lines, etc) -Rich in resources, raw materials and agricultural products -Forced 1 of the world’s richest sources of gold and diamonds -Became the wealthiest, most modern and most industrialized on the continent (1960’s-1990’s) -Failure to industrialize and modernize economies -Continue to come closer into the global economy -African Union works towards economic unity 1914-Present

22 Social -Clash between the white and black citizens of the newly free country -Apartheid- extreme racial segregation -Antiapartheid movements (Desmond Tutu) -Most boundaries drawn left a lack of linguistic or cultural unity -Women have achieved a certain degree of equality -Population growth -Food shortages -HIV/AIDS pandemic 1914-Present -Decolonization of British and French colonies went smoothly -Worst transition was that of Portuguese and Belgians -Advantage of Cold War: received subsidies from each side Disadvantage- dictators were supported Interaction


24 Changes - Native Animism→ Spread of Christianity and Islam -Trans-Saharan Trade promoted cultural diffusion among African nations -Slave Trade took 12 million slaves from their homes to Western World→ Disrupted Society, Politics and Culture - European Colonization - Columbian Exchange brought new crops and better diet -New medical advances→ Prevention of diseases such as malaria -Transition from European colonies to independent states - Extreme racial segregation -HIV/AIDS pandemic causes huge population decrease

25 Continuities -Agriculture supports economy - Europeans always view Africans as inferior -Religions (Animism, Ancestor worship) -Interaction (Trans-Saharan Trade, Indian Ocean Trade) -Fight against oppression (Boer Wars, African National Congress) -Source of gold, ivory, and spices

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