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The Improvement of Intellect Throughout the Early Modern Era

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Presentation on theme: "The Improvement of Intellect Throughout the Early Modern Era"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Improvement of Intellect Throughout the Early Modern Era
Includes: Latin America Eastern/western Europe East Asia Sub-saharan Africa The middle east By: George Danias, Gary Chen, Paige Podlucky, Reylyn Roldan, Paulina Levitt Pd5

2 Eastern Europe Peter the Great brought many technological improvements to Russia, using Western European civilization as a guideline and motivation Equipped soldiers with modern weaponry Ordered aristocrats to study math and geometry to calculate how to aim cannons effectively Mandated people to dress in a Western European fashion, and did not allow men to grow beards Built St. Petersburg, a new seaport, which was made capital of Russia and harbored the newly founded Russian Navy

3 Change and Continuity: Eastern Europe
Before Peter the Great, Russia was very behind in terms of technology and industry Westernized Russian culture by changing fashions to be more like countries of Western Europe Upgrade of the military in Russia allowed it to rise as a decently powerful state in its time St. Petersburg served as a source of national pride. However, its construction strained Russian economy Russia never really grew to be more powerful than any of the Western European countries, despite its attempts

4 Western Europe Renaissance-New styles of art, literature, and thought are developed as a result of borrowed ideas from Greek and Rome. Social Effects Humanism was expressed throughout the works of Renaissance art and literature. People began believing in themselves, and were drawn away from religion. Scientific Revolution- Was a period of time when scientists researched the world around them. Social/ Religious Effects People were rejecting the church's teachings for science. (atheist or Deist) Enlightenment -Focused on the role of mankind in political affairs. Political Effects Philosophers with different views of human nature, influenced leadership in the 18th century monarchies Printing Press-Enabled books to be easily produced Economic Effects The middle class was able to afford the books, which were written in vernacular languages.

5 Change and Continuity: Western Europe
Changes Continuity Europeans focused on human achievements, reducing the authority of institutions. Art was highly traded, more so than the ancient Greeks and Roman ages. Scientific thinking threatened the foundation of the papacy. Europeans look to the past to expand on ancient knowledge. (architects, artists, philosophers Greek/Roman)

6 East Asia Civil Service Exams were restored as well increasing education and literature rate but mostly for the rich. Contact with the outside world brought in new goods and ideas. Confucianism and Shintoism are practiced throughout Asia The Yuan dynasty falls, after the defeat of the Mongols. The Ming take over, followed by the Manchuria. Tea ceremonies become popular with samurai; a way of connecting with nature.

7 Change and Continuity in East Asia
Continuities China Increased trade led to discovery of new species and other breakthroughs in science and mathematics as well as spreading Chinese values throughout the nearby countries i.e Japan copying Chinese courts. Japan A new form of art emerged, Kabuki theatre, which was a type of place that included a lot of lively dancing and songs. Another type of theatre also emerged in the late seventeenth century, bunraku. This type of theatre was a type of puppet theatre puppets to tell a story China Revival of Confucian values during the Ming Dynasty in an attempt to established Chinese rule. Mandate of Heaven continues, Yuan dynasty falls and Ming takes over Japan Samurai warriors and tea masters continue to practice chanoyu, or tea ceremonies. This was considered an exercise of mind, body and soul as well as a form of art. Shinto-ism was most likely continued and practiced as well. It was the belief that kami lived inside everything in nature and one had to be one with nature to understand life.

8 Latin America Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas built extremely large and complex cities with large temples and landmarks Agricultural advancements such as steppe farming After Cortez and Pizarro arrived in Mesoamerica they destroyed native populations with the diseases they brought with them and their advanced weapons, such as guns and gunpowder Spanish rule brought the creation of cities Silver mining, as well as sugar plantations, were used to gather revenue for the colonies

9 Change and Continuity: Latin America
Changes Continuities People retained some of their customs even to present day such as idol worship Sugar was widely produced After the Spanish came, native culture was pretty much wiped out and replaced by European culture due to the advantage the Spanish had in terms of technology America went from being isolated to part of the global trade network due to silver mining and sugar production Farming was downplayed and production increased

10 The Middle East (Southwest Asia)
Navigational instruments such as the astrolabe and cross/back staffs originated from Persia. Imperial states had little or no incentive to encourage technological innovation in the armaments industry [guns, cannons, etc.] b/c they were able to maintain order within their state and rarely encountered foreign threats. Ottoman Empire: City of Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul – major commercial and intellectual center with inns, shops, schools, libraries, and mosques. Safavid Empire: a) Safavid propaganda of the Twelver Shissm. b) Isfahan, Safavid capital, the "queen of Persian cities"

11 Change and Continuity: The Middle East
Changes Continuities Religious diversity created challenges to the rule of the empires. Religious minorities generally tolerated in Islamic states In Ottoman empire, conquered peoples protected, granted religious and civil autonomy in their own communities. Cultural patronage of the Islamic Emperors. The Suleymaniye blended Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements. All three Islamic Emperors sponsored arts and public works: mosques, palaces. Imposition of Islam as the main religion. Study of the Quran is implemented in schools and universities. Rejection of Christianity.

12 Sub-Saharan Africa Songhay Empire: (15th Century) The emperors were all Muslims: they supported mosques, built schools to teach the Quran, and maintained an Islamic university at Timbuktu. Kingdom of Kongo: (14th Century) a) Had abundant written records. b)King Nzinga Mbemba became a devout Roman Cathollic, studying the Bible zealously. In the 16th century, Timbuktu had a prominent Islamic university and 180 schools that taught the Quran. Blended Islam with indigenous beliefs and customs, a syncretic Islam. The Fulani, west African tribe, observed strict form of Islam, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

13 Change and Continuity: Sub-Saharan Africa
Changes Continuity Decline of Swahili city-states because of Portuguese disruption. Regional states replaced the Songhay Empire. Atlantic Slave Trade. Islamic and Christianity missionaries attracted converts. Continuation of native beliefs. (Powerful spirits associated with nature and a supreme, creator god)

14 India (South Asia) Sponsored arts and public works: Taj Mahal
Mughal Architecture Cost to build Put Mughal Empire in debt Fatehpur Sikri Mughal capital: Combined Islamic style with Indian elements Sponsored arts and public works: Mosques, palaces, schools, hospitals, etc. Mughal Empire expanded to much of what is known as today as India, leaving behind many new buildings with Mughal style architecture. Many temples were destroyed when Aurangzeb revoked policies of religious toleration

15 Change and Continuity for India (South Asia)
Under Abkur, there was religious tolerance. Almost the entire subcontinent is controlled. Caste system is still in effect India is dominated by foreign peoples (Delhi Sultanate Mughals) Jizya tax reinstated

16 Comparison Between Western Europe & East Asia
Western Europe improved greatly as a result of improved intelligence. after the bubonic plague, Europeans had a new reverence for life. this led into the renaissance, where people looked back in history (to the Greeks and Romans) for knowledge. Humanism, although a young idea, was heavily accepted; it taught the value of the individual. Also, the scientific revolution enabled Europeans to gain a better understanding of the forces of the world. This led to many leaving the Roman Catholic Church because they did not believe in it. With the Enlightenment, man philosophers questioned politics; they devised their own strategies of ruling. (which latter influenced many monarchies) The addition of new thought led to ting press, and gunpowder, among other technologies. the printing press helped give illiterate people a chance at an education. The new technology helped Europe expand beyond to the New World and Asia. Asians began improving their intelligence with the Zheng He voyages, after the Bubonic Plague. They developed the compass, triangular sails, and other naval parts for a safe and efficient journey. However, with the knowledge gained on these voyages, the Chinese chose to remain isolationist. China was deeply Confucian, a difference compared to Western Europe, where the group was valued over the individual. Without a need for expansion, the Chinese were behind in the technologic race. However, the civil service examinations were reintroduced which gave the poor a chance at an education.

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