Importance of Base Sequence DNA has the following sequence of nucleotides GACAAGTCCACAATC mRNA
CODON – 3 nucleotides on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid m RNACUGUUCAGGUGUUAG t RNA
The Genetic Code Section 12-3 Go to Section: GAC AAG UCC AAC AAU CGG
Proteins are made from amino acids A total of 9 amino acids are considered essential (must be ingested), while another 11 or so nonessential can be synthesized by cells. Essential amino acids : Histidine, isoleucine, Leucine, lysine, methionine phenylalanine, threonine tryptophan, and valine Nonessential amino acids: Alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine
The Polypeptide “Assembly Line” mRNA Ribosome Translation direction Lysine tRNA Ribosome Growing polypeptide chain mRNA Completing the Polypeptide Section 12-3 Go to Section: Importance of polypeptide chain protein
Importance of protein synthesis The cell goes to a lot of trouble to synthesize proteins correctly because proteins define what the cell looks like, how it functions, how it grows, and how it passes this information to its daughter cells
Which statement best expresses the relationship between the three structures represented below? (1) DNA is produced from protein absorbed by the cell. (2) Protein is composed of DNA that is produced in the cell. (3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell. (4) Cells make DNA by digesting protein.
The diagram below shows some of the steps in protein synthesis. The section of DNA being used to make the strand of mRNA is known as a (1) carbohydrate (2) ribosome (3) gene (4) Chromosome The site of protein synthesis is the
The types of human cells shown below are different from one another, even though they all originated from the same fertilized egg and contain the same genetic information. Explain why these genetically identical cells can differ in structure and function.