PERSIA China Shang Dynasty (1750 B.C.E – 1027 B.C.E.) Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C.E. – 221 B.C.E.) Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.E. – 206 B.C.E.) Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.) Sui Dynasty (589 C.E. – 618 C.E) Mandate of Heaven Tributary Relationships with conquered areas Bureaucracy Japan Yamamoto Clan Divine Leader China Silk Roads Monopoly on Silk Traded ivory, jade, and silk Zhou made iron tools and weapons Han build roads and canals, enlarged Great Wall of China China Confucianism Daoism Mandate of Heaven Filial Piety Japan Shintoism Buddhism Both religions existed with one another China Patriarchal Society Civil Service Examinations Filial Piety Confucianist and Daoist values Japan The Japanese revered the emperor as a descendent of the sun god China Bureaucracy leads to civil service examinations, therefore the intelligent have power China’s boundaries wax and wanes with the dynasties Korea, Vietnam, Inner China, Outer China, and Southeast Asia were all at one point parts of China
Change and Continuity Change Throughout the time period of 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E China goes through five different dynasties; The Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, and Sui Dynasties. Continuity Throughout the time frame of 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. there were several continuities. China maintained its monopoly on Silk, and also always had the mandate of heaven as the emperor’s divine right to rule.
Japan P -Japan attempts to recreate the great dynasties of China, but when that fails, the political structure is dominated by Feudalism E -Mostly closed to the world, and relied heavily on agriculture R - Buddhism enters Japan from China S - Japan is divided into provinces by the Feudal system and the social structure was rigidly defined with warlords known as shoguns on the top I -idea of cultural borrowing in which Japan would take certain aspects of society (mostly from China) and apply them to their own society A - The Japanese learn the use of sugar, silk, and alcohol from the Chinese China P -Tang Dynasty (618-907); Song Dynasty (960- 1279); both dynasties were a strong, centralized govt. E - the Silk Road inhibits land trade while the Chinese ports on the coast become some of the largest and the wealthiest in the world R -Buddhism, Confucianism; as Buddhism enters China, it is modified to fit the Chinese culture S -The social level of women decline in Tang and Song China I -Silk Road; Buddhism travels from India to China, and then from China to Japan A -Several Tang and Song inventions include porcelain, the mechanical clock, printing gunpowder, paper money, the magnetic compass, and silk
Change and Continuity Change Japanese shogunate Neo-confucianism Chinese expansion into Vietnam Mongol domination in China Continuity Nomadic Threats Confucianism Footbinding Civil Service Exam Patriarchal Family Shintoism
China Japan P- Ming & Qing dynasties. Hongwu commanded a rebel army to drive the Mongols from China and became the first Ming emperor in 1368. His son Yonglo launched a series of voyages of imperial control led by Zheng He. The Manchus ended the Ming dynasty and started the Qing. Kangxi was the first Qing emperor and was followed by his son, Qianlong. E- Isolationist policies in the 1500’s. Silk and ceramics were major exports. The Dutch were accepted by the Qing even after isolation. Tea was a major commodity. Farming & agriculture. There was rising merchant class during the Qing. R- Italian Jesuits, Matteo. S- Constant rebellions under Ming. Upheld traditions and Confucian beliefs & social structures. Kowtow ritual. Population increased two-fold. Patriarchal society. I- Jesuits transmit scientific and technological knowledge to Ming China; Great Wall, Grand Canal, Forbidden City A- Ming Emperor halts Zheng He’s expedition P 1467-1568 Sengoku period (warring states). Daimyos became lords and the emperor was merely a figurehead. Oda Nobunaga initiated the unification of Japan under the shogun. Succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Tokugawa started the Tokugawa shogunate also known as the Edo period. National Seclusion Policy. E- The Portugese establish trade with Japan in 1542. Within a decade, Christian missionaries streamed in and facilitated trade in the port city of Nagasaki. R- Jesuits in Japan. Christians were persecuted. Buddhism and Shintoism. S- Patriarchal society I- Haikus, wood block prints, painting. A- Tokugawa Shogunate prohibits trade with Western nations,
Change and Continuity Change Columbian Exchange (China) Christianity Chinese withdrawal from world trade Continuity Confucianism Neo-Confucianism Ming Dynasty
PERSIA Qing Empire – Taiping Rebellion Self- Strengthening Mvmt; Hundred Days reform- attempted to modernize Boxer Rebellion – sought to oust foreigners China – weak gov. and military. Humiliating defeat at Sino- Japanese War Japanese emperor restored – Meiji gov. Diet – constitutional monarchy Russo-Japanese War Columbian Exchange Opium War Treaty of Nanjing- extraterritoriality, control of Hong Kong to Britain, spheres of influence Japan wins unequal treaty rights with China Matthew Perry’s expedition to Tokyo – Japan opens trade Industrialization, modernization, improved infrastructure Zaibatsu Japan imperializes for resources – Korea Treaty of Nanjing opens China to Christian missionaries Japan allows Christianity Shintosim emphasizes Japanese superiority; treated emperor as god-like Foreign crops from the Columbian Exchange increases productivity in China and increases population Hunger was widespread; floods (China) Taiping Rebellion claims millions of lives; agricultural production decreases Peasant protests to poor economic conditions (Japan) Daimyo and Samurai class abolished; rigid social hierarchy in Japan ended Bushido New mass culture (Japan) – ukiyo (the floating world), an ideal world; professional female entertainers called geisha,, music, popular stories, Kabuki and bunraku (puppet theater), poetry, a rich literature, and art, exemplified by beautiful woodblock prints China beings opening ports to the West; forced to grant extraterritorialit y China becomes overwhelmed with foreign influence – Japan, Britain, Portugal, Spain, etc… Isolationist Modernized Japan Tokyo Bay – Japanese in awe at western technological advancements. Imperialism leads to conflict with other nations
Change and Continuity Change End to Isolation. Trade had been previously restricted to one or two cities – Guangzhou/Canton (China) and Nagasaki (Japan) End of Chinese dynastic rule Bicameral parliament (Japan) Continuity China continued to be a major exporter of cotton, ore, silks, and porcelain Patriarchal society Shinto Confucianism Buddhism Japan continues to lack resources
PERSIA WWII: Japan joins Axis Powers -U.S. drops ABomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; unconditional surrender WWII ends -Japan forced to eradicate its military after WWII -Korea is split at the 38 th Parallel into North & South Korea, communist & capitalist -Japan’s military restored to prewar levels -Guomingdang and Communist Party fight for power ~1912-1949 -1949 Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China, Sun Yat- Sen escapes to Taiwan -Mao’s death in 1976, Deng Xiaoping Gains leadership -During the Cold War, China and Russia were on good terms -Mao institutes 5- year plan and the Great leap forward failure, famine, private ownership was abolished. -1980s Deng’s revolution promoted China to get involved in the international financial & trading system thus he opened the nation to foreign and capitalist values. - Four Little Tigers: South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore becomes major economic powers due to rapid economic developments -Confucian ideals no longer emphasized WWII: Rape of Nanjing, one of the world’s horrifying atrocities. -Cultural Revolution; Mao’s Little Red Book encourages teenagers to promote nationalism and suppress all non- communists -under communist party rule, there were social reforms equal rights to women: allowed to divorce and have abortions. -Deng sent students out to foreign universities Students exposed to a democratic society -Tiananmen Square, student movement who wanted democracy -China’s one child policy -High-tech industries -Asian countries exposed to Western regimes.
Change and Continuity Change Depression; economies falter Footbinding is outlawed High-tech industries Continuity Shintoism Buddhism Confucianism U.S recognition of China