Presentation on theme: "Islam Origin, Spread, and Conflict with Christendom."— Presentation transcript:
Islam Origin, Spread, and Conflict with Christendom
The Prophet Muhammad Born in Mecca in Arabia Raised by merchants Received a revelation from Allah (God) during the month of Ramadan Tension between Muhammad’s monotheism and the polytheism of the people of Mecca
The Holy Quran Muslims believe the Quran is the direct word of Allah revealed to Muhammad Written and read in Arabic
Mecca and Medina 622 CE: Muhammad goes to Medina and sets up the first Muslim community Muhammad’s journey to Medina (also called Yathrib) is called the hijrah 622 CE is the start of the Muslim calendar
The Five Pillars of Islam Testimony of Faith: There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His messenger. Daily Prayer: Pray 5x each day in the direction of the holy city of Mecca. Charity: Give alms to the poor. Fasting: No food or drink from dawn til dusk during the holy month of Ramadan. Hajj: Pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca.
Hajj Muslims make a spiritual journey called a pilgrimage (or hajj) to visit the Kaaba in Mecca According to the Quran, the Kaaba (black cube) was made by Abraham
Death of the Prophet Muhammad died in 632 and rose into heaven from a holy rock (where Jews believe Abraham prepared the sacrifice of his son) in Jerusalem. On the site Muslims built a mosque called the Dome of the Rock. DOME OF THE ROCK, Jerusalem
Spread of Islam
The Islamic Caliphate After the death of Muhammad, caliphs (leaders) controlled the Muslim world. Most famous caliphates: the Umayyad dynasty and the Abbasid dynasty. Umayyad capital city: Damascus (in Syria). Abbasid capital: Baghdad (in Iraq).
Battle of Tours, 732 ce Muslims expand across North Africa, into Spain –Islam threatens to take over Christian Europe!!! Battle of Tours, 732 ce –Charles Martel, king of the Franks, defeats the Muslims, which stops their expansion into Europe
The Muslim World Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites Most Muslims are Sunnis Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran
Sunnis vs. Shi’ites Sunnis –The caliph may be elected from the Muslim community. Shi’ites (Shia) –The caliph must be a descendant of the family of Muhammad
Schism about 700 A.D. Reasons: Succession to Caliphate (Kalifa, successor; successor of Muhammad) Incorporation of non-Koranic elements into Islam Worldliness of Caliphs, discrimination against non- Arab Muslims Shiites (shia: party or faction) about 10% (mostly Iran) Fundamentalist? Sunnites (Sunna: beaten path) about 90%
Christianity vs. Islam Major Events of the Crusades –1095: Pope Urban II calls Christians to fight against the Muslim “infidels” in the Holy Land (Jerusalem) “God wills it!” –Crusaders take Jerusalem and establish Crusader States –1187: Muslim leader Saladin re-conquers Jerusalem –1204: Western Crusaders raid Constantinople (Christian) Impact of the Crusades –Byzantine Empire hurt by attack on Constantinople –Tension: Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Holy Land
Description of the Christian Conquest of Jerusalem, 1099 But now that our men had possession of the walls and towers, wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was more merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are ordinarily chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, it will exceed your powers of belief. So let it suffice to say this much, at least, that in the Temple and porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. Indeed, it was a just and splendid judgment of God that this place should be filled with the blood of the unbelievers, since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies.
Does faith justify bloodshed? Is it okay to kill in the name of God?