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Aim: How does a chromosome code for a specific protein ? HW read pages 300 - 306 Answer ques. #1-5 section 12-3 pg 306.

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Presentation on theme: "Aim: How does a chromosome code for a specific protein ? HW read pages 300 - 306 Answer ques. #1-5 section 12-3 pg 306."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aim: How does a chromosome code for a specific protein ? HW read pages 300 - 306 Answer ques. #1-5 section 12-3 pg 306

2 Hydrogen bonds Nucleotide Sugar-phosphate backbone Key Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) DNA is made up of chains of nucleotides Go to Section:

3 RNA DNA RNA polymerase DNA makes RNA - Transcription Adenine (DNA and RNA) Cystosine (DNA and RNA) Guanine(DNA and RNA) Thymine (DNA only) Uracil (RNA only) Go to Section:

4 RNA makes Protein

5 Messenger RNA. mRNA Ribosomal RNA tRNA Nucleus Three types of RNA mRNA, rRNA, tRNA Section: Codon Amino Acids Amino acid mRNA

6 Importance of Base Sequence DNA has the following sequence of nucleotides GACAAGTCCACAATC mRNA

7 CODON – 3 nucleotides on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid m RNACUGUUCAGGUGUUAG t RNA

8 The Genetic Code Section 12-3 Go to Section: GAC AAG UCC AAC AAU CGG

9 Proteins are made from amino acids A total of 9 amino acids are considered essential (must be ingested), while another 11 or so nonessential can be synthesized by cells. Essential amino acids : Histidine, isoleucine, Leucine, lysine, methionine phenylalanine, threonine tryptophan, and valine Nonessential amino acids: Alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine

10 The Polypeptide “Assembly Line” mRNA Ribosome Translation direction Lysine tRNA Ribosome Growing polypeptide chain mRNA Completing the Polypeptide Section 12-3 Go to Section: Importance of polypeptide chain  protein

11 Importance of protein synthesis The cell goes to a lot of trouble to synthesize proteins correctly because proteins define what the cell looks like, how it functions, how it grows, and how it passes this information to its daughter cells

12 Which statement best expresses the relationship between the three structures represented below? (1) DNA is produced from protein absorbed by the cell. (2) Protein is composed of DNA that is produced in the cell. (3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell. (4) Cells make DNA by digesting protein.

13 The diagram below shows some of the steps in protein synthesis. The section of DNA being used to make the strand of mRNA is known as a (1) carbohydrate (2) ribosome (3) gene (4) Chromosome The site of protein synthesis is the

14 The types of human cells shown below are different from one another, even though they all originated from the same fertilized egg and contain the same genetic information. Explain why these genetically identical cells can differ in structure and function.


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